1887
Volume 24, Issue 4
  • ISSN 1384-6655
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9811
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Situated at the interface of several sub-disciplines (corpus linguistics, World Englishes, variationist sociolinguistics), this study investigates patterns of adjectival amplification (, , ) in the Corpus of Global Web-Based English (GloWbE). It highlights regional distributions/preferences of amplifier-adjective 2-grams and the idiosyncratic status of certain bigrams according to their frequency status. Globally, clear regional preferences in amplification patterns as well as possible trends concerning change are identified. Regionally, L1 varieties contrast starkly with some regions (Africa, Indian subcontinent) but – maybe unexpectedly – not with others (Southeast Asia). The results offer insights into current trajectories of change concerning the investigated amplifiers in certain regions and 2-grams: North American varieties are leading a trend away from towards and possibly in the future.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ijcl.17063.wag
2019-11-01
2019-12-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aijmer, K.
    (2017) The intensifier ‘fucking’ in Spoken BNC14. Paper presented at theICAME 38 Conference, Prague, Czech Republic.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Arnon, I. & Snider, N.
    (2010) More than words: Frequency effects for multi-word phrases. Journal of Memory and Language, 62, 67–82. 10.1016/j.jml.2009.09.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2009.09.005 [Google Scholar]
  3. Barnfield, K. & Buchstaller, I.
    (2010) Intensifiers on Tyneside: Longitudinal developments and new trends. English World-Wide, 31(3), 252–287. 10.1075/eww.31.3.02bar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.31.3.02bar [Google Scholar]
  4. Bauer, L. & Bauer, W.
    (2002) Adjective boosters in the English of young New Zealanders. Journal of English Linguistics, 30(3), 244–257. 10.1177/0075424202030003002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424202030003002 [Google Scholar]
  5. Beltrama, A. & Casasanto, L. A.
    (2017) Totally tall sounds totally younger: Intensification at the socio-semantics interface. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 21(2), 154–182. 10.1111/josl.12230
    https://doi.org/10.1111/josl.12230 [Google Scholar]
  6. Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S. & Finegan, E.
    (1999) Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Blumenthal-Dramé, A.
    (2012) Entrenchment in Usage-based Theories: What Corpus Data Do and Do not Reveal about the Mind. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110294002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110294002 [Google Scholar]
  8. Breban, T. & Davidse, K.
    (2016) The history of ‘very’ – the directionality of functional shift and (inter)subjectification. English Language and Linguistics, 20(2), 221–249. 10.1017/S1360674315000428
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674315000428 [Google Scholar]
  9. Brysbaert, M. & New, B.
    (2009) Moving beyond Kučera and Francis: A critical evaluation of current word frequency norms and the introduction of a new and improved word frequency measure for American English. Behavior Research Methods, 41(4), 977–990. 10.3758/BRM.41.4.977
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.41.4.977 [Google Scholar]
  10. Buchstaller, I.
    (2014) Quotatives. New Trends and Sociolinguistic Implications. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bybee, J.
    (2003) Mechanisms of change in grammaticization: The role of frequency. InB. D. Joseph & R. D. Janda (Eds.), The Handbook of Historical Linguistics (pp.602–623). Oxford: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756393.ch19
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756393.ch19 [Google Scholar]
  12. Chong, P. F. & Nahji, N. S.
    (2010) When very intense is not really so intense. Strathy Undergraduate Working Papers on Canadian English, 8, 52–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. D’Arcy, A.
    (2015) Stability, stasis and change. Thee longue durée of intensification. Diachronica, 32(4), 449–493. 10.1075/dia.32.4.01dar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.32.4.01dar [Google Scholar]
  14. Davies, M.
    (2008–) The Corpus of Contemporary American English: 520 million words, 1990-present. Available online atwww.english-corpora.org/coca/
  15. (2010–) The Corpus of Historical American English: 400 million words, 1810–2009. Available online atwww.english-corpora.org/coha/
  16. (2013) Corpus of Global Web-Based English: 1.9 billion words from speakers in 20 countries. Available online athttps://www.english-corpora.org/glowbe/
  17. Davies, M. & Fuchs, R.
    (2015a) Expanding horizons in the study of World Englishes with the 1.9 billion word Global Web-Based English Corpus (GloWbE). English World-Wide, 36(1), 1–28. 10.1075/eww.36.1.01dav
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.36.1.01dav [Google Scholar]
  18. (2015b) A Reply. English World-Wide, 36(1), 45–47. 10.1075/eww.36.1.03dav
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.36.1.03dav [Google Scholar]
  19. Davis, B. H. & Brewer, J.
    (1999) Electronic Discourse: Linguistic Individuals in Virtual Space. Albany: SUNY Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Davydova, J., A. E. Tytus & E. Schleef
    (2017) Acquisition of sociolinguistic awareness by German learners of English: A study in perceptions of quotative be like. Linguistics, 55(4), 783–812. 10.1515/ling‑2017‑0011
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling-2017-0011 [Google Scholar]
  21. Dixon, R. M. W.
    (1977) Where have all the adjectives gone?Studies in Language, 1(1), 19–80. 10.1075/sl.1.1.04dix
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.1.1.04dix [Google Scholar]
  22. Fuchs, R. & Gut, U.
    (2016) Register variation in intensifier usage across Asian Englishes. InH. Pichler (Ed.), Discourse-pragmatic Variation and Change in English: New Methods and Insights (pp.183–210). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781107295476.009
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107295476.009 [Google Scholar]
  23. Gries, S. Th., & Mukherjee, J.
    (2010) Lexical gravity across varieties of English: An ICE-based study of n-grams in Asian Englishes. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 15(4), 520–548. 10.1075/ijcl.15.4.04gri
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.15.4.04gri [Google Scholar]
  24. Hale, C. & Scanlon, J.
    (1999) Wired Style: Principles of English Usage in the Digital Age. New York, NY: Broadway Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Huddleston, R., & Pullum, G. K.
    (2002) The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781316423530
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316423530 [Google Scholar]
  26. Hundt, M.
    (1998) New Zealand English Grammar – Fact or Fiction? A Corpus-based Study in Morphosyntactic Variation. Amsterdam/Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g23
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g23 [Google Scholar]
  27. Ito, R. & Tagliamonte, S.
    (2003) ‘Well’ weird, ‘right’ dodgy, ‘very’ strange, ‘really’ cool: Layering and recycling in English intensifiers. Language in Society, 32(2), 257–279. 10.1017/S0047404503322055
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404503322055 [Google Scholar]
  28. Jurafsky, D. & Martin, J. H.
    (in preparation). Chapter 15: Vector Semantics (Draft of November 7, 2016). InD. Jurafsky & J. H. Martin, Speech and Language Processing (3rd ed.). Retrieved fromhttps://web.stanford.edu/~jurafsky/slp3/ (last accessedJuly 2017).
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kachru, B. B.
    (1985) Standards, codification, and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the Outer Circle. InR. Quirk & H. G. Widdowson (Eds.), English in the World (pp.11–30). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kennedy, C. & McNally, L.
    (2005) Scale structure, degree modification, and the semantics of gradable predicates. Language, 81(2), 345–381. 10.1353/lan.2005.0071
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2005.0071 [Google Scholar]
  31. Kortmann, B. & Lunkenheimer, K.
    (Eds.) (2013) The Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Retrieved fromewave-atlas.org (last accessedApril 2019).
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Labov, W.
    (1994) Principles of Linguistic Change. Volume 1: Internal Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Levshina, N.
    (2015) How to Do Linguistics with R: Data Exploration and Statistical Analysis. Amsterdam/Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.195
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.195 [Google Scholar]
  34. Lorenz, G.
    (2002) Really worthwhile or not really significant? A corpus-based approach to the delexicalization and grammaticalization of intensifiers in Modern English. InI. Wischer & G. Diewald (Eds.), New Reflections on Grammaticalization (pp.143–161). Amsterdam/Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.49.11lor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.49.11lor [Google Scholar]
  35. Love, R., Dembry, C., Hardie, A., Brezina, V., & McEnery, T.
    (2017) The Spoken BNC2014: Designing and building a spoken corpus of everyday conversations. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 22(3), 319–344. 10.1075/ijcl.22.3.02lov
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.22.3.02lov [Google Scholar]
  36. Macauley, R.
    (2006) Pure grammaticalization: The development of a teenage intensifier. Language Variation and Change, 18, 267–283.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Mair, C.
    (2015) Response to Davies & Fuchs. English World-Wide, 36(1), 29–33. 10.1075/eww.36.1.02mai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.36.1.02mai [Google Scholar]
  38. McEnery, T., Tono, Y. & Xiao, R.
    (2006) Corpus-based Language Studies: An Advanced Resource Book. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Méndez-Naya, B.
    (2008) On the history of downright. English Language and Linguistics, 12(2), 267–287. 10.1017/S1360674308002621
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002621 [Google Scholar]
  40. Mesthrie, R. & R. Bhatt
    (2008) World Englishes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511791321
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511791321 [Google Scholar]
  41. Mukherjee, J.
    (2015) Response to Davies & Fuchs. English World-Wide, 36(1), 34–37. 10.1075/eww.36.1.02muk
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.36.1.02muk [Google Scholar]
  42. Nelson, G.
    (2015) Response to Davies & Fuchs. English World-Wide, 36(1), 38–40. 10.1075/eww.36.1.02nel
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.36.1.02nel [Google Scholar]
  43. Nevalainen, T. & Rissanen, M.
    (2002) Fairly pretty or pretty fair? On the development and grammaticalization of English downtoners. Language Sciences, 24, 359–380. 10.1016/S0388‑0001(01)00038‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0388-0001(01)00038-9 [Google Scholar]
  44. Oxford English Dictionary Online
    Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved fromwww.oed.com (last accessedApril 2019).
  45. Paradis, C.
    (1997) Degree Modifiers of Adjectives in Spoken British English. Lund: Lund University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. (2000) ‘It’s well weird’. Degree modifiers of adjectives revisited: The nineties. InJ. M. Kirk (Ed.), Corpora Galore: Analyses and Techniques in Describing English (pp.147–160). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. (2001) Adjectives and boundedness. Cognitive Linguistics, 12(1), 47–65. 10.1515/cogl.12.1.47
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.12.1.47 [Google Scholar]
  48. Partington, A.
    (1993) Corpus evidence of language change: The case of intensifiers. InM. Baker, G. Francis & E. Tognini-Bonelli (Eds.), Text and Technology: In Honour of John Sinclair (pp.177–192). Amsterdam/Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.64.12par
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.64.12par [Google Scholar]
  49. Perek, F. & Hilpert, M.
    (2017) A distributional semantic approach to the periodization of change in the productivity of constructions. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 22(4), 490–520. 10.1075/ijcl.16128.per
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.16128.per [Google Scholar]
  50. Peters, P.
    (2015) Response to Davies & Fuchs. English World-Wide, 36(1), 41–44. 10.1075/eww.36.1.02pet
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.36.1.02pet [Google Scholar]
  51. Quaglio, P.
    (2009) Television Dialogue. The Sitcom Friends vs. Natural Conversation. Amsterdam/Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.36
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.36 [Google Scholar]
  52. Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., Svartvik, J.
    (1985) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. R Core Team
    R Core Team (2016) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. [Computer software]. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved fromhttps://www.R-project.org/ (last accessedApril 2019).
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Racz, P.
    (2012) Operationalising salience: Definite article reduction in the North of England. English Language and Linguistics, 16(1), 57–79. 10.1017/S1360674311000281
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674311000281 [Google Scholar]
  55. Reichelt, S. & Durham, M.
    (2017) Adjective intensification as a means of characterization: Portraying in-group membership and Britishness in Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Journal of English Linguistics, 45(1), 60–87. 10.1177/0075424216669747
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424216669747 [Google Scholar]
  56. Schneider, E. W.
    (2007) Postcolonial English. Varieties around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511618901
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618901 [Google Scholar]
  57. Schweinberger, M.
    (2016) Ongoing change in the New Zealand English intensifier system. Paper presented at theISLE 4 Conference, Poznan, Poland.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Stenström, A.-B.
    (1999) ‘He was really gormless – She’s bloody crap’: Girls, boys and intensifiers. InH. Hasselgård & S. Okesfjell (Eds.), Out of Corpora: Studies in Honour of Stig Johansson (pp.69–78). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Stoffel, C.
    (1901) Intensives and Down-toners. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Tagliamonte, S.
    (2008) So different and pretty cool! Recycling intensifiers in Toronto, Canada. English Language and Linguistics, 12(2), 361–394. 10.1017/S1360674308002669
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002669 [Google Scholar]
  61. Tagliamonte, S. & Roberts, C.
    (2005) So weird; so cool; so innovative: The use of intensifiers in the television series ‘Friends’. American Speech, 80(3), 280–300. 10.1215/00031283‑80‑3‑280
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-80-3-280 [Google Scholar]
  62. Tagliamonte, S.
    (2016) So sick or so cool? The language of youth on the internet. Language in Society, 45(1), 1–32. 10.1017/S0047404515000780
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404515000780 [Google Scholar]
  63. Tan, P. K. W. & Tan, D. K. H.
    (2008) Attitudes towards non-standard English in Singapore. World Englishes, 27(3/4), 465–479. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2008.00578.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2008.00578.x [Google Scholar]
  64. van Heuven, W. J. B., Mandera, P., Keuleers, E. & Brysbaert, M.
    (2014) Subtlex-UK: A new and improved word frequency database for British English. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67(6), 1176–1190. 10.1080/17470218.2013.850521
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2013.850521 [Google Scholar]
  65. van Rooy, B., & Schäfer, L.
    (2003) An evaluation of three POS taggers for the tagging of the Tswana Learner English Corpus. InD. Archer, P. Rayson, A. Wilson & T. McEnery (Eds.), Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics 2003 Conference, Technical PapersVolume16 (pp.835–844). Lancaster: University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Wagner, S.
    (2017) Totally new and pretty awesome: Amplifier-adjective bigrams in GloWbE. Lingua, 200, 63–83. 10.1016/j.lingua.2017.08.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2017.08.004 [Google Scholar]
  67. (submitted). To each their own – trajectories of change and the role of social factors for high-frequency intensifier-adjective combinations in spoken British English 1994–2014.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Xia, R. & Tao, H.
    (2007) A corpus-based sociolinguistic study of amplifiers in British English. Sociolinguistic Studies, 1(2), 241–273.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Zwicky, A.
    (2011) “GenX so.” Arnold Zwicky’s Blog. Retrieved fromarnoldzwicky.org/2011/11/14/genx-so/ (last accessedApril 2019).
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ijcl.17063.wag
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ijcl.17063.wag
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): 2-grams/bigrams , amplifiers/intensifiers , GloWbE and World Englishes/English world-wide
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error