Volume 27, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1384-6655
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9811
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



A corpus-based method for assessing a range of dialect-standard variation is presented for identifying samples exhibiting the highest prevalence of dialect features. This method provides insight into areal and inter-speaker variation and allows the extraction of maximally non-standard manifestations of the dialect, which may then be sampled and used for the study of language change and variation. The focus is on a non-standard Torlak variety, which has undergone considerable change under the influence of standard Serbian. The degree of variation is assessed by measuring the frequencies of five distinguishing linguistic features: accent position, dative reflexive , auxiliary omission in the compound perfect, the post-positive article, and analytic case marking in the indirect object and possessive. Locations subject to the greatest and least influence of the standard are revealed using hierarchical clustering. A positive correlation between the frequencies of occurrence reveals which non-standard feature is the best predictor of the others.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Alexander, R.
    (1975) Torlak Accentuation. Otto Sagner. 10.3726/b12511
    https://doi.org/10.3726/b12511 [Google Scholar]
  2. Arsenijević, B.
    (2012) Evaluative reflexions: Evaluative dative reflexive in Southeast Serbo-Croatian. InB. Fernandez & R. Etxepare (Eds.), Variation in Datives: A Microcomparative Perspective (pp.1–21). Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199937363.003.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199937363.003.0001 [Google Scholar]
  3. Belić, A.
    (1905) Dijalekti istočne i južne Srbije [Dialects of Eastern and Southern Serbia]. Srpska Kraljevska Akademija.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bruland, I., & Carr, P.
    (2013) Variability, unconscious accent adaptation and sense of identity: The case of RP influences on speakers of Standard Scottish English. Language Sciences, 39, 151–155. 10.1016/j.langsci.2013.02.017
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2013.02.017 [Google Scholar]
  5. Chambers, J. K., & Trudgill, P.
    (1998) Dialectology. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511805103
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511805103 [Google Scholar]
  6. Erjavec, T.
    (2012) MULTEXT-East: Morphosyntactic resources for Central and Eastern European languages. Language Resources & Evaluation, 46, 131–142. 10.1007/s10579‑011‑9174‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10579-011-9174-8 [Google Scholar]
  7. Escher, A.
    (2021) Double argument marking in Timok dialect texts (in Balkan Slavic context). Zeitschrift für Slawistik, 66(1), 61–90. 10.1515/slaw‑2021‑0004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/slaw-2021-0004 [Google Scholar]
  8. (2021) Auxiliary omission in the perfect tense in Timok. Balkanistica, 34, 41–64.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Frleta, T.
    (2010) Uporaba i značenje nenaglašenog dativa povratne zamjenice u hrvatskom jeziku [The Use and the Meaning of Un-accentuated Dative Reflexive Pronoun in Croatian Language]. Jezik: časopis za kulturu hrvatskoga književnog jezika, 57(1), 1–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Grickat, I.
    (1954) O perfektu bez pomoćnog glagola u srpskohrvatskom jeziku [On the perfect tense without auxiliary in Serbo-Croatian Language]. Srpska Akademija Nauka.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hinrichs, U.
    (1999) Die sogenannten Balkanismen als Problem der Südosteuropa Linguistik und der Allgemeinen Sprachwissenschaft [The So-called Balkanisms as a Problem of Southeast European Linguistics and General Linguistics]. InU. Hinrichs (Ed.), Handbuch der Süosteuropa-Linguistik (pp.42–463). Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Ivanova, E. Y., & Gradinarova, A. A.
    (2015) Sintaksicheskaya sistema bolgarskogo yazyka na fone russkogo [The Syntactic System of the Bulgarian Language on the Basis of the Russian Language]. Yazyki slavyanskoj kultury.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Ivić, P.
    (1985) Dijalektologija srpskohrvatskog jezika. Uvod i štokavsko narečje [Dialectology of the Serbo-Croatian Language. Introduction and the Neo-Shtokavian dialects]. Matica srpska.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. (2009) Srpski dijalekti i njihova klasifikacija [Serbian Dialects and Their Classification]. Izdavachka knizharnitza Zorana Stojanovicha.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Joseph, B.
    (1992) The Balkan Languages. InW. Bright (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (Vol.1, pp.153–155). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Krstić, D.
    (2014) Konstrukcija identiteta Torlaka u Srbiji i Bugarskoj [The Construction of the Torlak Identity in Serbia and Bulgaria] [Doctoral dissertation]. Univerzitet u Beogradu.
  17. Lindstedt, J.
    (2000) Linguistic balkanization: Contact-induced change by mutual reinforcement. InD. Gilbers, J. Nerbonne, & S. Schaeken (Eds.), Languages in Contact: Studies in Slavic and General Linguistics (pp.231–246). Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Ljubešić, N., Klubička, F., Agić, Ž., & Jazbec, I.
    (2016) New inflectional lexicons and training corpora for improved morphosyntactic annotation of Croatian and Serbian. InN. Calzolari, K. Choukri, T. Declerck, S. Goggi, M. Grobelnik, B. Maegaard, J. Mariani, H. Mazo, A. Moreno, J. Odijk, & S. Piperidis (Eds.), Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation: LREC 2016 (pp.4264–4270). European Language Resources Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Meermann, A., & Sonnenhauser, B.
    (2016) Das Perfekt im Serbischen zwischen Slavischer und Balkanslavischer Entwicklung [The Perfect in Serbian Between Slavic and Balkan Slavic Development]. InA. Bazhutkina & S. Barbara (Eds.), Linguistische Beiträge zur Slavistik. XXII. Jungslavistlnnen-Treffen in München. 12. Bis 14. September 2013 (pp.83–110). Biblion.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Miličević Petrović, M., Vuković, T., Mirić, M., Konior, D., & Escher, A.
    (forthcoming). Language Documentation II: Towards a sociolinguistic corpus of Torlak. Challenges for data processing. Zeitschrift für Slavische Philologie. Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mišeska-Tomić, O.
    (2004) The Balkan Sprachbund Properties. InO. Mišeska Tomić (Ed.), Balkan Syntax and Semantics (pp.1–55). John Benjamins. 10.1075/la.67.04mis
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.67.04mis [Google Scholar]
  22. Mitkovska, L.
    (2011) Competition between nominal possessive constructions and the possessive dative in Macedonian. InM. Nomachi (Ed.), The Grammar of Possessivity in South Slavic languages and Diachronic Perspective (pp.83–109). Slavic Research Center.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Nerbonne, J., & Kretzschmar, W. A.
    (2012) Dialectometry ++. LLC: Journal of Digital Scholarship in the Humanities, 28(1), 2–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Petrova, G.
    (2014) Medialny glagoly s refleksivna semantika [Medial Verbs with Reflexive Semantics]. Nauchny trudove na Rusenskyja universitet, 53(6.3), 36–40.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Petrović, T.
    (2015) Srbija i njen jug. “Južnjački dijalekti” između jezika, kulture I politike [Serbia and its South. “The Southern Dialects” between Language, Culture and Politics]. Fabrika knjiga.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Plotnikova, A. A.
    (1996) Materialy dlja etnolinggvisticheskogo izuchenija balkanoslavjanskogo areala [Materials for the Ethnolinguistic study of the Balkan Slavic Area]. Institut slavjanovedenija RAN.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. R Core Team
    R Core Team (2019) R: A language and environment for statistical computing (Version 3.6.2) [Computer software]. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Savova, D.
    (2017) Glagoli s elementa si/sobie v balgarskija i v polskija ezik [Verbs with se/sobie elements in Bulgarian and Polish language]. Zeszyty Cyrylo-Metodiańskie, 6, 38–56. 10.17951/zcm.2017.6.38
    https://doi.org/10.17951/zcm.2017.6.38 [Google Scholar]
  29. Schmidt, T.
    (2009) Creating and working with spoken language corpora in EXMARaLDA. InV. Lyding (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Lesser Used Languages & Computer Linguistics (pp.151–164). EURAC research.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Sikimić, B.
    (2012) Timski terenski rad Balkanološkog instituta SANU. Razvoj istraživačkih ciljeva i metoda [Team Fieldwork of the Institute for Balkan Studies of SASA. The Development of the Research Goals and Methods]. In. M. Ivanović-Barušić (Ed.), Terenska istraživanja – poetika susreta (pp.167–198). Etnografski institut SANU.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Szmrecsanyi, B.
    (2015) Grammatical Variation in British English Dialects: A Study in Corpus-Based Dialectometry. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. (2017) Variationist sociolinguistics and corpus-based variationist linguistics: Overlap and cross-pollination potential. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique, 62(4), 1–17. 10.1017/cnj.2017.34
    https://doi.org/10.1017/cnj.2017.34 [Google Scholar]
  33. Szmrecsanyi, B., & Wälchli, B.
    (Eds.) (2014) Aggregating Dialectology, Typology and Register Analysis: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech. Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110317558
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110317558 [Google Scholar]
  34. Sobolev, A. N.
    (1998) Sprachatlas Ostserbiens und Westbulgariens. Bd. III. Texte [Linguistic Atlas of East Serbia and West Bulgaria. Volume III. Texts]. Biblion.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. (2003) Malyj dialektologicheskij atlas balkanskih jazykov. Probnyj vypusk [Little Dialectological Atlas of the Balkan Languages. Trial issue]. Biblion. 10.3726/b12880
    https://doi.org/10.3726/b12880 [Google Scholar]
  36. Sobolev, A.
    (2008) From synthetic to analytic case: Variation in South-Slavic dialects. InA. Malchukov, & A. Spencer (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Case (pp.716–729). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Stanojević, M.
    (1911) Severno-timočki dijalekat [The Northern Timok Dialect]. Srpski dijalektološki zbornik, 2, 360–463.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Stevanović, M.
    (1986) Gramatika srpskog jezika [The Grammar of Serbian Language]. Naučna kniga.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Trudgill, P.
    (1986) Dialects in Contact. Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Van Rossum, G., & Drake, F. L.
    (2009). Python 3 Reference Manual. CreateSpace.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Vuković, T.
    (2019) Torlak ReLDI Tagger 2019 [Computer software]. RetrievedNovember 1, 2021, fromhttps://github.com/bravethea/Torlak-ReLDI-Tagger-2019
    [Google Scholar]
  42. (2020) Spoken Torlak dialect corpus 1.0. CLARIN.SI. hdl.handle.net/11356/1281
    [Google Scholar]
  43. (2021) Representing variation in a spoken corpus of an endangered dialect: The case of Torlak. Language Resources & Evaluation, 55, 731–756. 10.1007/s10579‑020‑09522‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10579-020-09522-4 [Google Scholar]
  44. Vuković, T., Mirić, M., Escher, A., Ćirković, S., Miličević Petrović, M., Sobolev, A., & Sonnenhauser, B.
    (forthcoming). Under the magnifying glass. Dimensions of variation in the contemporary Timok variety. Zeitschrift für Slavische Philologie. Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Vuković, T., & Samardžić, T.
    (2018) Prostorna raspodela frekvencije postpozitivnog člana u timočkom govoru [Areal distribution of the frequency of the post-positive article in the Timok vernacular]. InS. Ćirković, A. N. Sobolev, B. Sonnenhauser, M. Miličević, & J. Pandurević, (Eds.), Timok. Folkloristička i lingvistička terenska istraživanja 2015–2017 (pp.181–200). Narodna biblioteka “Njegoš”.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Wahlström, M.
    (2015) The Loss of Case Inflection in Bulgarian and Macedonian.Slavica Helsingiensia 47 [Doctoral dissertation, University of Helsinki]. University of Helsinki, Department of Modern Languages. https://researchportal.helsinki.fi/en/publications/loss-of-case-inflection-in-bulgarian-and-macedonian

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error