1887
Linguistic Innovations
  • ISSN 2215-1478
  • E-ISSN: 2215-1486
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Conflicting findings are reported for New Englishes and Learner Englishes: similarities are identified mainly on psycholinguistic grounds and differences on sociolinguistic grounds. This article offers an analysis of the progressive form in Black South African English, in which the interaction between gradual increases in proficiency and normative interventions by explicit feedback and editing of published texts is examined to establish the route towards conventionalisation of innovative features. The results indicate that one innovative feature, the extension of the progressive to longer time spans, becomes established as a feature of the variety, but other potential innovations gradually disappear under normative influence and with increased proficiency. Innovations are likely to be accepted if they are insufficiently salient to be targeted for normative correction and sufficiently present in the written and spoken input to become entrenched in the grammatical representations of learners as they turn into advanced users of the New English.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ijlcr.2.2.04van
2016-10-14
2019-10-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Axelsson, M.W. & Hahn, A
    2001 “The use of the progressive in Swedish and German advanced learner English – A corpus-based study”, ICAME Journal25, 5–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bamgbose, A
    1998 “Torn between the norms: Innovations in world Englishes”, World Englishes17(1), 1–14. doi: 10.1111/1467‑971X.00078
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00078 [Google Scholar]
  3. Biber, D. , Johansson, S. , Leech, G. , Conrad, S. & Finegan, E
    1999Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bybee, J
    2010Language, Usage and Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511750526
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511750526 [Google Scholar]
  5. Croft, W
    2000Explaining Language Change: An Evolutionary Approach. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 2012Verbs: Aspect and Causal Structure. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199248582.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199248582.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  7. Department of Higher Education and Training
    2014Statistics on Post-School Education and Training in South Africa2012. Pretoria: DHET.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Edwards, A
    2014 “The progressive aspect in the Netherlands and the ESL/EFL continuum”, World Englishes33(2), 173–194. doi: 10.1111/weng.12080
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12080 [Google Scholar]
  9. Edwards, A. & Laporte, S
    2015 “Outer and expanding circle Englishes: The competing roles of norm orientation and proficiency levels”, English World-Wide36(2), 135–169. doi: 10.1075/eww.36.2.01edw
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.36.2.01edw [Google Scholar]
  10. Gilquin, G
    2015 “At the interface of contact linguistics and second language acquisition research: New Englishes and Learner Englishes compared”, English World-Wide36(1), 91–124. doi: 10.1075/eww.36.1.05gil
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.36.1.05gil [Google Scholar]
  11. Gilquin, G. & Granger, S
    2011 “From EFL to ESL: Evidence from the International Corpus of Learner English”. In J. Mukherjee & M. Hundt (Eds.), Exploring Second-language Varieties of English and Learner Englishes: Bridging a Paradigm Gap. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 55–78. doi: 10.1075/scl.44.04gra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.44.04gra [Google Scholar]
  12. Goldberg, A.E
    1995Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Götz, S. & Schilk, M
    2011 “Formulaic sequences in spoken ENL, ESL and EFL: Focus on British English, Indian English and learner English for advanced German learners”. In J. Mukherjee & M. Hundt (Eds.), Exploring Second-language Varieties of English and Learner Englishes: Bridging a Paradigm Gap. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 79–100. doi: 10.1075/scl.44.05sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.44.05sch [Google Scholar]
  14. Gries, S. Th. & Deshors, S.C
    2015 “EFL and/vs. ESL? A multi-level modeling perspective on bridging the paradigm gap”, International Journal of Learner Corpus Research1(1), 130–159. doi: 10.1075/ijlcr.1.1.05gri
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijlcr.1.1.05gri [Google Scholar]
  15. Huddleston, R
    2002 “The verb”. In R. Huddleston & G.K. Pullum (Eds.), The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 72–211.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hundt, M. & Vogel, K
    2011 “Overuse of the progressive in ESL and learner Englishes – fact or fiction?” In J. Mukherjee & M. Hundt (Eds.), Exploring Second-language Varieties of English and Learner Englishes: Bridging a Paradigm Gap. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 145–165. doi: 10.1075/scl.44.08vog
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.44.08vog [Google Scholar]
  17. Kirsner, R.S
    2014Qualitative-Quantitative Analyses of Dutch and Afrikaans Grammar and Lexicon. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sfsl.67
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sfsl.67 [Google Scholar]
  18. Kortmann, B. & Lunkenheimer, K
    (Eds.) 2012The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110280128
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110280128 [Google Scholar]
  19. Kranich, S
    2010The Progressive in Modern English: A corpus-Based Study of Grammaticalization and Related Changes. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kruger, H. & Van Rooy, B
    2016 “Editorial practice and conventionalised innovations in New Englishes: The progressive in Black South African English”. World Englishes. doi: 10.1111/weng.12202.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12202 [Google Scholar]
  21. Laporte, S
    2012 “Mind the gap! Bridge between world Englishes and learner Englishes in the making”, English Text Construction5(2), 264–291. doi: 10.1075/etc.5.2.05lap
    https://doi.org/10.1075/etc.5.2.05lap [Google Scholar]
  22. Lunkenheimer, K
    2012 “Typological profile: L2 varieties.” In B. Kortmann & K. Lunkenheimer (Eds.), The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 844–873. doi: 10.1515/9783110280128
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110280128 [Google Scholar]
  23. Mair, C
    2006Twentieth-Century English: History, Variation, and Standardization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511486951
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486951 [Google Scholar]
  24. Meierkord, C
    2007 “Standards and norms in interactions across second language Englishes: The case of South Africa.” In S. Kolk-Birke & J. Lippert (Eds.), Anglistentag 2006 Proceedings. Trier: Wissenschaftliche Verlag Trier, 331–340.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 2012Interactions Across Englishes: Linguistic Choices in Local and International Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139026703
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139026703 [Google Scholar]
  26. Mesthrie, R
    2012 “Black South African English”. In B. Kortmann & K. Lunkenheimer (Eds.), The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 493–500. doi: 10.1515/9783110280128
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110280128 [Google Scholar]
  27. Mesthrie, R. & Bhatt, R.M
    2008World Englishes: The Study of New Linguistic Varieties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511791321
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511791321 [Google Scholar]
  28. Minow, V
    2010Variation in the Grammar of Black South African English. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Nesselhauf, N
    2009 “Co-selection phenomena across New Englishes: Parallels (and differences) to foreign learner varieties”, English World-Wide30(1), 1–26. doi: 10.1075/eww.30.1.02nes
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.30.1.02nes [Google Scholar]
  30. Paulasto, H
    2014 “Extended uses of the progressive form in L1 and L2 Englishes”, English World-Wide35(3), 247–276. doi: 10.1075/eww.35.3.01pau
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.35.3.01pau [Google Scholar]
  31. Piotrowska, C.M
    2015A Diachronic Analysis of the Progressive Aspect in Black South African English. Unpublished M.A. dissertation. North-West University.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Pretorius, E.J. & Mampuru, D.M
    2007 “Playing football without a ball: Language, reading and academic performance in a high-poverty school”, Journal of Research in Reading30(1), 38–58. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9817.2006.00333.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2006.00333.x [Google Scholar]
  33. Pretorius, R.S
    1997Auxiliary Verbs as Subcategory of the Verb in Tswana. Unpublished PhD thesis. Potchefstroom University.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ranta, E
    2006 “The ‘attractive’ progressive - Why use the -ing form in English as a Lingua Franca?”, Nordic Journal of English Studies5(2), 95–116.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Schneider, E
    2007Post-Colonial Englishes: Varieties Around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511618901
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618901 [Google Scholar]
  36. 2012 “Exploring the interface between world Englishes and second language acquisition – and implications for English as a lingua franca”, Journal of English as a Lingua Franca1(1), 57–91. doi: 10.1515/jelf‑2012‑0004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jelf-2012-0004 [Google Scholar]
  37. Scott, M
    2015Wordsmith Tools 6. Liverpool: Lexical Analysis Software.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Sharma, D
    2009 “Typological diversity in new Englishes”, English World-Wide30(2), 170–195. doi: 10.1075/eww.30.2.04sha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.30.2.04sha [Google Scholar]
  39. Siebers, L
    2013Morphosyntax in Black South African English: A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Xhosa English. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Van Rooy, B
    2006 “The extension of the progressive aspect in Black South African English”, World Englishes25(1), 37–64. doi: 10.1111/j.0083‑2919.2006.00446.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0083-2919.2006.00446.x [Google Scholar]
  41. 2014 “Progressive aspect and stative verbs in Outer Circle Varieties”, World Englishes33(2), 157–172. doi: 10.1111/weng.12079
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12079 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ijlcr.2.2.04van
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error