Volume 9, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2214-3157
  • E-ISSN: 2214-3165
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This paper presents a cognitive study of the lexical means of conceptualization of time in English and Armenian fairy tales, and outlines the ways in which such conceptualizations are expressed in both languages. A spatial model for the conceptualization of time is introduced, which helps reveal the complexities of lexical expressions of time in these fairy tale texts. The model is depicted by geometric delineations and comprises the schemas which best conform to the folkloristic genre; the depictions consist of a set comprising: point, interval, line, cycle, circle, and segment of a circle. A comparative analysis between the languages reveals that each of these schemas is represented in both languages but to differing extents. Lexically, the schemas are primarily expressed in English by noun phrases paired with prepositions, and in Armenian by prepositions or postpositions or their morphological synonyms. Other means of schema expression in both languages include, with slight differences, number markers, adverbs, adjectives, conjunctions, and deictics.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Aghayan, G.
    (1956) Selected works [Y’ntir erker]. Yerevan: Haypethrat.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Arakelyan, V.
    (1957) Semantic meanings of cases and prepositions/Postpositions in modern Armenian [Jhamanakakic hayereni holovneri & holovakan kapakcowt’yownneri imastayin ar’owmnery’]. Yerevan: Academy of Sciences Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Arutyunova, N.
    (1990) Theory of metaphor. Metaphor and discourse [Teorija metafory. Metafora i diskurs]. Moscow: Progress.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Asatryan, M.
    (1983) Modern Armenian. Morphology. [Jhamanakakic hayoc lezow. sharahyowsowt’yown]. Yerevan: Yerevan State University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ashliman, D.
    (1999–2022) Abducted by aliens, available at URLhttps://sites.pitt.edu/~dash/abduct.html#kelly (accessed on20-01-2021).
  6. (2013–2022) Advice well taken, available at URLhttps://sites.pitt.edu/~dash/type0910b.html (accessed on10-12-2020).
  7. Atanasyan, L. C., & Butuzov, B. F.
    (1992) Geometry, school book for 7–9 grades [Geometrija, 7–9 klass]. Moscow: Prasvishenie.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bakhtin, М. М.
    (1975) Forms of time and chronotops in the novel [Formy vremeni i hronotopa v romane]. Moscow: Fiction.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bergson, A.
    (1992) Collected works in four volumes [Sobranie sochinenij v chetyreh tomah]. Moscow: Moscow Club.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Boldirev, N.
    (2009) Conceptual basis of language [Konceptual’naja osnova jazyka]. Cognitive Research of Language, 41, 25–77.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Campbell, J.
    (1890) Popular tales of the West Highlands, vol.I, II1, available at URLhttps://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/pt1/index.htm (accessed on01-12-2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chafe, W.
    (1994) Discourse, consciousness, and time. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fauconnier, G.
    (1997) Mappings in thought and language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139174220
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139174220 [Google Scholar]
  14. Fillmore, C.
    (1966) Toward a modern theory of case. Columbus: The Ohio State University Research Foundation.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Geeraerts, D. & Cuyckens, H.
    (2010) Oxford handbook of cognitive linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199738632.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199738632.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  16. Hartland, E.
    (2018) [1890] English fairy and other folk tales. London: Global Grey, ebook edition. URLhttps://www.globalgreyebooks.com/english-fairy-and-other-folk-tales-ebook.html
  17. Janda, L.
    (2015) Cognitive linguistics in the year 2015. Cognitive Semantics, 1(1), 132–154. 10.1163/23526416‑00101005
    https://doi.org/10.1163/23526416-00101005 [Google Scholar]
  18. Jivanyan, A.
    (2007) The fairy tale as archetext. Yerevan: Zangak.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kujundžić, N.
    (2020) Narrative space and spatial transference in Jacob and Wilhelm Grimmʼs fairy tales. Doctoral thesis defended at theUniversity of Zagreb.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Lakoff, G.
    (1991) Cognitive versus generative linguistics: How commitments influence results. Language & Communication, 111, 53–62. 10.1016/0271‑5309(91)90018‑Q
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0271-5309(91)90018-Q [Google Scholar]
  21. Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M.
    (2003) Metaphors we live by. Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226470993.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226470993.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  22. Langacker, R. W.
    (2008) Cognitive grammar: A basic introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331967.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331967.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  23. Lüthi, M.
    (1982) The European folktale: Form and nature. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lyons, J.
    (1968) Introduction to theoretical linguistics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139165570
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165570 [Google Scholar]
  25. Makhovikova, D.
    (2012) Lexical means of conceptualization of time in modern English [Leksicheskie sredstva konceptualizacii vremeni v sovremennom anglijskom jazyke]. Doctoral thesis defended at theTambov State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Nicolaisen, W.
    (1980) Space in folk narrative. InNikolai Burlakoff and Carl Lindahl (eds.), Folklore on Two Continents. Essays in Honor of Linda Dégh, (pp.14–18). Bloomington: Trickster Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. (1991) The past as place: Names, stories, and the remembered self. Folklore, 102(1), 3–15. 10.1080/0015587X.1991.9715801
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0015587X.1991.9715801 [Google Scholar]
  28. Paducheva, E. V.
    (2000) Space as form of time or vice versa (on typology of metonymic transfers). Logical analysis of language. Modern languages of space [Frazeologicheskij obraz v jazykovyh modeljah prostranstva, vremeni i kolichestva: Na materiale frazeologii sovremennogo russkogo jazyka]. Moscow: Languages of Russian Culture.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Propp, V.
    (1968) Morphology of the folktale. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. 10.7560/783911
    https://doi.org/10.7560/783911 [Google Scholar]
  30. Talmy, L.
    (2000) Toward a cognitive semantics. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Tenbrink, T.
    (2007) Space, time, and the use of language: An investigation of relationships. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110198829
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110198829 [Google Scholar]
  32. Toporova, V. M.
    (1999) Concept form in the semantic space of language [Koncept forma v semanticheskom prostranstve jazyka]. Voronezh: Istoki.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Tumanyan H.
    (1904) Collection of works [Erkeri jhoghovac’ow]. Yervan: Hajpethrat.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. von Franz, Marie-Louis
    (2017) The interpretation of fairy tales. Colorado: Shambhala.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture
    Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture (2006) New edition. Edited byMichael Murphy.
  36. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary
    Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2005) Sixth edition. Michael Ashby.
  37. Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary
    Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary (1977) Edited byHenry Woolf.
  38. Ashliman, D.
    (1999–2022) Abducted by aliens, available at URLhttps://sites.pitt.edu/~dash/abduct.html#kelly (accessed on20-01-2021).
    [Google Scholar]
  39. -Taken by the good people (see ex.1, p.9) URLhttps://sites.pitt.edu/~dash/abduct.html#brosnan
  40. -Twenty years with the good people (see ex.2, p.12; ex.1, p.14) URLhttps://www.pitt.edu/~dash/abduct.html#kelly
  41. -Ethna the bride (see ex.1, p.11; ex.3, p.12; ex.1, p.16; ex.1, p.17) URLhttps://www.pitt.edu/~dash/abduct.html#ethna
  42. -The lost child (see ex.2, p.19) URLhttps://www.pitt.edu/~dash/abduct.html#lostchild
  43. -The recovered bride (see ex.1, p.9; ex.1, p.12; ex.1, p.14; ex.1, p.14; ex.1, p.15; ex.3, p.20) URLhttps://www.pitt.edu/~dash/abduct.html#recovered
  44. Ashliman, D.
    (2013–2022) Advice well taken, available at URLhttps://sites.pitt.edu/~dash/type0910b.html (accessed on10-12-2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  45. -The highlander takes three advices from the English farmer (see ex.3, p.6; ex.3, p.17) URLhttps://www.pitt.edu/~dash/type0910b.html#bede
  46. -The three advices (see ex.1, p.9; ex.1, p. 12)
  47. -The three advices which the king with the red soles gave to his son (see ex.1, p.8; ex.2, p.13; ex.2, p.15; ex.2, p.18) URLhttps://www.pitt.edu/~dash/type0910b.html#kennedy
  48. Campbell, J.
    (1890) Popular tales of the West Highlandsvol.I, II1, available at URLhttps://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/pt1/index.htm (accessed on01-12-2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  49. -The sea maiden (see ex.1, p.6; ex.2 and 3, p.9; ex.1, p.10; ex.2 and 3, p.10; ex.2, p.12; ex.2, p.13; ex.2, p.14; ex.1, p.16; ex.2, p.17) URLhttps://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/pt1/pt108.htm
  50. -The three widows (see ex.2, p.6) URLhttps://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/pt2/pt231.htm
  51. -The widow’s son (see ex.2, p.8) URLhttps://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/pt2/pt236.htm
  52. -The tale of the soldier (see ex.1, p.8; ex.3, p.9; ex.3, p.15; ex.1, p.18) URLhttps://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/pt2/pt234.htm
  53. -The tale of Conal Crovi (see ex.1, p.10; ex.1, p.13; ex.3, p.15; ex.3, p.18; ex.1, p.19) URLhttps://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/pt1/pt110.htm
  54. Hartland, E.
    (2018) [1890]English fairy and other folk tales. London: Global Grey, ebook edition. URLhttps://www.globalgreyebooks.com/english-fairy-and-other-folk-tales-ebook.html
    [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): cognitive schema; geometric delineation; model of conceptualization; space; time
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error