1887
Volume 6, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2215-1478
  • E-ISSN: 2215-1486
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This paper analyzes the use of as an adjective amplifier by native speakers and advanced learners of English with diverse language backgrounds based on the (ICLE) and the (LOCNESS). The study applies (MuPDARF) to find differences between native speakers and advanced learners and evaluates which factors contribute to learners’ non-target-like use of . The analysis finds language background and adjective-specific differences in the use of between learners and native speakers. It shows that collocational preferences of specific adjective types are the most important factor, which is interpreted to show that differences between native speakers and learners are predominantly dependent upon the collocational profiles of individual adjective types. This finding supports approaches that focus on teaching collocations and contextualizing word use.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ijlcr.20011.sch
2020-12-10
2021-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Baayen, R. H.
    (2008) Analyzing inguistic Ddata. A ractical Iintroduction to statistics using R. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511801686
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511801686 [Google Scholar]
  2. Baumeister, R. F. , Bratslavsky, E. , Finkenauer, C. , & Vohs, K. D.
    (2001) Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology, 5(4), 323–370. 10.1037/1089‑2680.5.4.323
    https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.5.4.323 [Google Scholar]
  3. Biber, D. , Johansson, S. , Leech, G. , Conrad, S. , & Finegan, E.
    (2007) Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bolinger, D.
    (1972) Degree words. The Hague: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110877786
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110877786 [Google Scholar]
  5. Boucher, J. , & Osgood, C. E.
    (1969) The Pollyanna Hypothesis. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior, 8, 1–8. 10.1016/S0022‑5371(69)80002‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(69)80002-2 [Google Scholar]
  6. The British National Corpus, version 3 (BNC XML Edition)
    The British National Corpus, version 3 (BNC XML Edition) (2007) Distributed by Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford, on behalf of the BNC Consortium. Retrieved fromwww.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/ (accessedMay 2020).
  7. Bybee, J.
    (2003) Phonology and language use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. D’Arcy, A. F.
    (2015) Stability, stasis and change – the longue durée of intensification. Diachronica, 32(4), 449–493. 10.1075/dia.32.4.01dar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.32.4.01dar [Google Scholar]
  9. Dixon, R. M. W.
    (1977) Where have all the adjectives gone?Studies in Language, 1, 19–80. 10.1075/sl.1.1.04dix
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.1.1.04dix [Google Scholar]
  10. (2004) Adjective classes in typological perspective. In R. M. W. Dixon & A. Y. Aikhenvald (Eds.), Adjective classes. A cross-linguistic typology (pp.1–49). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Edmonds, A. , & Gudmestad, A.
    (2014) Your participation Is greatly/highly appreciated: Amplifier collocations in L2 English. The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, 70(1), 76–102. 10.3138/cmlr.1704
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.1704 [Google Scholar]
  12. Ellis, N. C.
    (2002) Frequency effects in language processing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24(2), 143–188. 10.1017/S0272263102002024
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263102002024 [Google Scholar]
  13. Fallas Escobar, C. , & Chaves Fernández, L.
    (2017) EFL learners’ development of voice in academic writing: Lexical bundles, boosters/hedges and stance-taking strategies. Education and Learning Research Journal, 15, 96–124.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Field, A. , Miles, J. , & Field, Z.
    (2012) Discovering statistics using R. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Forsberg, F.
    (2010) Using conventional sequences in L2 French. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 48(1), 25–51. 10.1515/iral.2010.002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.2010.002 [Google Scholar]
  16. Gass, S. M. , & Mackey, A.
    (2002) Frequency effects and second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24(2), 249–260. 10.1017/S0272263102002097
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263102002097 [Google Scholar]
  17. Granger, S.
    (1993) The International Corpus of Learner English. In J. Aarts , P. de Haan , & N. Oostdijk (Eds.), English language corpora: Design, analysis and exploitation (pp.57–69). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. (1998a) Prefabricated patterns in advanced EFL writing: Collocations and formulae. In A. P. Cowie (Ed.), Phraseology: Theory, analysis, and applications (pp.145–160). Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. (1998b) The computer learner corpus: A versatile new source of data for SLA research. In S. Granger , (Ed.), Learner English on computer (pp.3–18). London: Addison Wesley Longman
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Granger, S. , Dagneaux, E. , & Meunier, F.
    (2002) The International Corpus of Learner English [Handbook + CD]. Louvain-la-Neuve: Presses Universitaires de Louvain.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gries, S. Th.
    (2018) On over- and underuse in learner corpus research and multifactoriality in corpus linguistics more generally. Journal of Second Language Studies, 1(2), 277–309. 10.1075/jsls.00005.gri
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jsls.00005.gri [Google Scholar]
  22. Gries, S. Th. , & Adelman, A. S.
    (2014) Subject realization in Japanese conversation by native and non-native speakers: exemplifying a new paradigm for learner corpus research. In J. Romero-Trillo (Ed.), Yearbook of corpus linguistics and pragmatics 2014: New empirical and theoretical paradigms (pp.35–54). Cham: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Gries, S. Th. , & Deshors, S. C.
    (2014) Using regressions to explore deviations between corpus data and a standard/target: two suggestions. Corpora, 9(1), 109–136. 10.3366/cor.2014.0053
    https://doi.org/10.3366/cor.2014.0053 [Google Scholar]
  24. Heller, B. , Bernaisch, T. , & Gries, S. Th.
    (2017) Empirical perspectives on two potential epicenters: The genitive alternation in Asian Englishes. ICAME Journal, 41, 111–144. 10.1515/icame‑2017‑0005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/icame-2017-0005 [Google Scholar]
  25. Hendrikx, I. , Van Goethem, K. , & Wulff, S.
    (2019) Intensifying constructions in French speaking L2 learners of English and Dutch. Cross-linguistic influence and exposure effects. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research, 5(1), 63–103. 10.1075/ijlcr.18002.hen
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijlcr.18002.hen [Google Scholar]
  26. Hinkel, E.
    (2003) Adverbial markers and tone in L1 and L2 students’ writing. Journal of Pragmatics, 35(7), 1049–1068. 10.1016/S0378‑2166(02)00133‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(02)00133-9 [Google Scholar]
  27. Hornik, K.
    (2016) openNLP: Apache OpenNLP Tools Interface (Version 0.2-6). Retrieved fromhttps://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/openNLP/openNLP.pdf (accessedJanuary 2020).
  28. Hyland, K.
    (2005) Stance and engagement: A model of interaction in academic discourse. Discourse Studies, 7(2), 173–192. 10.1177/1461445605050365
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445605050365 [Google Scholar]
  29. Ito, R. , & Tagliamonte, S.
    (2003) Well weird, right dodgy, very strange, really cool: Layering and recycling in English intensifiers. Language in Society, 32, 257–279. 10.1017/S0047404503322055
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404503322055 [Google Scholar]
  30. Jockers, M.
    (2017) syuzhet: Extracts Sentiment and Sentiment-Derived Plot Arcs from Text. (Version 1.0.1). Retrieved fromhttps://github.com/mjockers/syuzhet (accessedJanuary 2020).
  31. Kennedy, G.
    (2003) Amplifier collocations in the British National Corpus: Implications for English language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 37(3), 467–487. 10.2307/3588400
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588400 [Google Scholar]
  32. Labov, W.
    (1985) Intensity. In D. Schiffrin (Ed.), Meaning, form and use in context: Linguistic applications (pp.43–70). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Lorenz, G. R.
    (1998) Overstatement in advanced learners’ writing: Stylistic aspects of adjective intensification. In S. Granger (Ed.), Learner English on computer (pp.53–66). London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. (1999) Adjective intensification – Learners versus native speakers: A corpus study of argumentative writing. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. (2002) Really worthwhile or not really significant: A corpus-based approach to the delexicalisation and grammaticalisation of dverbial intensifiers in Modern English. In I. Wischer & G. Diewald (Eds.), New reflections on grammaticalization (pp.143–161). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.49.11lor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.49.11lor [Google Scholar]
  36. Mohammad, S. M. , & Turney, P. D.
    (2013) Crowd sourcing a word-emotion association lexicon. Computational Intelligence, 29(3), 436–465. 10.1111/j.1467‑8640.2012.00460.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8640.2012.00460.x [Google Scholar]
  37. Nesselhauf, N.
    (2003) The use of collocations by advanced learners of English and some implications for teaching. Applied Linguistics, 24(2), 223–242. 10.1093/applin/24.2.223
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/24.2.223 [Google Scholar]
  38. Paradis, C.
    (1997) Degree modifiers of adjectives in spoken British English. Lund: Lund University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. (2001) Adjectives and boundedness. Cognitive Linguistics, 12(1), 47–65. 10.1515/cogl.12.1.47
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.12.1.47 [Google Scholar]
  40. Partington, A.
    (1993) Corpus evidence of language change: The case of intensifiers. In M. Baker , G. Francis , & E. Tognini-Bonelli (Eds.), Text and technology: In honour of John Sinclair (pp.177–192). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.64.12par
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.64.12par [Google Scholar]
  41. Pérez-Paredes, P. , & Díez-Bedmar, M. B.
    (2012) The use of intensifying adverbs in learner writing. In Y. Tono , Y. Kawaguchi , & M. Minegishi (Eds.), Developmental and crossslinguistic erspectives in learner corpus research (pp.105–124). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tufs.4.11per
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tufs.4.11per [Google Scholar]
  42. Peters, H.
    (1992) English boosters: Some synchronic and diachronic aspects. In G. Kellermann & M. D. Morrissey (Eds.), Diachrony within synchrony: Language history and cognition (pp.529–545). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Philip, G.
    (2008) Adverb use in EFL student writing: From learner dictionary to text production. In E. Bernal & J. DeCesaris (Eds.), Proceedings of the XIII EURALEX International Congress (Barcelona, 15–19 July 2008) (pp.1301–1310). Barcelona: Institut Universitari de Lingüística aplicada Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Quirk, R. , Greenbaum, S. , Leech, G. , & Svartvik, J.
    (1985) A comprehensive grammar of the English language. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. R Core Team
    R Core Team (2019) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Retrieved fromwww.R-project.org (accessedJanuary 2019).
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Saffran, J. R.
    (2003) Statistical language learning: mechanisms and constraints. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(4), 110–114. 10.1111/1467‑8721.01243
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.01243 [Google Scholar]
  47. Saffran, J. R. , Newport, E. L. , Aslin, R. N. , Tunick, R. A. , & Barrueco, S.
    (1997) Incidental language learning: Listening (and learning) out of the corner of your ear. Psychological Science, 8(2), 101–105. 10.1111/j.1467‑9280.1997.tb00690.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1997.tb00690.x [Google Scholar]
  48. Szmrecsanyi, B.
    (2005) Language users as creatures of habit: A corpus-based analysis of persistence in spoken English. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, 1(1), 113–150. 10.1515/cllt.2005.1.1.113
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt.2005.1.1.113 [Google Scholar]
  49. (2006) Morphosyntactic persistence in spoken English: A corpus study at the intersection of variationist sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, and discourse analysis. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110197808
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197808 [Google Scholar]
  50. Tagliamonte, S.
    (2008) So different and pretty cool! Recycling intensifiers in Toronto, Canada. English Language and Linguistics, 12(2), 361–394. 10.1017/S1360674308002669
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002669 [Google Scholar]
  51. Tagliamonte, S. , & Roberts, C.
    (2005) So weird; so cool; so innovative: The use of intensifiers in the television series Friends. American Speech, 80(3), 280–300. 10.1215/00031283‑80‑3‑280
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-80-3-280 [Google Scholar]
  52. Tomasello, M.
    (2009) The usage-based theory of language acquisition. In E. L. Bavin (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Child Language (pp.69–87). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511576164.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576164.005 [Google Scholar]
  53. Tulving, E. , & Schacter, D. L.
    (1990) Priming and human memory systems. Science247(4940), 301–306. 10.1126/science.2296719
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.2296719 [Google Scholar]
  54. Wagner, S.
    (2017)  Totally new and pretty awesome: Amplifier-adjective bigrams in GloWbE. Lingua, 200, 63–83. 10.1016/j.lingua.2017.08.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2017.08.004 [Google Scholar]
  55. Wulff, S. , & Gries, S. Th.
    (2019a) Exploring individual variation in learner corpus research: Some methodological suggestions. In B. S. W. LeBruyn & M. Paquot (Eds.), Learner corpus research and second language acquisition (pp.191–213). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. (2019b) Particle placement in learner language. Language Learning, 69(4), 873–910. 10.1111/lang.12354
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12354 [Google Scholar]
  57. Zuur, A. F. , Ieno, E. N. , & Elphick, C. S.
    (2010) A protocol for data exploration to avoid common statistical problems. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 1(1), 3–14. 10.1111/j.2041‑210X.2009.00001.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2009.00001.x [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ijlcr.20011.sch
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ijlcr.20011.sch
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): adjective amplification; collocation; L1 background; MuPDARF
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error