Volume 3, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2215-1478
  • E-ISSN: 2215-1486
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


Filled pauses may reveal speech planning or execution problems to a greater extent in L2 spontaneous speech than in L1. The purpose of this study was to analyze the forms and position of all filled pauses, and the durations and the formants of vocalic filled pauses in English (L2) and in Hungarian (L1) spontaneous speech produced by 30 young learners with various L2 proficiency levels using data from our learner corpus. The findings showed that the forms of filled pauses were similar in both languages, irrespective of level of language proficiency. Results confirmed significantly longer vocalic filled pauses in basic and intermediate learners in their L2 relative to their more advanced peers. Formant values (as acoustic reflections of vowel quality) indicated very similar articulatory configurations for all vocalic filled pauses, irrespective of language and language proficiency.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Bailey, K. G. B. , & Ferreira, F.
    2003 “Disfluencies influence syntactic parsing”. Journal of Memory and Language49, 183–200. doi: 10.1037/e5371020.12‑383
    https://doi.org/10.1037/e5371020.12-383 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bates, D. M. , Maechler, M. , & Bolker, B.
    2012lme4: Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using S4 Classes. R package version lme4_1.1-12. Available atCRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4 (accessedOctober 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beňuš, S.
    2009 “Variability and stability in collaborative dialogues: turn-taking and filled pauses”. Proceedings of Interspeech 2009, 796–799. Available atdblp2.uni-trier.de/db/conf/interspeech/interspeech2009.html (accessedOctober 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bergmann, Ch. , Sprenger, S. A. , & Schmid, M. S. 2015 “The impact of language co-activation on L1 and L2 speech fluency”. Acta Psychologica161, 25–35. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2015.07.015
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2015.07.015 [Google Scholar]
  5. Boersma, P. , & Weenink, D.
    2012Praat: Doing Phonetics by Computer. Available atwww.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/download_win.html (accessedOctober 2015). doi: 10.1097/aud.0b013e31821473f7
    https://doi.org/10.1097/aud.0b013e31821473f7 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bortfeld, H. , Leon, S. D. , Bloom, J. E. , Schober, M. F. , & Brennan, S. E.
    2001 “Disfluency rates in conversation: Effects of age, relationship, topic, role, and gender”. Language and Speech44, 123–147. doi: 10.1177/00238309010440020101
    https://doi.org/10.1177/00238309010440020101 [Google Scholar]
  7. Brennan, S. E. , & Schober, M. F.
    2001 “How listeners compensate for disfluencies in spontaneous speech”. Journal of Memory and Language44(2), 274–296. doi: 10.1006/jmla.2000.2753
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2000.2753 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bunta, F. , & Major, R. C.
    2004 “An optimality theoretic account of Hungarian ESL learners acquisition of /ɛ/ and /æ/”. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching42(3), 277–298. doi: 10.1515/iral.2004.014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.2004.014 [Google Scholar]
  9. Clark, H. H.
    1994 “Managing problems in speaking”. Speech Communication15(3–4), 243–250. doi: 10.1016/0167‑6393(94)90075‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6393(94)90075-2 [Google Scholar]
  10. Clark, H. H. , & Fox Tree, J. E.
    2002 “Using uh and um in spontaneous speaking”. Cognition84(1), 73–111. doi: 10.1016/s0010‑0277(02)00017‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/s0010-0277(02)00017-3 [Google Scholar]
  11. Christenfeld, N.
    1996 “The effects of a metronome on the filled pauses of fluent speakers”. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research39(6), 1232–1238. doi: 10.1044/jshr.3906.1232
    https://doi.org/10.1044/jshr.3906.1232 [Google Scholar]
  12. Christenfeld, N. , Schachter, S. , & Bilous, F.
    1991 “Filled pauses and gestures: It’s not coincidence”. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research20(1), 1–10. doi: 10.1016/0094‑730x(91)90049‑i
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0094-730x(91)90049-i [Google Scholar]
  13. Christenfeld, N. , & Creager, B.
    1995 “Anxiety, alcohol, aphasia, and ums”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology70(3), 451–460. doi: 10.1037/0022‑3514.70.3.451
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.451 [Google Scholar]
  14. Corley, M. , & Stewart, O. W.
    2008 “Hesitation disfluencies in spontaneous speech: the meaning of um ”. Language and Linguistics Compass2(4), 589–602. doi: 10.1111/j.1749‑818x.2008.00068.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818x.2008.00068.x [Google Scholar]
  15. Derwing, T. M. , Munro, M. J. , Thomson, R. I. , & Rossiter, M. J.
    2009 “The relationship between L1 fluency and L2 fluency development”. Studies in Second Language Acquisition31(4), 533–557. doi: 10.1017/S0272263109990015
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263109990015 [Google Scholar]
  16. Dommelen, W. van
    2007 “Temporal patterns in Norwegian as L2”. In J. Trouvain , & U. Gut (Eds.), Non-Native Prosody. Phonetic Description and Teaching Practice. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 121–145. doi: 10.1515/9783110198751.1.121
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110198751.1.121 [Google Scholar]
  17. Donzel, M. E. van , & Koopmans-van Beinum, F. J.
    1996 “Pausing strategies in discourse in Dutch”, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Spoken Language Processing. Philadelphia, PA: IEEE Press, 1029–1032. doi: 10.1109/ICSLP.1996.607779
    https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSLP.1996.607779 [Google Scholar]
  18. Duez, D.
    2001 “Acoustico-phonetic characteristics of filled pauses in spontaneous French speech: Preliminary results”. Proceedings of Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech (DISS’01), 41–44. Available athttps://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e05b/a83b0ed244cefbdca27e16395b5e659cbf0d.pdf (accessedOctober 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Eklund, R.
    2004Disfluency in Swedish Human – Human and Human – Machine Travel Booking Dialogues. Linköping: Unitryck.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Finlayson, I. R. , & Corley, M.
    2012 “Disfluency in dialogue: An intentional signal from the speaker?”. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review19(5), 921–928. doi: 10.3758/s13423‑012‑0279‑x
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-012-0279-x [Google Scholar]
  21. Flege, J. E.
    1995 “Second language speech learning: Theory, findings, and problems”. In W. Strange (Ed.), Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Issues in Cross-Language Research. Timonium, MD: York Press, 233–277.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ford, M.
    1982 “Sentence planning units: Implications for the speaker’s representation of meaningful relations underlying sentences”. In J. Bresnan (Ed.), The Mental Representation of Grammatical Relations. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 798–827.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Fox Tree, J. E. 2002 “Interpreting pauses and ums at turn exchanges”. Discourse Processes34(1), 37–55. doi: 10.1207/s15326950dp3401_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326950dp3401_2 [Google Scholar]
  24. Fraundorf, S. H. , & Watson, D. G.
    2011 “The disfluent discourse: Effects of filled pauses on recall”. Journal of Memory and Language65(2), 161–175. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2011.03.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2011.03.004 [Google Scholar]
  25. Furman, R. , & Özyürek, A.
    2007 “Development of interactional discourse markers: Insights from Turkish children’s and adults’ oral narratives”. Journal of Pragmatics39(10), 1742–1757. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2007.01.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2007.01.008 [Google Scholar]
  26. Gass, S.
    1996 “Second language acquisition and linguistic theory: the role of language transfer”. In W. Ritchie , & T. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. San Diego: Academic Press, 317–345. doi: 10.1007/978‑94‑009‑2733‑9_21
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2733-9_21 [Google Scholar]
  27. Gayraud, F. , Lee, H-R. , & Barkat-Defradas, M.
    2011 “Syntactic and lexical context of pauses and hesitations in the discourse of Alzheimer patients and healthy elderly subjects”. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics25(3), 198–209. doi: 10.3109/02699206.2010.521612
    https://doi.org/10.3109/02699206.2010.521612 [Google Scholar]
  28. Giannini, A.
    2003 “Hesitation phenomena in spontaneous Italian”. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS), 2653–2656. doi: 10.1080/00437956.1959.11659682
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1959.11659682 [Google Scholar]
  29. Gick, B. , Wilson, I. , Koch, K. , & Cook, C.
    2004 “Language-specific articulatory settings: Evidence from inter-utterance rest position”. Phonetica61(4), 220–233. doi: 10.1159/000084159
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000084159 [Google Scholar]
  30. Gósy, M.
    2004Fonetika, a beszéd tudománya [Phonetics, the science of speech]. Budapest: Osiris Kiadó.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Gósy, M. , & Horváth, V.
    2010 “Changes in articulation accompanying functional changes in word usage”. Journal of the International Phonetic Association40(2), 135–161. doi: 10.1017/s0025100310000058
    https://doi.org/10.1017/s0025100310000058 [Google Scholar]
  32. Gósy, M. , Bóna, J. , Beke, A. , & Horváth, V.
    2013 “A kitöltött szünetek fonetikai sajátosságai az életkor függvényében” [Phonetic characteristics of filled pauses depending on age], Beszédkutatás 2013, 121–123.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Götz, S.
    2013Fluency in Native and Nonnative English Speech. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/scl.53
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.53 [Google Scholar]
  34. Gut, U.
    2007 “Learner corpora in second language prosody research and teaching”. In J. Trouvain , & U. Gut (Eds.), Non-Native Prosody. Phonetic Description and Teaching Practice. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 145–167. doi: 10.1515/9783110198751.1.145
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110198751.1.145 [Google Scholar]
  35. Guillot, M. -N.
    1999Fluency and its Teaching. (Modern Languages in Practice). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. doi: 10.1017/s095926950128017x
    https://doi.org/10.1017/s095926950128017x [Google Scholar]
  36. Hlavac, J.
    2011 “Hesitation and monitoring phenomena in bilingual speech: A consequence of code-switching or a strategy to facilitate its incorporation?”. Journal of Pragmatics43(15), 3793–3806. doi: org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.09.008
    https://doi.org/org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.09.008 [Google Scholar]
  37. Horne, M. , Frid, J. , Lastow, B. , Bruce, G. , & Svensson, A.
    2003 “Hesitation disfluencies in Swedish: Prosodic and segmental correlates”. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS), 2429–2432. doi: 10.1080/00437956.1959.11659682
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1959.11659682 [Google Scholar]
  38. Horváth, V.
    2010 “Filled pauses in Hungarian: their phonetic form and function”. Acta Linguistica Hungarica57(2–3), 288–306. doi: 10.1556/aling.57.2010.2‑3.6
    https://doi.org/10.1556/aling.57.2010.2-3.6 [Google Scholar]
  39. 2014Hezitációs jelenségek a magyar beszédben [Hesitation phenomena in Hungarian speech]. Budapest: ELTE Eötvös Kiadó.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Jong, N. H. de
    2016 “Predicting pauses in L1 and L2 speech: the effects of utterance boundaries and word frequency”. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching54(2), 113–132. doi: 10.1515/iral‑2016‑9993
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2016-9993 [Google Scholar]
  41. Jong, N. H. de , & Bosker, H. R. 2013 “Choosing a threshold for silent pauses to measure second language fluency”. Proceedings of Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech (DiSS 2013), Stockholm, 17–20. Available atwww.hum.uu.nl/medewerkers/n.dejong/DeJong_Bosker_DiSS2013.pdf (accessedOctober 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Jong, N. H. de , Steinel, M. P. , Florijn, A. , Schoonen, R. , & Hulstijn, J. H.
    2013 “Linguistic skills and speaking fluency in a second language”. Applied Psycholinguistics34(5), 893–916. doi: 10.1017/s0142716412000069
    https://doi.org/10.1017/s0142716412000069 [Google Scholar]
  43. Kellerman, E.
    1983 “Now you see it, now you don’t”. In S. M. Gass , & L. Selinker (Eds.), Language Transfer in Language Learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 112–134.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 1995 “Crosslinguistic influence: Transfer to nowhere?”. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics15, 125–150. doi: 10.1017/s0267190500002658
    https://doi.org/10.1017/s0267190500002658 [Google Scholar]
  45. Kenesei, I. , Vago, R. , & Fenyvesi, A.
    2012Hungarian. New York: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9780203192238
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203192238 [Google Scholar]
  46. Kormos, J.
    2006Speech Production and Second Language Acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. doi: 10.4324/9780203763964
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203763964 [Google Scholar]
  47. Laczkó, M.
    2013 “A kitöltött szünet formái és funkciói tizenévesek spontán beszédében” [Forms and functions of filled pauses in teenagers’ spontaneous speech], Magyar Nyelvőr137, 192–208.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Lauttamus, T. , Nerbonne, J. , & Wiersma, W.
    2007 “Detecting syntactic contamination in emigrants. The English of Finnish Australians”. SKY Journal of Linguistics20, 273–307.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Leeuw, E. de
    2007 “Hesitation markers in English, German, and Dutch”. Journal of Germanic Linguistics19(2), 85–114. doi: 10.1017/s1470542707000049
    https://doi.org/10.1017/s1470542707000049 [Google Scholar]
  50. Levelt, W. J. M.
    1989Speaking. From Intention to Articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. doi: 10.5860/choice.27‑1947
    https://doi.org/10.5860/choice.27-1947 [Google Scholar]
  51. Lickley, R. J.
    1994Detecting Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech. Doctoral dissertation. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 2015 “Fluency and disfluency”. In M. Redford (Ed.), The Handbook of Speech Production. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell, 445–469. doi: 10.1002/9781118584156
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118584156 [Google Scholar]
  53. Local, J.
    2004 “Getting back to prior talk: and-uh(m) as a back-connecting device”. In E. Couper-Kuhlen , & C. E. Ford (Eds.), Sound Patterns in Interaction: Cross-Linguistic Studies of Phonetics and Prosody for Conversation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 377–400. doi: 10.1075/tsl.62.18loc
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.62.18loc [Google Scholar]
  54. Maclay, H. , & Osgood, C.
    1959 “Hesitation phenomena in spontaneous English speech”. Word15(1), 19–44. doi: 10.1080/00437956.1959.11659682
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1959.11659682 [Google Scholar]
  55. Mahl, G. F.
    1956 “Disturbances and silences in the patient’s speech in psychotherapy”. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology53(1), 1–15. doi: 10.1037/h0047552
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0047552 [Google Scholar]
  56. Major, R. C.
    2001Foreign Accent. The Ontogeny and Phylogeny of Second Language Phonology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum. doi: 10.4324/9781410604293
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410604293 [Google Scholar]
  57. Merlo, S. , & Barbosa, P. A.
    2010 “Hesitation phenomena: a dynamical perspective”. Cognitive Processing11(3), 251–261. doi: 10.1007/s10339‑009‑0348‑x
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-009-0348-x [Google Scholar]
  58. O’Connell, D. C. , & Kowal, S.
    2005 “ Uh and um revisited: Are they interjections for signaling delay?”. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research34(6), 555–576. doi: 10.1007/s10936‑005‑9164‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-005-9164-3 [Google Scholar]
  59. Pickering, L.
    2011 “Second language speech production”. In S. M. Gass , & A. Mackey (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. London and New York: Routledge, 335–348. doi: 10.4324/9780203808184.ch20
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203808184.ch20 [Google Scholar]
  60. Piske, T. , MacKay, I. R. A. , & Flege, J. E.
    2001 “Factors affecting degree of foreign accent in an L2: a review”. Journal of Phonetics29(2), 191–215. doi: 10.1006/jpho.2001.0134
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.2001.0134 [Google Scholar]
  61. Postma, A. 2000 “Detection of errors during speech production: a review of speech monitoring models”. Cognition77(2), 97–131. doi: 10.1016/s0010‑0277(00)00090‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/s0010-0277(00)00090-1 [Google Scholar]
  62. R Core Team
    R Core Team 2011R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: the R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available atwww.R-project.org/.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Rasier, L. , & Hilligsmann, Ph
    2007 “Prosodic transfer from L1 to L2. Theoretical and methodological issues”. Nouveaux cahiers de linguistique française28, 41–66.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Riazantseva, A.
    2001 “Second language proficiency and pausing: A study of Russian speakers of English”. Studies in Second Language Acquisition23(4), 497–526. doi: 10.1017/s027226310100403x
    https://doi.org/10.1017/s027226310100403x [Google Scholar]
  65. Rieger, C.
    2003 “Disfluencies and hesitation strategies in oral L2 tests”. Proceedings of: Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech DiSS’03), 41–44. Available atwww.isca-speech.org/archive_open/archive_papers/diss_03/dis3_041.pdf (accessedOctober 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Roberts, P. M. , Meltzer, A. , & Wilding, J.
    2009 “Disfluencies in non-stuttering adults across sample lengths and topics”. Journal of Communication Disorders42(6), 414–427. doi: 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2009.06.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2009.06.001 [Google Scholar]
  67. Rose, R. L.
    2013 “Crosslinguistic corpus of hesitation phenomena: A corpus for investigating first and second language speech performance”. Proceedings of Interspeech 2013, 992–996. Available atwww.isca-speech.org/archive/ archive_papers/interspeech_2013/i13_0992.pdf (accessedOctober 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Schachter, S. , Rauscher, F. , Christenfeld, N. , & Tyson Crone, K.
    1994 “The significance of sentence disruptions in the development of grammar. The vocabularies of Academia”. Psychological Science5, 37–41. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9280.1994.tb00611.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1994.tb00611.x [Google Scholar]
  69. Segalowitz, N.
    2010Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency. New York: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9780203851357
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203851357 [Google Scholar]
  70. Shriberg, E.
    1994Preliminaries to a Theory of Speech Disfluencies. PhD dissertation. California: University of California.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 2001 “To ‘errrr’ is human: ecology and acoustics of speech disfluencies”. Journal of the International Phonetics Association31(1), 153–169. doi: 10.1017/s0025100301001128
    https://doi.org/10.1017/s0025100301001128 [Google Scholar]
  72. Simpson, A.
    2006 “Phonetic processes in discourse”. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 284–288. doi: 10.1016/b0‑08‑044854‑2/00585‑x
    https://doi.org/10.1016/b0-08-044854-2/00585-x [Google Scholar]
  73. Siptár, P. , & Törkenczy, M.
    2000The Phonology of Hungarian. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1017/s0952675701004080
    https://doi.org/10.1017/s0952675701004080 [Google Scholar]
  74. Stepanova, S.
    2007 “Some features of filled hesitation pauses in spontaneous Russian”. Proceedings of 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 1325–1328. Available atwww.icphs2007.de/conference/Papers/1261/1261.pdf (accessedOctober 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Stevens, K.
    1999Acoustic Phonetics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. doi: 10.1036/1097‑8542.802380
    https://doi.org/10.1036/1097-8542.802380 [Google Scholar]
  76. Stouten, F. , Duchateau, J. , Martens, J. -P. , & Wambacq, P.
    2006 “Coping with disfluencies in spontaneous speech recognition: Acoustic detection and linguistic context manipulation”. Speech Communication48(11), 1590–1606. doi: 10.1016/j.specom.2006.04.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2006.04.004 [Google Scholar]
  77. Swerts, M.
    1998 “Filled pauses as markers of discourse structure”. Journal of Pragmatics30(4), 485–496. doi: 10.1016/s0378‑2166(98)00014‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-2166(98)00014-9 [Google Scholar]
  78. Trofimovich, P. , & Baker, W.
    2006 “Learning second language suprasegmentals: Effect of L2 experience on prosody and fluency characteristics of L2 speech”. Studies in Second Language Acquisition28(1), 1–30. doi: 10.1017/s0272263106060013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/s0272263106060013 [Google Scholar]
  79. Trouvain, J. , & Möbius, B.
    2014 “Individuelle Ausprägung von Atmungspausen in der Mutter- und in der Fremdsprache als Anzeichen kognitiver Belastung”. Proceedings Elektronische Sprachsignalverarbeitung 2014, 177–184. Available athttps://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8788/6d057c60c15db9c0e5194e83ce116ec9e94a.pdf (accessedOctober 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Trouvain, J. , Fauth, C. , & Möbius, B. 2016 “Breath and non-breath pauses in fluent and disfluent phases of German and French L1 and L2 read speech”. Proceedings of Speech Prosody 2016, 31–35. doi: 10.21437/speechprosody.2016‑7
    https://doi.org/10.21437/speechprosody.2016-7 [Google Scholar]
  81. Urizar, X. , & Samuel, A. G.
    2014 “A corpus-based study of fillers among native Basque speakers and the role of zera ”. Language and Speech57(3), 338–366. doi: 10.1177/0023830913506422
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0023830913506422 [Google Scholar]
  82. Veiga, A. , Candeias, S. , Lopes, C. , & Perdigão, F.
    2011 “Characterization of hesitations using acoustic models”. Proceedings of 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 2054–2057. Available athttps://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/icphs-proceedings/ICPhS2011/OnlineProceedings/RegularSession/Veiga/Veiga.pdf (accessedOctober 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Watanabe, M. , Hirose, K. , Den, Y. , & Minematsu, N.
    2008 “Filled pauses as cues to the complexity of upcoming phrases for native and non-native listeners”. Speech Communication50(2), 81–94. doi: 10.1016/j.specom.2007.06.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2007.06.002 [Google Scholar]
  84. Wiese, R.
    1984 “Language production in foreign and native languages: Same or different?” In H. Dechert , D. Möhle , & M. Raupach (Eds.), Second Language Productions, Tübingen, Germany: Narr, 11–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Wu, Ch.
    2008 “Filled pauses in L2 Chinese: A comparison of native and non-native speakers”. In M. K. M. Chan , & H. Kang (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-20). Vol.1. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University, 213–227. Available athttps://naccl.osu.edu/sites/naccl.osu.edu/files/09_wu-ch.pdf (accessedOctober 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Zhao, Y. , & Jurafsky, D.
    2005 “A preliminary study of Mandarin filled pauses”. Proceedings of Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech (Diss’05), 179–182. Available athttps://web.stanford.edu/~jurafsky/diss05.pdf (accessedOctober 2015).
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): acoustics of vocalic filled pauses; duration; HunEng-D corpus; proficiency level
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error