1887
Volume 7, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2213-8706
  • E-ISSN: 2213-8714
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This paper provides a classification of modal verbs of possibility and necessity in Late Archaic and Early Middle Chinese based on an analysis of their scopal features with respect to negation. It shows that circumstantial readings and deontic readings are interpreted in two different syntactic positions which can be determined by the scope of negation following the cartographic approach proposed in Tsai (20082015) and the proposal of Cormack and Smith (2002) of a Polarity Head, which constitutes a syntactic divide of the domain of necessity modals from the domain of circumstantial modals. Our analysis of the scope of negation demonstrates that the deontic interpretation of possibility modals requires their upward movement from the lexical to the functional domain as part of the grammaticalization process from pre-modal lexical verbs to modal auxiliaries of different functions in Modern Mandarin. In Early Middle Chinese, negated modal verbs of possibility start to replace the synthetic modal negators of Archaic Chinese as part of the general process of analyticization of Chinese. We also show that the only true necessity modals in Late Archaic Chinese belong to the category of circumstantial modals due to their scopal features when they are negated.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ijchl.19013.mei
2020-06-30
2020-12-01
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aldridge, Edith
    (2010) Clause-internal Wh-movement in Archaic Chinese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics19(1), 1–36. 10.1007/s10831‑009‑9054‑z
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10831-009-9054-z [Google Scholar]
  2. (2011) Neg-to-Q: The Historical origin and development of question particles in Chinese. The Linguistic Review28(4), 411–447. 10.1515/tlir.2011.012
    https://doi.org/10.1515/tlir.2011.012 [Google Scholar]
  3. 2012 PPs and Applicatives in Late Archaic Chinese. Studies in Chinese Linguistics33(3), 139–164.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baxter, William, Sagart, Laurent https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945375.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  5. Butler, Jonny
    (2003) A Minimalist Treatment of Modality. Lingua113(10), 967–996. 10.1016/S0024‑3841(02)00146‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3841(02)00146-8 [Google Scholar]
  6. Caponigro, Ivano and Maria Polinsky
    (2008) Almost everything is relative in the Caucasus. InProceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory18. Amherst, Massachusetts. nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:3403061. 10.3765/salt.v18i0.2474
    https://doi.org/10.3765/salt.v18i0.2474 [Google Scholar]
  7. Cinque, Guglielmo
    (1999) Adverbs and Functional heads: A Crosslinguistic Perspective. Oxford: OUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cormack, Annabel, Smith, Neill
    (2002) Modals and Negation in English. InSjef Barbiers, Frits Beukema, and Wim van der Wurff (Eds.), Modality and its Interaction with the Verbal System, Linguistik Aktuell 47 / Linguistics Today 47 (pp.133–162). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Djamouri, Redouane
    (1991) Particules de négation dans les inscriptions sur bronze de la dynastie des Zhou. Cahiers Linguistics sur l’Asie Orientale20(1), 5–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. (2004) Markers of Predication in Shang Bone Inscriptions. InHilary Chappell (Ed.), Chinese Grammar: Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives (pp.143–171). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ernst, Thomas
    (1995) Negation in Mandarin Chinese. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory13, 665–707. 10.1007/BF00992855
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00992855 [Google Scholar]
  12. Van Gelderen, Elly
    (2011) The Linguistic Cycle: Language Change and the Language Faculty. Oxford: OUP. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199756056.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199756056.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  13. Graham, A. C.
    (1952) A probable fusion word: 勿 wuh = 勿 wu + 之 jy. BSOAS14(1), 139–148. 10.1017/S0041977X0008424X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X0008424X [Google Scholar]
  14. Haegeman, Liliane
    (1995) The Syntax of Negation. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/CBO9780511519727
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511519727 [Google Scholar]
  15. Han, Chung-Hye
    (1998) Deriving the Interpretation of Rhetorical Questions. Proceedings of WCCFL16.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. (2002) Interpreting interrogatives as rhetorical questions. Lingua112, 201–229. 10.1016/S0024‑3841(01)00044‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3841(01)00044-4 [Google Scholar]
  17. Hsieh, Miao-ling
    (2001) Form and meaning: Negation and question in Chinese. PhD thesis. Unversity of Southern California.
  18. Hu, Houxuan 胡厚宣
    (1999) Jiaguwen Heji shiwen甲骨文合集釋文 [Annotations on Jiaguwen Heji]. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Social sciences.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Huang, James C.-T.
    (1988) Wǒ pǎo de kuài and Chinese Phrase Structure. Language64(2), 274–311. 10.2307/415435
    https://doi.org/10.2307/415435 [Google Scholar]
  20. Leiss, Elisabeth
    (2008) The silent and aspect-driven patterns of deonticity and epistemicity: A chapter in diachronic typology. InWerner Abraham and Elisabeth Leiss (Eds.), Modality-aspect interfaces: implications and typological solutions (pp.15–44). Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pub. Co. 10.1075/tsl.79.06lei
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.79.06lei [Google Scholar]
  21. Li, Ming 李明
    (2001) Hanyu zhudongci de lishi fazhan漢語助動詞的歷史發展, PhD: Beijing Daxue.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lin, Jo-Wang
    (2003) Aspectual selection and negation in Mandarin Chinese, Linguistics41(3), 425–459. 10.1515/ling.2003.015
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2003.015 [Google Scholar]
  23. Liu, Li 刘利
    (2000) Xian Qin Hanyy zhudongci yanjiu先秦漢語助動詞研究 [A study of auxiliary verbs in Pre-Qin Chinese], Beijing: Beijing Shifan daxue chubanshe.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lü, Shuxiang 吕叔湘
    (1974) Zhongguo wenfai yaolüe中国文法要略 [An Outline of Chinese Grammar]. Shenyang: Liaoning Education Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Meisterernst, Barbara
    (2008a) Modal verbs in Han period Chinese Part I: The syntax and semantics of 可 and kěyǐ 可 以. Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale37(1), 85–120. 10.1163/1960602808X00037
    https://doi.org/10.1163/1960602808X00037 [Google Scholar]
  26. (2008b) Negative Markers in combination with the modal auxiliary verbs kě 可 and kěyǐ 可 以. Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale37(2), 197–222. 10.1163/1960602808X00073
    https://doi.org/10.1163/1960602808X00073 [Google Scholar]
  27. (2011) From obligation to future? A diachronic sketch of the syntax and the semantics of the auxiliary verb dāng 當. Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale40(2), 137–188. 10.1163/1960602811X00015
    https://doi.org/10.1163/1960602811X00015 [Google Scholar]
  28. (2015) Tense and Aspect in Han Period Chinese: A linguistic study of the Shǐjì, Trends in Modern Linguistics Series274. Berlin: DeGruyter. 10.1515/9783110339543
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110339543 [Google Scholar]
  29. (2016) The syntax of Aspecto-temporal Adverbs from Late Archaic to Early Medieval Chinese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics25, 143–181. doi:  10.1007/s10831‑015‑9140‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10831-015-9140-3 [Google Scholar]
  30. (2017) Modality and Aspect and the Role of the Subject in Late Archaic and Han period Chinese: obligation and necessity. Lingua Sinica3 (10).
    [Google Scholar]
  31. (2018) Polarity and the diachronic development of deontic modality in Chinese. Proceedings ofNAFOSTED-NICS 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. (2019a) A new approach on the modal ke 可 and the relation between the aspectual and the modal system in Archaic Chinese. InBarbara Meisterernst (Ed.), New perspectives on Aspect and Modality in Chinese Historical Linguistics, Frontiers in Chinese Linguistics (159–189). Springer & Peking University Press. 10.1007/978‑981‑13‑1948‑8_7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1948-8_7 [Google Scholar]
  33. (2019b) The Negative Cycle in Chinese: From Synthetic to Analytic and back to Synthetic Negation?Paper presented atAcademia Sinica, Taiwan, April 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. (2020a) A semantic analysis of modal de 得 in pre-modern Chinese. Lingua Sinica. doi: 10.2478/linguasinica‑2020‑0001
    https://doi.org/10.2478/linguasinica-2020-0001 [Google Scholar]
  35. (2020b) A syntactic approach to the grammaticalization of the modal markers in Middle Chinese: the modal dāng 當. Journal of Historical Syntax4,5: 1-52.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Peyraube, Alain
    (1996) Recent Issues in Chinese Historical Syntax. InC.-T. James Huang, Yen-hui Audrey Li (Eds.). New Horizons in Chinese Linguistics. Natural Languages and Linguistic Theory36 (pp.161–213). Dordrecht: Kluwer. 10.1007/978‑94‑009‑1608‑1_6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1608-1_6 [Google Scholar]
  37. (1999) The modal auxiliaries of possibility in Classical Chinese. InFengfu Tsao, Samuel Wang und Chinfa Lien (Eds.), Selected Papers from the Fifth International Conference on Chinese Linguistics (pp.27–52). Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co. Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Progovac, Ljiljana
    (1994) Negative and positive polarity: A Bindung approach. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/CBO9780511554308
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511554308 [Google Scholar]
  39. Pulleyblank, Edwin G.
    (1995) Outline of Classical Chinese Grammar. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Rizzi, Luigi
    (1997) On the fine structure of the left periphery. InLiliane Haegeman (Ed.), Elements of Grammar (pp.281–338). Dordrecht: Kluwer. 10.1007/978‑94‑011‑5420‑8_7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-5420-8_7 [Google Scholar]
  41. Roberts, Ian and Anna Roussou
    (1999) A formal approach to ‘grammaticalization’. Linguistics37, 1011–1041. 10.1515/ling.37.6.1011
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.37.6.1011 [Google Scholar]
  42. (2002) The history of the future. InDavid W. Lightfoot (Ed.), Syntactic Effects of Morphological Change (pp.23–56). Oxford: OUP. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199250691.003.0002
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199250691.003.0002 [Google Scholar]
  43. (2003) Syntactic Change: A Minimalist approach to grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486326
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486326 [Google Scholar]
  44. Schuessler, Axel
    (2007) ABC etymological dictionary of old Chinese. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Sparvoli, Carlotta
    (2015) The temporal orientation of Chinese necessity modals: some observations on the negated form. Paper presented atHumboldt University Berlin, May 2015.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. (2019) Modality in General Linguistic Investigations Conducted in China Prior to 1949. InBarbara Meisterernst (Ed.), New perspectives on Aspect and Modality in Chinese Historical Linguistics, Frontiers in Chinese Linguistics (pp.134–157). Springer & Peking University Press. 10.1007/978‑981‑13‑1948‑8_6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1948-8_6 [Google Scholar]
  47. Tsai, Wei-Tian Dylan
    (2008) Left peripheriy and how-why alternations. Journal of East Asian Linguistics17, 83–115. 10.1007/s10831‑008‑9021‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10831-008-9021-0 [Google Scholar]
  48. (2015) On the Topography of Chinese Modals. InUr Shlonsky (Ed.), Beyond Functional Sequence (pp.275–294). New York: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190210588.003.0015
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190210588.003.0015 [Google Scholar]
  49. Wei, Pei-chuan 魏培泉
    (2004) “Fu”, “wu” binghe shuo xinzheng “弗”, “勿”併合說新證 [New evidence for a unified discussion of and ]. Zhongyang yanjiu yuan lishi yuyan yanjiusuo jikan, 72(1), 121–215.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. (2015) Gu Hanyu shiti biaoji de yuxu leixing yu yanbian古漢語時體標記的語序類型與演變 [Word order categories of temporal and aspectual markers in Classical Chinese and their development]. Language and Linguistics16(2), 213–247.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Wu, Hsueh-ju 巫雪如
    (2014) Shanggu zhi Zhonggu ‘dang’ qingtai yuyi yu weilai shi fazhan chong tan上古至中古“當”情態語義與未來時發展重探 [Another discussion on the modal meanings of dang in Late Archaic and Middle Chinese and its development into a future tense marker]. Taiwan Zhongwen xuebao9, 87–142.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Xiong, Jiajuan
    (2017) Chinese Middle Constructions: Lexical Middle Constructions. Frontiers in Chinese Linguistics2. Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Xiong, Jiajuan, Meisterernst Barbara
    (2019) The syntax and the semantics of the deontic modals yīng 應 and dāng 當 in Early Buddhist texts. InBarbara Meisterernst (Ed.), New perspectives on Aspect and Modality in Chinese Historical Linguistics, Frontiers in Chinese Linguistics (pp.191–220). Springer & Peking University Press. 10.1007/978‑981‑13‑1948‑8_8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1948-8_8 [Google Scholar]
  54. Zeijlstra, Hedde
    (2004) Sentential Negation and Negative Concord. LOT Netherlands.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Zhu, Guanming 朱冠明
    (2008) Moheseng dilü摩訶僧衹律, Beijing: China Theatre Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Zhuang, Huibin
    (2015) Xiandai Hanyu fouding de jufa yanjiu现代汉语否定的句法研究Negation in Modern Chinese: A syntactic perspective. Beijing: Kexue chubanshe.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ijchl.19013.mei
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ijchl.19013.mei
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Grammaticalization , Late Archaic , Middle Chinese , Modal verbs , Negation and Scope
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error