1887
Volume 7, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2214-3157
  • E-ISSN: 2214-3165
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The argumentative and variable nature of (im)politeness evaluations and perceptions has long been discussed by scholars working in the field. The variability found in the perception of (im)politeness norms is arguably one of the most important and fundamental components of (im)politeness research. By using a three-stage analysis and drawing on several authentic examples from Persian, the present study uses the notion of ‘heterogeneous distribution of cultural conceptualizations’ to account for instances where differences arise in the conceptualization of (im)politeness in Persian interactions. It will be argued that evaluations of (im)polite behavior vary according to people’s level of internalization of the cultural conceptualizations. Furthermore, this study will also address some of the most significant social and cultural factors that cause variability in people’s evaluations of what is impolite and why it is so.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ijolc.00028.tay
2020-07-08
2020-08-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Asdjodi, M.
    (2001) A comparison between Ta’arof in Persian and Limao in Chinese. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 148, 71–92.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Assadi, R.
    (1980) Deference: Persian style. Anthropological Linguistics, 22, 221–224.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beeman, W.
    (1986) Language, status and power in Iran. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Blitvich, P. G. C.
    (2010) A genre approach to the study of im-politeness. International Review of Pragmatics, 2(1), 46–94. 10.1163/187731010X491747
    https://doi.org/10.1163/187731010X491747 [Google Scholar]
  5. Blitvich, G. P., Patricia, B., & Nuria, L.
    (2013) Identity and impoliteness: The expert in the talent show idol. Journal of Politeness Research, 9(1), 97–121.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bousfield, D.
    (2008) Impoliteness in interaction. Philadelphia, Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.167
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.167 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bousfield, D., & Locher, M.
    (Eds.) (2008) Impoliteness in language: Studies on its interplay with power in theory and practice. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Culpeper, J.
    (1996) Towards an anatomy of impoliteness. Journal of Pragmatics, 25, 349–367. 10.1016/0378‑2166(95)00014‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(95)00014-3 [Google Scholar]
  9. (2005) Impoliteness and entertainment in the television quiz show: The weakest link. Journal of Politeness Research: Language, Behaviour, Culture, 1, 35–72. 10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.35
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.35 [Google Scholar]
  10. (2008) Reflections on impoliteness, relational work and power. InD. Bousfield, & M. Locher (Eds.), Impoliteness in language: Studies on its interplay with power in theory and practice (pp.17–44). Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. (2011) Impoliteness: Using language to cause offence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511975752
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511975752 [Google Scholar]
  12. (2012) (Im)politeness: Three issues. Journal of Pragmatics, 44, 1128–1133. 10.1016/j.pragma.2012.05.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2012.05.011 [Google Scholar]
  13. Culpeper, J., Bousfield, D., & Wichmann, A.
    (2003) Impoliteness revisited: With special reference to dynamic and prosodic aspects. Journal of Pragmatics, 35, 1545–1579. 10.1016/S0378‑2166(02)00118‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(02)00118-2 [Google Scholar]
  14. Culpeper, J., Marti, L., Mei, M., Nevala, M., & Schauer, G.
    (2010) Cross-cultural variation in the perception of impoliteness: A study of impoliteness events reported by students in England, China, Finland, Germany, and Turkey. Intercultural Pragmatics, 7(4), 597–624. 10.1515/iprg.2010.027
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iprg.2010.027 [Google Scholar]
  15. Eelen, G.
    (2001) A critique of politeness theories. Manchester, UK: St. Jerome.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Escandell-Vidal, M. V.
    (1998) Politeness: A relevant issue for relevance theory. Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses, 11, 45–57. 10.14198/raei.1998.11.05
    https://doi.org/10.14198/raei.1998.11.05 [Google Scholar]
  17. Frank, R. M.
    (2008) The language-organism-species analogy: A complex adaptive systems approach to shifting perspectives on ‘language.’ InR. M. Frank, R. Dirven, T. Ziemke, & E. Bernárdez (Eds.), Body, language and mind: Vol. 2. Sociocultural situatedness (pp.215–262). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. (2015) A future agenda for research on language and culture. InF. Sharifian (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of language and culture (pp.493–512). London and New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Fukushima, S., & Haugh, M.
    (2014) The role of emic understandings in theorizing im/politeness: The metapragmatics of attentiveness, empathy and anticipatory inference in Japanese and Chinese. Journal of Pragmatics, 74, 165–179. 10.1016/j.pragma.2014.08.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2014.08.004 [Google Scholar]
  20. Garfinkel, H.
    (1967) Studies of the routine grounds of everyday activities. Social Problems, 11(3), 225–250. 10.2307/798722
    https://doi.org/10.2307/798722 [Google Scholar]
  21. Haugh, M.
    (2008) Intention in pragmatics. Intercultural Pragmatics, 5(2), 99–110. 10.1515/IP.2008.006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/IP.2008.006 [Google Scholar]
  22. (2009) Face and interaction. InF. Bargiela-Chiappini, & M. Haugh (Eds.), Face, communication and social interaction (pp.1–30). London: Equinox.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. (2010) When is an email really offensive? Argumentativity and variability in evaluations of impoliteness. Journal of Politeness Research, 6, 7–31. 10.1515/jplr.2010.002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jplr.2010.002 [Google Scholar]
  24. (2013) Im/politeness, social practice and the participation order. Journal of Pragmatics, 58, 52–72. 10.1016/j.pragma.2013.07.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2013.07.003 [Google Scholar]
  25. Haugh, M., & Kádár, D. Z.
    (2017) Intercultural (im)politeness. InJ. Culpeper, M. Haugh, & D. Kádár (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of linguistic (im)politeness (pp.601–631). London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/978‑1‑137‑37508‑7_23
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-37508-7_23 [Google Scholar]
  26. He, Y.
    (2012) Different generations, different face? A discursive approach to naturally occurring compliment responses in Chinese. Journal of Politeness Research, 8, 29–51. 10.1515/pr‑2012‑0003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/pr-2012-0003 [Google Scholar]
  27. Hillman, M.
    (1981) Language and social distinctions in Iran. InM. Bonine, & N. Keddie (Eds.), Modern Iran: The dialects of continuity and change (pp.327–340). Albany: State University of New York Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Hodge, C.
    (1957) Some aspects of Persian style. Language, 33, 355–369. 10.2307/411158
    https://doi.org/10.2307/411158 [Google Scholar]
  29. Koutlaki, S. A.
    (2002) Offers and expressions of thanks as face enhancing acts: Tæ’arof in Persian. Journal of Pragmatics, 34, 1733–1756. 10.1016/S0378‑2166(01)00055‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(01)00055-8 [Google Scholar]
  30. Kádár, D. Z.
    (2013) Relational rituals and communication: Ritual interaction in groups. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230393059
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230393059 [Google Scholar]
  31. (2017) Politeness, impoliteness and ritual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781107280465
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781107280465 [Google Scholar]
  32. Kádár, D. Z., & Bargiela-Chiappini, F.
    (2010) Introduction: Politeness research in and across cultures. InF. Bargiela-Chiappini, & D. Z. Kádár (Eds.), Politeness across cultures (pp.1–15). Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmilan. 10.1057/9780230305939.0005
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230305939.0005 [Google Scholar]
  33. Kádár, D. Z., & Haugh, M.
    (2013) Understanding politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139382717
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139382717 [Google Scholar]
  34. Kádár, D. Z., & Mills, S.
    (2011) Politeness in East Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511977886
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511977886 [Google Scholar]
  35. Kádár, D. Z., Parvaresh, V., & Ning, P.
    (2019) Morality, moral order, and language conflict and aggression: A position paper. Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 7(1), 6-31. 10.1075/jlac.00017.kad
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00017.kad [Google Scholar]
  36. Kienpointner, M.
    (1997) Varieties of rudeness: Types and functions of impolite utterances. Functions of Language, 4(2), 251–287. 10.1075/fol.4.2.05kie
    https://doi.org/10.1075/fol.4.2.05kie [Google Scholar]
  37. Koutlaki, S. A.
    (2002) Offers and expressions of thanks as face enhancing acts: Tæ’arof in Persian. Journal of Pragmatics, 34, 1733–1756. 10.1016/S0378‑2166(01)00055‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(01)00055-8 [Google Scholar]
  38. Locher, M. A.
    (2006) Polite behaviour within relational work: The discursive approach to politeness. Multilingua, 25(3), 249–267. 10.1515/MULTI.2006.015
    https://doi.org/10.1515/MULTI.2006.015 [Google Scholar]
  39. Locher, M. A., & Watts, R. J.
    (2005) Politeness theory and relational work. Journal of Politeness Research, 1, 9–33. 10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.9
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.9 [Google Scholar]
  40. Locher, M. A., & Watts, R.
    (2008) Relational work and impoliteness: Negotiating norms of linguistic behaviour. InD. Bousfield & M. A. Locher (Eds.), Impoliteness in language: Studies on its interplay with power in theory and practice (pp.77–99). Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Mills, S.
    (2003) Gender and politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511615238
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615238 [Google Scholar]
  42. (2009) Politeness and culture. Journal of Pragmatics, 41, 1047–1060. 10.1016/j.pragma.2008.10.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2008.10.014 [Google Scholar]
  43. Mills, S., & Kádár, D. Z.
    (2011) Politeness and culture. InD. Z. Kádár, & S. Mills (Eds.), Politeness in East Asia (pp.21–44). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511977886.004
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511977886.004 [Google Scholar]
  44. Parvaresh, V.
    (2019) Moral impoliteness. Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 7(1), 79-104. 10.1075/jlac.00020.par
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00020.par [Google Scholar]
  45. Parvaresh, V., & Tayebi, T.
    (2014) Vaguely speaking in Persian. Discourse Processes, 51(7), 565–600. 10.1080/0163853X.2013.874545
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0163853X.2013.874545 [Google Scholar]
  46. (2018) Impoliteness, aggression and the moral order. Journal of Pragmatics, 132, 91-107. 10.1016/j.pragma.2018.05.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.05.010 [Google Scholar]
  47. Sarangi, S.
    (1994) Intercultural or not? Beyond celebration of cultural differences in communication analysts. Pragmatics, 4(3), 409–427. 10.1075/prag.4.3.05sar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.4.3.05sar [Google Scholar]
  48. Schegloff, E.
    (2007) Sequence organization in interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511791208
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511791208 [Google Scholar]
  49. Sharifian, F.
    (2011) Cultural conceptualisations and language: Theoretical framework and applications. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/clscc.1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/clscc.1 [Google Scholar]
  50. (2017) Cultural linguistics. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/clscc.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/clscc.8 [Google Scholar]
  51. Sharifian, F., & Tayebi, T.
    (2017a) Cultural linguistics and impoliteness: A case study from Persian. Pragmatics and Society, 8(2) 231–253.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. (2017b) Perceptions of impoliteness from a cultural linguistics perspective. InF. Sharifian (Ed.), Advances in Cultural linguistics (pp.389–409). Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑10‑4056‑6_18
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4056-6_18 [Google Scholar]
  53. Spencer-Oatey, H.
    (2005) (Im)politeness, face and perceptions of rapport: Unpackaging their bases and interrelationships. Journal of Politeness Research, 1(1), 95–120. 10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.95
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.95 [Google Scholar]
  54. (2008) Culturally speaking: Managing rapport through talk across cultures. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Spencer-Oatey, H., & Franklin, P.
    (2009) Intercultural interaction: A multidisciplinary approach to intercultural communication. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230244511
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230244511 [Google Scholar]
  56. Sperber, D., & Wilson, D.
    (1986) Relevance: Communication and cognition (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Stewart, J. R., Gapenne, O., & Di Paolo, E. A.
    (Eds.) (2011) Enactivism: Towards a new paradigm in cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Tayebi, T.
    (2016) Why do people take offence? Exploring the underlying expectations. Journal of Pragmatics, 101, 1–7. 10.1016/j.pragma.2016.05.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2016.05.006 [Google Scholar]
  59. (2018) Implying an impolite belief: The case of tikkeh in Persian. Intercultural Pragmatics. 15(1), 89–113. 10.1515/ip‑2017‑0031
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ip-2017-0031 [Google Scholar]
  60. Tayebi, T., & Parvaresh, V.
    (2014) Conversational disclaimers in Persian. Journal of Pragmatics, 62, 77–93. 10.1016/j.pragma.2013.09.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2013.09.011 [Google Scholar]
  61. Terkourafi, M.
    (2001) Politeness in Cypriot Greek: A frame-based approach. (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). University of Cambridge: Cambridge.
  62. Tyler, V. L., Taylor, J. S., Woolstenhulme, S. L., & Wilkins, E. J.
    (1978) Reading between the lines. Provo, Utah: Eyring Research Institute.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Watts, R.
    (2003) Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511615184
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615184 [Google Scholar]
  64. (2008) Rudeness, conceptual blending theory and relational work. Journal of Politeness Research: Language, Behaviour, Culture, 4(2), 289–317. 10.1515/JPLR.2008.014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/JPLR.2008.014 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ijolc.00028.tay
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ijolc.00028.tay
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): cognition , cultural conceptualizations , impoliteness , Persian and politeness
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error