1887
Volume 9, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2213-8706
  • E-ISSN: 2213-8714

Abstract

Abstract

Why does an argument clause contain a meaningless complementizer in languages such as English and German, but not in Mandarin; and why does an adverbial clause occur with a meaningless correlative adverb in the matrix clause in Mandarin, but not in languages such as English and German? Extending the c-selection from one type of sisterhood to another type of sisterhood, this paper recognizes the modification relation as a kind of selection relation, in addition to the familiar kind of argument-taking selection relation. This research argues that dependency marking is seen in different types of sister relations. It shows how Mandarin uses modification markers systematically, but does not use argument markers, also systematically. The paper explains the existence of modification markers in various constructions in Mandarin and in various languages. It lets us gain a better understanding of language variations.

Available under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ijchl.21002.zha
2022-06-07
2024-05-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijchl.21002.zha.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/ijchl.21002.zha&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bîlbîie, G.
    (2020) A Semantic Constraint on Optional ‘That’ in English: The Role of Factivity. OSF. June4. osf.io/mg5bx. SLE 2020 Talk.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Blümel, A., & Pitsch, H.
    (2019) Adverbial clauses: Internally rich, externally null. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics4.1. Art. 19.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bošković, Z., & Lasnik, H.
    (2003) On the distribution of null complementizers. Linguistic Inquiry34: 527–546. 10.1162/002438903322520142
    https://doi.org/10.1162/002438903322520142 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bruening, B.
    (2010) Ditransitive asymmetries and a theory of idiom formation. Linguistic Inquiry41.4: 519–562. 10.1162/LING_a_00012
    https://doi.org/10.1162/LING_a_00012 [Google Scholar]
  5. Chao, Y.-R.
    (1968) A grammar of spoken Chinese. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chomsky, N.
    (1995) The Minimalist Program. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. (2013) Problems of projection. Lingua130: 33–49. 10.1016/j.lingua.2012.12.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2012.12.003 [Google Scholar]
  8. Cinque, G.
    (2020) The Syntax of Relative Clauses. A Unified Analysis. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108856195
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108856195 [Google Scholar]
  9. Collins, C.
    (1997) Local economy. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Culicover, P. W., & Jackendoff, R.
    (1997) Semantic subordination despite syntactic coordination. Linguistic Inquiry28.2: 195–217.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dor, D.
    (2005) Toward a semantic account of that-deletion in English. Linguistics43.2: 345–382. 10.1515/ling.2005.43.2.345
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2005.43.2.345 [Google Scholar]
  12. Endo, Y. & Haegeman, L.
    (2019) Adverbial clauses and adverbial concord. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics4(1): 48. 1–32. 10.5334/gjgl.589
    https://doi.org/10.5334/gjgl.589 [Google Scholar]
  13. Franco, L.
    (2013) A typological rarum in Sogdian: Overt complementizers in indicative root clauses. Lingua Posnaniensis55.1: 55–67. 10.2478/linpo‑2013‑0004
    https://doi.org/10.2478/linpo-2013-0004 [Google Scholar]
  14. Gasde, H.-D., & Paul, W.
    (1996) Functional categories, topic prominence, and complex sentences in Mandarin Chinese. Linguistics34: 263–294. 10.1515/ling.1996.34.2.263
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1996.34.2.263 [Google Scholar]
  15. Hole, D.
    (2004) Focus and background marking in Mandarin Chinese: System and theory behind cai, jiu, dou and ye. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203565193
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203565193 [Google Scholar]
  16. Hornstein, N. & Nunes, J.
    (2008) Adjunction, labeling, and bare phrase structure. Biolinguistics2. 57–86. 10.5964/bioling.8621
    https://doi.org/10.5964/bioling.8621 [Google Scholar]
  17. Huang, C-T. J.
    (1988) Shuo shi he you說是和有 [On ‘be’ and ‘have’ in Chinese]. The bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica59. Part I: 43–64.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. (1993) Reconstruction and the structure of VP: Some theoretical consequences. Linguistic Inquiry24: 103–138.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Huang, C.
    (1987) Mandarin NP de – A Comparative Study of Current Grammatical Theories. Cornell University PhD dissertation.
  20. Huang, N.
    (2018) Control complements in Mandarin Chinese: implications for restructuring and the Chinese finiteness debate. Journal of East Asian Linguistics27.4: 347–376. 10.1007/s10831‑018‑9185‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10831-018-9185-1 [Google Scholar]
  21. Iatridou, S.
    (1991) Topics in conditionals. MIT Dissertation.
  22. Jackendoff, R.
    (1977) X’ syntax: A study of phrase structure. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jaeger, F.
    (2010) Redundancy and reduction: Speakers manage syntactic information density. Cognitive Psychology61(1), 23–62. 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2010.02.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2010.02.002 [Google Scholar]
  24. Ko, H.
    (2005) Syntax of why-in-situ: Merge into [Spec, CP]. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory23(4): 867–916. 10.1007/s11049‑004‑5923‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11049-004-5923-3 [Google Scholar]
  25. Kuo, J.
    (2020) A uniform analysis of zhi’s in zhi-ya…jiu-constructions and zhi-you…cai-constructions: the exhaustively exclusive operator. The 13th Workshop on Formal Syntax and Semantics (FOSS 13), Academia Sinica, Taipei, Oct. 16–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lai, H.
    (1999) Rejected expectations: the scalar particles cai and jiu in Mandarin Chinese. Linguistics37.4: 625–661. 10.1515/ling.37.4.625
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.37.4.625 [Google Scholar]
  27. Larson, R.
    (2009) Chinese as a reverse Ezafe language. Yuyanxue Luncong [Essays on Linguistics] 39: 30–85. Beijing: Shangwu Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Larson, R., & Samiian, V.
    (2020) Ezafe, PP and the nature of nominalization. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory. 10.1007/s11049‑020‑09471‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11049-020-09471-1 [Google Scholar]
  29. Lewis, D.
    (1975) Adverbs of quantification. InE. L. Keenan, ed., Formal Semantics of Natural Language, Cambridge University Press. 3–15. 10.1017/CBO9780511897696.003
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511897696.003 [Google Scholar]
  30. Li, C. & Thompson, S.
    (1981) Mandarin Chinese. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Li, Y.
    (1999) Cross-componential causativity. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory17.3: 445–497. 10.1023/A:1006236828263
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006236828263 [Google Scholar]
  32. Li, Y. A.
    (1998) Argument determiner phrases and number phrases. Linguistic Inquiry29.4: 693–702. 10.1162/ling.1998.29.4.693
    https://doi.org/10.1162/ling.1998.29.4.693 [Google Scholar]
  33. (1992) Indefinite wh in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics1.2: 125–155. 10.1007/BF00130234
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00130234 [Google Scholar]
  34. Liao, W., & Lin, T.
    (2019) Syntactic structures of Mandarin purposives. Linguistics57.1: 87–126. 10.1515/ling‑2018‑0032
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling-2018-0032 [Google Scholar]
  35. Lin, J., & Tang, C.
    (1995) Modals as verbs in Chinese: A GB perspective. The Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology66.1: 53–105.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Liu, F.
    (2016) Syntactic sources of adjectives in Mandarin Chinese. Studies in Chinese Linguistics37.1: 38–55. 10.1515/scl‑2016‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/scl-2016-0002 [Google Scholar]
  37. Lü, S.
    (1999) Xiandai Hanyu Babai Ci [800 Words in Chinese]. Shangwu Press, Beijing.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Pan, J., & Paul, W.
    (2018) The syntax of complex sentences in Mandarin Chinese: a comprehensive overview with analyses. Linguistic Analysis42 (1–2): 63–161, special issue on the syntax of complex sentences in Chinese.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Partee, B. H.
    (1990) Domains of quantifications and semantic typology. InFrances Ingemann (ed.), Proceedings of the 1990 Mid-America Linguistics Conference, 3–39. Mid-America Linguistics Conference.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Partee, B. H., Emmon Bach & Angelika Kratzer
    (1987) Quantification: a cross-linguistic investigation. NSF proposal, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Ms.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Rubin, E.
    (1994) Modification: A syntactic analysis and its consequences. Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
  42. (1996) The transparent syntax and semantics of modifiers. InThe Proceedings of the 15th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, ed. byBrian Agbayani and Sze-Wing Tang, 429–440. Stanford, Calif.: CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. (2002) The structure of modifiers, Ms., University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. (2003) Determining pair-merge. Linguistic Inquiry34.4: 660–668. 10.1162/ling.2003.34.4.660
    https://doi.org/10.1162/ling.2003.34.4.660 [Google Scholar]
  45. Sybesma, R.
    (1999) The Mandarin VP. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 10.1007/978‑94‑015‑9163‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-9163-8 [Google Scholar]
  46. Wei, W., & Li, Y. A.
    (2018) Adverbial Clauses in Mandarin Chinese, Part 3. Postverbal purpose clauses – complementation vs. adjunction. Linguistic Analysis42 (1–2): 299–330.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Xu, Shijing 徐式婧
    (2020) Hanyu tiaojianju guanlian biaoji de fazhan yu jufa jiegou fazhanjian de hudong guanxi汉语条件句关联标记的发展与句法结构发展间的互动关系 [the interactions between the development of correlative markers in conditional constructions and the development of syntactic structures]. Ms. Peking University.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Zhang, N.
    (2010) Coordination in Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Zhou, G.
    (2002) Lianci yu xiangguan wenti [conjunction and relevant issues]. Anhui Educational Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Zhu, D.
    (1982) Yufa jiangyi [Lectures on grammar]. Beijing: Shangwu Yinshuguan.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ijchl.21002.zha
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): adverbial clause; argument-taking; correlative adverb; modification; selection marker
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error