1887
image of The heart became hot
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This paper provides a comparative study of the conceptualization of ANGER in Dagbani and Dangme, classified as Mabia and Kwa languages respectively. We employ the Conceptual Metaphor Theory as an analytical tool for explaining the empirical facts on the conceptualization of anger in these languages. We show that the mental concepts of the Dangme and the Dagbani people reflect in their conceptualizations of ANGER. We demonstrate that although the two languages deploy varied body organs (especially the heart and stomach), to express anger, Dagbani tends to focus more on the use of the heart, the lungs and the chest to express anger, whereas Dangme uses the heart, stomach and the body or self. The two languages share a common conceptual metaphor of anger as ‘heat’ with other schematic nodes, such as ‘fire’, ‘fluid’ and ‘container’. We finally establish that although most of the expressions of anger in these two languages fit into cross-linguistic patterns, there are also salient cultural specifics that demonstrate how their physiological and experiential realities tend to play an important role in their conception of anger. Data for this study were collected from native speakers of these languages through spontaneous conversations as well as from literary works produced in the two languages under investigation.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ijolc.00059.iss
2024-04-02
2024-04-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abubakari, K.
    (2018) Segment deletion as a morpho-phonological process in Dagbani compound word formation. Journal of West African Languages(), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ablorh-Odjidja, J., Tetteh, N., Apronti, E., Accam, T., Puplampu, E., & Atrokpa I, B.
    (1990) Dangme ngmami bɔ. (The Writing of Dangme). Revised Edition. Accra: Bureau of Ghana Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Adabah, J.
    (2007) Ninyɛgu (Creative writing/Apongma). University of Education, Winneba. Department of Ga-Dangme Education. (Unpublished).
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Adam, P.
    (2010) Dagbaŋ Nam Piligu [The history of Chieftaincy in Dagbaŋ]. University of Education, Winneba. Department of Gur-Gonja Education. (Unpublished).
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Agyekum, K.
    (2015) Metaphor of anger in Akan. International Journal of Language and Culture(), –. 10.1075/ijolc.2.1.04agy
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijolc.2.1.04agy [Google Scholar]
  6. Akkök, A. E.
    (2017) Turkish metaphors of anger. Ankara Üniversitesi, Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi(), –. 10.1501/Dtcfder_0000001516
    https://doi.org/10.1501/Dtcfder_0000001516 [Google Scholar]
  7. Ansah, G. N.
    (2013) Culture in embodiment: Evidence from conceptual metaphors/metonymies of anger in Akan and English. Compendium of cognitive linguistics research, –.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Alhassan, Y.N.
    (2022) Ti daa bi bang [We did not know]. University of Education, Winneba. Department of Gur-Gonja Education. (Unpublished).
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ansah, G. N.
    (2011) The cultural basis of conceptual metaphors: The case of emotions in Akan and English. Ineds.K. Kaufhold, S. McCulloch, and A. Tominc, Papers from the Lancaster University Postgraduate Conference in Linguistics & Language Teaching 2010, pp.–. Lancaster University.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bible Society of Ghana
    Bible Society of Ghana (2018) Bible in Dangme. Retrieved fromhttps://www.bible.com/bible/2265/GEN.1.DANGMEon30/07/2021.
  11. Bisilki, A. K., & Yakpo, K.
    (2021) ‘The heart has caught me’: Anger metaphors in Likpakpaln (Konkomba). Sociolinguistic Studies(), –. 10.1558/sols.42338
    https://doi.org/10.1558/sols.42338 [Google Scholar]
  12. Charway, M.
    (2017) Asɛɛwe (Creative writing/Apongma). University of Education, Winneba. Department of Ga-Dangme Education. (Unpublished).
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dzokoto, V. A. & Okazaki, S.
    (2006) Happiness in the eye and the heart: somatic referencing in West African emotion lexica. Journal of Black Psychology(), –. 10.1177/0095798406286799
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0095798406286799 [Google Scholar]
  14. Esenova, O.
    (2011) Metaphorical conceptualization of anger, fear and sadness in English (Doctoral dissertation, Eötvös Loránd University).
  15. Foolen, A.
    (1997) The expressive function of language: Towards a cognitive semantic approach. Ineds.S. Niemeier and R. Dirven, The language of emotions: conceptualization, expression, and theoretical foundation, pp.–. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.85.04foo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.85.04foo [Google Scholar]
  16. Ghana Statistical Service
    Ghana Statistical Service (2012) 2010 population and housing census, district analytical report. Accra: Ghana Statistical Service.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hansford, G.
    (2005) My eyes are red: Body metaphor in Chumburung. Journal of West African Languages.–(), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Ikegami, Y.
    (2008) The heart: What it means to the Japanese speakers. Ineds.F. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu, and S. Niemeier, Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages, pp.–. Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110199109.3.169
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199109.3.169 [Google Scholar]
  19. King, B.
    (1989) The conceptual structure of emotional experience in Chinese. Ph.D. thesis. Ohio State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kövecses, Z.
    (2020) An extended view of conceptual metaphor theory. Review of Cognitive Liguistics(), –. 10.1075/rcl.00053.kov
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rcl.00053.kov [Google Scholar]
  21. (2015) The “container” metaphor of anger in English, Chinese, Japanese and Hung arian”. Ined.Z. Radman, From a Metaphorical point of view: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Cognitive Content of Metaphor, pp.–. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110867831‑008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110867831-008 [Google Scholar]
  22. (2014) Conceptualising emotions. A revised cognitive linguistic perspective. Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics(), –. 10.1515/psicl‑2014‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/psicl-2014-0002 [Google Scholar]
  23. (2010) Metaphor, A practical introduction. (2nd ed.)New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (2008) Metaphor and emotion. Ined.R. W. Gibbs, Jr., The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought, pp.–. New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511816802.023
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816802.023 [Google Scholar]
  25. (2005) Metaphor in culture: Universality and variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511614408
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614408 [Google Scholar]
  26. (2002) Folk and expert theories of emotion and the disappearance of psychology. Theoria et Historia Scientiarum(), –. 10.12775/ths.2002.014
    https://doi.org/10.12775/ths.2002.014 [Google Scholar]
  27. (2000a) The concept of anger: Universal or culture-specific?Psychopathology(), –. 10.1159/000029139
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000029139 [Google Scholar]
  28. (2000b) Metaphor and emotion: Language, culture, and body in human feeling. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. (1991) “Happiness: A definitional effort”. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity(), –. 10.1207/s15327868ms0601_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327868ms0601_2 [Google Scholar]
  30. (1990) Emotion concepts. Berlin and New York: Springer-Verlag. 10.1007/978‑1‑4612‑3312‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3312-1 [Google Scholar]
  31. Kövecses, Z., Arika, A. E., Blanco-Carrion, O., Nucz, E., Szabó, R. & Szelíd, V.
    (2015) Anger metaphors across languages. A cognitive linguistic perspective. Ineds.R. Heredia and A. Cieslicka, Bilingual figurative language processing, pp.–. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139342100.017
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139342100.017 [Google Scholar]
  32. Lakoff, G.
    (1993) How metaphor structures dreams: The theory of conceptual metaphor applied to dream analysis. Dreaming(), . 10.1037/h0094373
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0094373 [Google Scholar]
  33. (1987) Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  34. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M.
    (1987) The metaphorical logic of rape. Metaphor and Symbol(), –. 10.1207/s15327868ms0201_5
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327868ms0201_5 [Google Scholar]
  35. (1999) Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. New York: Basic books.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. (1980) Metaphors we live by. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Lakoff, G., & Kövecses, Z.
    (1987) The cognitive model of anger inherent in American English. Ineds.D. Holland and N. Quinn, Cultural models in language and thought, pp.–. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511607660.009
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511607660.009 [Google Scholar]
  38. Maalej, Z.
    (2004) Figurative language in anger expressions in Tunisian Arabic: An extended view of embodiment. Metaphor and Symbol(), –. 10.1207/S15327868MS1901_3
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327868MS1901_3 [Google Scholar]
  39. Matsuki, K.
    (1995) Metaphors of anger in Japanese. Ineds.J. Taylor and R. E. MacLaury, Language and the cognitive construal of the world, pp.–. Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110809305.137
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110809305.137 [Google Scholar]
  40. McPherson, L. & Prokhorov, K.
    (2011) Structural correlates of liver expressions in Dogon emotional vocabulary. Ined.G. C. Batic, Encoding emotions in African Languages, pp.–. Muenchen: Lincom.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Mikolajczuk, A.
    (1998) The metonymic and metaphorical conceptualization of anger in Polish. Ineds.A. Athanasiadou and E. Tabakowska, Speaking of emotions: Conceptualization and expression, pp.–. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110806007.153
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110806007.153 [Google Scholar]
  42. Munro, P.
    (1991) ANGER IS HEAT: Some data for a cross-linguistic survey. Unpublished Manuscript. Department of Linguistics, University of California at Los Angeles.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Napari, M. S.
    (2022) Yɛla nyaaŋa [Had I known]. University of Education, Winneba. Department of Gur-Gonja Education. (Unpublished).
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Ogarkova, A. & Soriano, C.
    (2014) Emotion and the body: A corpus-based investigation of metaphorical containers of anger across languages. International Journal of Cognitive Linguistics(), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Schaefer
    (2015) Hot eyes, white stomachs: Emotions and character qualities in Safaliba met aphor. Ineds.E. Piirainen and A. Sherris, Language endangerment: Disappearing metaphors and shifting conceptualizations, pp.–. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/clscc.7.04sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/clscc.7.04sch [Google Scholar]
  46. Semino, E.
    (2008) Metaphor in discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Sherris, A., Schaefer, P., & Kosiaku, E.
    (2021) Resonating embodiment: Everyday metaphorical abstractions in Safaliba. Sociolinguistic Studies(), –. 10.1558/sols.42385
    https://doi.org/10.1558/sols.42385 [Google Scholar]
  48. Soriano, C.
    (2003) Some Anger Metaphors in Spanish and English. A Contrastive Review. International Journal of English Studies(), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Sulemana, T.
    (1970) Naa Luro mini o Bihi [Naa Luro and his Children]. Bureau of Ghana Languages. Accra.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Sweetser, E.
    (1990) From etymology to pragmatics: Metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic structure. Newcastle, UK: Athenaeum Press Ltd. 10.1017/CBO9780511620904
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620904 [Google Scholar]
  51. Taylor, J. R., & Mbense, T. G.
    (1998) Red-dogs and rotten mealies: How Zulus talk about anger. Ineds.A. Athanasiadou & E. Tabakowska, Speaking of emotions: Conceptua lisation and expression, pp.–. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110806007.191
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110806007.191 [Google Scholar]
  52. Tran, H. T.
    (2018) Conceptual structures of Vietnamese emotions. University of New Mexico. UNM Digital Repository. https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/ling_etds/58. Last accessed: 20.05.2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Wierzbicka, A.
    (2002) The body in description of emotion. Pragmatics and Cognition(), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. (1999) Emotional universals. Language design. Journal of Theoretical and Experimental Linguistics, –.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. (1992a) Semantics, Culture, and Cognition: Universal Human Concepts in Culture-Specific Configurations. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780195073256.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780195073256.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  56. (1992b) Defining emotion concepts. Cognitive Science, –. 10.1207/s15516709cog1604_4
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog1604_4 [Google Scholar]
  57. Yu, N.
    (2014) Embodiment, culture, and language. Ined.F. Sharifian, The Routledge handbook of language and culture, pp.–. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. (2008) Metaphor from body and culture. Ined.R. W. Gibbs, Jr., The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought, pp.–. New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511816802.016
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816802.016 [Google Scholar]
  59. (2004) The eyes for sight and mind. Journal of Pragmatics, –. 10.1016/S0378‑2166(03)00053‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(03)00053-5 [Google Scholar]
  60. (2002) Body and emotion: Body parts in Chinese expression of emotion. Pragmatics & Cognition(), –. 10.1075/pc.10.1‑2.14yu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pc.10.1-2.14yu [Google Scholar]
  61. (1995) Metaphorical expressions of anger and happiness in English and Chinese. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity(), –. 10.1207/s15327868ms1002_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327868ms1002_1 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ijolc.00059.iss
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ijolc.00059.iss
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: metaphor ; comparative ; conceptualization ; metonymy ; Anger
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error