1887
Volume 8, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2213-8706
  • E-ISSN: 2213-8714
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Abstract

抽象

类型学发现,典型的双系式(applicative)结构将宾语(直接宾语或间接宾语)这个句法角色指派给一个本来不能作宾语的项。本文证明汉语中以下结构都是类型学中所谓的“双系式”:在共时层面,有普通话中的“吃食堂”结构,自陆俭明、郭锐(1998)提出以来,有诸多学者从不同角度对其进行了研究;在历时层面,上古汉语中有名词(性结构)直接作补语和介词短语作补语交替的现象。汉语虽然是典型的孤立语,(几乎)没有判断双系式的形态依据,但这些结构在语义-句法层面表现出了双系式结构的基本特点,是完全可以归类为双系式结构的。这一结论也为类型学的动词配价(valency)研究打开了新思路,即在以往对于动词配价研究更侧重形态标准的基础上,也应参考句法行为特征(syntactic behavior),这对于研究汉语类的孤立语的动词配价操作尤其重要。

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2021-06-01
2021-10-17
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