1887
Volume 7, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2214-3157
  • E-ISSN: 2214-3165
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This article examines the cultural conceptualizations of / (‘truth’/‘reality’) expressions in Persian as these are fundamental concepts in life, religion, as well as culture and are used in many commonly used everyday expressions. Therefore, it is important to understand what these expressions really mean and how they compare with equivalent concepts in other languages. To that end, this study investigates / expressions that instantiate cultural conceptualizations in Persian. This is the first attempt at employing the analytical tools of Cultural Linguistics (Sharifian 20112017b) to exclusively focus on exploring such cultural conceptualizations. In order to study naturally instigated expressions, the researcher makes use of multiple sources including an open-ended questionnaire, dictionaries, online sources, and focus group interviews. The study further draws on the author’s intuition as a native speaker and analyzes have been cross-checked by a number of Persian native speakers and experts. Analysis of the data concerns the significant conceptualizations of expressions, indicating that functions as the main conceptual basis for many manifestations of truth/reality in Persian. Furthermore, the findings demonstrate that a number of sociocultural factors such as religion, history, and literature have a role in shaping the cultural conceptualizations of expressions in Persian.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ijolc.19008.nos
2021-03-08
2021-05-10
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Alptekin, C.
    (2002) Towards intercultural communicative competence in ELT. ELT Journal, 56(1), 57–64. 10.1093/elt/56.1.57
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/56.1.57 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bhaskar, R. A.
    (2002) Reflections on meta-reality: A philosophy for the present. New Delhi: Sage. ISBN0-7619-9691-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bowlin, J. R. , & Stromberg, P. G.
    (1997) Representation and reality in the study of culture. American Anthropologist, 99(1), 123–134. Retrieved fromwww.jstor.org/stable/682138
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brown, A.
    (1994) The advancement of learning. Educational Researcher, 23(8), 4–12. Retrieved from doi:  10.2307/1176856
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1176856 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bygate, M.
    (2005) Applied linguistics: A pragmatic discipline, a generic discipline?Applied Linguistics, 26(4), 568–581. 10.1093/applin/ami032
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/ami032 [Google Scholar]
  6. Chittick, W. C.
    (1989) Sufi path of knowledge. Albany: State University of New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chiurazzi, G.
    (2011) Truth is more than reality. Gadamer’s transformational concept of truth. Research in Phenomenology, 41(2011), 60–71. doi:  10.1163/156916411X558891
    https://doi.org/10.1163/156916411X558891 [Google Scholar]
  8. Choudhury, M. A.
    (2016) Absolute reality in the Qur’an. Palgrave series in Islamic theology, law, and history. Springer Nature: New York. doi:  10.1057/978‑1‑137‑58947‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-58947-7 [Google Scholar]
  9. Condit, T.
    (2003) Truth and reality. Archaeology Ireland, 17(4), 3. Retrieved fromwww.jstor.org/stable/20562703
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cook, D.
    (2015, May04). Mysticism in Sufi Islam. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. Oxford University Press. Retrieved9 Nov. 2020, fromhttps://oxfordre.com/religion/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.001.0001/acrefore-9780199340378-e-51. 10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.51
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.51 [Google Scholar]
  11. David, M.
    (2002) The correspondence theory of truth. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), the Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (pp.1–35). Stanford University: Stanford. Retrieved fromhttps://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2016/entries/truth-correspondence/
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Davidson, D.
    (1984) True to the Facts. In D. Davidson (Ed.), Inquiries into truth and interpretation (pp.37–54). Oxford, England: Oxford University.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dayyan, A. , Davatgari, H. , & Farjami, F.
    (2015) Language, culture and cultural conceptualization. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 5(1), 3632–3638.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Eleftheriotis, D.
    (2017) Art, truth and reality. Cavafy and cultural studies: A personal perspective. Journal of Greek Media and Culture, 3(2), 273–277. doi:  10.1386/jgmc.3.2.273_1
    https://doi.org/10.1386/jgmc.3.2.273_1 [Google Scholar]
  15. Gaby, A.
    (2008) Gut feelings: locating emotion, life force and intellect in the Thaayorre body. In F. Sharifian , R. Dirven , N. Yu , & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Body, culture and language: conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp.27–44). Berlin/New York: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gadamer, H.
    ([1982] 1983) Reason in the age of science. Translated by Frederik G. Lawrence . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. ([1960] 2006) Truth and method. Translated by Joel Weinsheimer and Donald G. Marshall . London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hercus, L. A.
    (1994) A grammar of the Arabana-Wangkangurru language lake eyre basin, South Australia pacific linguistics series C-128. Australian National University: Canberra.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hestir, B. E.
    (2016) Plato on the metaphysical foundation of meaning and truth. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781316450864
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316450864 [Google Scholar]
  20. James, W.
    (1981) Pragmatism. The meaning of truth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Jiang, W.
    (2000) The relationship between culture and language. ELT Journal, 45(4), 328–332. 10.1093/elt/54.4.328
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/54.4.328 [Google Scholar]
  22. Kant, I.
    ([1781] 2003) Critique of pure reason. Translated by Norman Kemp Smith . Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lakoff, G.
    (1993) The contemporary theory of metaphor. In A. Orthondy (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (pp.202–251). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:  10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013 [Google Scholar]
  24. MacKenzie, I.
    (2012) English as a lingua franca in Europe: Bilingualism and multicompetence. International Journal of Multilingualism, 9(1), 83–100. 10.1080/14790718.2011.610506
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2011.610506 [Google Scholar]
  25. Mayer, E. A.
    (2011) Gut feelings: The emerging biology of gut-brain communication. Nature Reviews Neuroscience12, 453–466. 10.1038/nrn3071
    https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3071 [Google Scholar]
  26. Motahhari, M.
    (1977) Ensan dar Ghoran [Human being in the Qur’an]. InMajmoe asar Ostad Motahari [Complete Works of Mortaza Motahhari] (Vol.6, pp.1–58). Tehran: Sadra Publication.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Nakkeeran, N.
    (2010) Knowledge, truth, and social reality: An introductory note on qualitative research. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 35(3), 379–382. doi:  10.4103/0970‑0218.69249
    https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.69249 [Google Scholar]
  28. Palmer, G. B.
    (1996) Toward a theory of cultural linguistics. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Rabinow, P.
    (1986) Representations are social facts. In J. Clifford & G. E. Marcus (Eds.) Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography (pp.234–261). Berkeley: University of California Press. 10.1525/9780520946286‑012
    https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520946286-012 [Google Scholar]
  30. Risager, K.
    (2007) Language and culture pedagogy: From a national to a transnational paradigm. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.. 10.21832/9781853599613
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853599613 [Google Scholar]
  31. Schaff, P.
    ([1867] 1968) History of the Christian church (Vol3; 5th Ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sharifian, F.
    (2003) On cultural conceptualizations. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 3(3), 187–207. 10.1163/156853703322336625
    https://doi.org/10.1163/156853703322336625 [Google Scholar]
  33. (2011) Cultural conceptualizations and language: Theoretical framework and applications. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/clscc.1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/clscc.1 [Google Scholar]
  34. (2013) Cultural conceptualizations in learning English as an L2: Examples from Persian-speaker learners. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 1(1), 90–116.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. (2015) Cultural linguistics. In F. Sharifian (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of language and culture (pp.437–492). London and New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. (Ed.) (2017a) Advances in cultural linguistics. London/New York/Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑10‑4056‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4056-6 [Google Scholar]
  37. (Ed.) (2017b) Cultural linguistics. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/clscc.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/clscc.8 [Google Scholar]
  38. Sharifian, F. , Dirven, R. , Yu, N. , & Neiemier, S.
    (Eds.) (2008) Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110199109
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199109 [Google Scholar]
  39. Sharifian, F. , & Palmer, G. B.
    (Eds.) (2007) Applied cultural linguistics: Implications for second language learning and intercultural communication. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/celcr.7
    https://doi.org/10.1075/celcr.7 [Google Scholar]
  40. Sia, S.
    (2015) Images, reality and truth: Some philosophical considerations. New Blackfriars, 96(1063): 295–310. doi:  10.1111/nbfr.12039
    https://doi.org/10.1111/nbfr.12039 [Google Scholar]
  41. Simpson, D. I.
    (2007) Truth, truthfulness and philosophy in Plato and Nietzsche. British Journal for the History of Philosophy, 15(2), 339–360. 10.1080/09608780701255485
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09608780701255485 [Google Scholar]
  42. Weiss, P.
    (1980) Truth and reality. The Review of Metaphysics, 34(1), 57–69. Retrieved fromwww.jstor.org/stable/20127459
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Wilken, R. L.
    (2003) The spirit of early Christian thought: Seeking the face of god. New Haven, CT: YUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Xu, Zh
    (2014) A cultural linguistics approach to Asian Englishes. Asian Englishes, 16(2), 173–179. 10.1080/13488678.2014.916069
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2014.916069 [Google Scholar]
  45. Yu, N.
    (2008) The Chinese heart as the central faculty of cognition. In F. Sharifian , R. Dirven , N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of heart and other internal body organs across languages and cultures (pp.373–394). Berlin/New York: De Gruyter Mouton. doi:  10.1515/9783110199109
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199109 [Google Scholar]
  46. (2009) From body to meaning in culture. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/z.149
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.149 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ijolc.19008.nos
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ijolc.19008.nos
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): cultural conceptualizations; Cultural Linguistics; Haghighat; reality; truth; Vagheyat
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error