1887
Volume 9, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2214-3157
  • E-ISSN: 2214-3165
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

In spite of its prevalence in Iranian Persian-speaking communities, the issue of self-sacrifice expressions as a culture-specific verbal behavior has remained almost ignored in the existing literature on speech acts. The current study is an enquiry into the use of self-sacrifice expressions by Iranian Persian speakers in performing different speech acts such as thanking, sympathizing, and expressing affection and love. Serving as a device of encoding emotion into speech, self-sacrifice expressions have been found to be of variety in diction as well as variation in frequency across such social factors as age, gender, and education level. The results indicate pragmalinguistic variations in the use of self-sacrifice expressions in terms of social context, gender, age, and educational level. The tenets of this study are intended to be of insight into socio-cultural aspects of self-sacrifice expressions in language use.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ijolc.21072.all
2022-05-16
2024-03-02
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Afghari, A.
    (2007) A socio-pragmatic study of apology speech act realization patterns in Persian. Speech Communication, 49 (3), 177–185. 10.1016/j.specom.2007.01.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2007.01.003 [Google Scholar]
  2. Arundale, R. B.
    (2010) Constituting face in conversation: Face, facework, and interactional achievement. Journal of Pragmatics, 42(3), 2078–2105. 10.1016/j.pragma.2009.12.021
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2009.12.021 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bachman, L.
    (1990) Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bachman, L. F. & Palmer, A. S.
    (1996) Language testing in practice designing and developing useful language tests. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Beeman, W. O.
    (1976) What is (Iranian) national character?Iranian Studies, 9(1), 29–43. 10.1080/00210867608701506
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00210867608701506 [Google Scholar]
  6. Behnam, B., Ai Akbari Hamed, L. & Goharkhani Aslic, F.
    (2012) An investigation of giving condolences in English and Persian via short messages. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 1679–1685. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.240
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.240 [Google Scholar]
  7. Berns, M.
    (2006) World Englishes and communicative competence, InB. B. Kachru, Y. Kachru, & C. L. Nelson (Eds.), The handbook of world Englishes, (pp.718–731), Oxford: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470757598.ch40
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470757598.ch40 [Google Scholar]
  8. Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dasen, P. R.
    (2002) Cross-cultural Psychology: Research and Applications (2nd ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Brody, L. R. & Hall, J. A.
    (1993) Gender and emotion. InM. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds), Handbook of emotions (pp.447–460). New York: Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Brown, P. & Levinson, S. C.
    (1987) Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511813085
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813085 [Google Scholar]
  11. Canale, M. & Swain, M.
    (1980) Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1 (1), 1–47.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Crystal, D.
    (1997) English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Eggins, S.
    (1994) An introduction to systemic functional linguistics. London: Pinter Publisher Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Eslami-Rasekh, Z.
    (2004) Face keeping strategies in reaction to complaints: English and Persian. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 14 (1), 181–198.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Feyzi Behnagh, R.
    (2011) A comparative study of speech act of sympathy between Iranian EFL students and Farsi speaking university students. Chișinău: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gilbert, M. A.
    (1997) Prolegomenon to a pragmatics of emotion. Proceedings of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation. Brock University, St. Catherine’s.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. (2001) Emotional messages. Argumentation, 15, 239–249. 10.1023/A:1011156918137
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011156918137 [Google Scholar]
  18. (2004) Emotion, argumentation & informal logic. Informal Logic, 24(3), 245–264. 10.22329/il.v24i3.2147
    https://doi.org/10.22329/il.v24i3.2147 [Google Scholar]
  19. Guiraud, N., Longin, D., Lorini, E., Pesty, S. & Rivière, J.
    (2011) The face of emotions: A logical formalization of expressive speech acts. InK. Tumer, P. Yolum, L. Sonenberg and P. Stone (eds.), Proc. of 10th international conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems (AAMAS), (pp.1031–1038). Taipei, Taiwan, Richland: International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hess, U., Senécal, S., Kirouac, G. H., Pedro, P., Pierre, K. & Robert, E.
    (2000) Emotional expressivity in men and women: Stereotypes and self-perceptions. Cognition & Emotion, 14, 609–642. 10.1080/02699930050117648
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930050117648 [Google Scholar]
  21. Holmes, J.
    (2008) An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (3rd ed.). Essex: Pearson Education Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kachru, B. B., & Nelson, C. L.
    (1996) World Englishes. InS. L. McKay & N. Hornberger (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and language teaching (pp.71–102). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Khodaei Moghaddam, M., Elyasi, M. & Sharifi, S.
    (2014) “Xaste Nabâši(D)” as a culture specific speech act in Persian. Journal of Advances in Linguistics, 4(1), 269–289. 10.24297/jal.v4i1.5207
    https://doi.org/10.24297/jal.v4i1.5207 [Google Scholar]
  24. Leech, G. N.
    (1983) Principle of pragmatics. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lim, N.
    (2016) Cultural differences in emotion: differences in emotional arousal level between the East and the West. Integrative Medicine Research, 5(2), 105–109. 10.1016/j.imr.2016.03.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2016.03.004 [Google Scholar]
  26. Lotfollahi, B. & Eslami Rasekh, A.
    (2011) Speech act of condolence in Persian and English: A cross-cultural study. Studies in Literature and Language, 3(1), 139–145
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Makarova, V. & Pourmohammadi, E.
    (2020) Gender factor in the expression of politeness in Farsi. Journal of Gender Studies, 29(4), 373–385. 10.1080/09589236.2019.1604327
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09589236.2019.1604327 [Google Scholar]
  28. Markus, H. R. & Kitayama, S.
    (1991) Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98 (2), 224–253. 10.1037/0033‑295X.98.2.224
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224 [Google Scholar]
  29. McRae, K., Ochsner, K. N., Mauss, I. B., Gabrieli, J. J. D. & Gross, J. J.
    (2008) Gender differences in emotion regulation: An fMRI study of cognitive reappraisal. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 11, 143–16. 10.1177/1368430207088035
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430207088035 [Google Scholar]
  30. Mesthrie, R. & Bhatt, R. M.
    (2008) World Englishes: The study of new linguistic varieties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511791321
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511791321 [Google Scholar]
  31. Morady Moghaddam, M. & Pishghadam, R.
    (2013) Studies in literature and language. Journal of English language teaching and learning. 4(10), 105–125
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Nanbakhsh, G.
    (2011) Persian address pronouns and politeness in interaction. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. UK: University of Edinburgh.
  33. Pham, M. T.
    (2007) Emotion and rationality: A critical review and interpretation of empirical evidence. Review of General Psychology, 11 (2), 155–178. 10.1037/1089‑2680.11.2.155
    https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.11.2.155 [Google Scholar]
  34. Pham, M. T., Cohen, J. B., Pracejus, J. W. & Hughes, G. D.
    (2001) Affect monitoring and the primacy of feelings in judgment. Journal of Consumer Research, 28, 167–188. 10.1086/322896
    https://doi.org/10.1086/322896 [Google Scholar]
  35. Pishghada, R. & Nourouzi Kermanshahi, P.
    (2012) Insha’ Allah (God’s willing) and its functions in Persian. Studies in Literature and Language, 4(1), 6–11
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Richeson, P. J. & Boyd, R.
    (2005) Not by genes alone: How culture transformed human evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Rose, K. R., & Kasper, G.
    (2001) Pragmatics in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524797
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524797 [Google Scholar]
  38. Rueckert, L., Branch, B. & Doan, T.
    (2011) Are gender differences in empathy due to differences in emotional reactivity?Psychology, 2 (6), 574–578. 10.4236/psych.2011.26088
    https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2011.26088 [Google Scholar]
  39. Samavarchi, L. & Allami, H.
    (2012) Giving Condolences by Persian EFL Learners: A Contrastive Sociopragmatic Study. International Journal of English Linguistics. 2(1), 71–78. 10.5539/ijel.v2n1p71
    https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v2n1p71 [Google Scholar]
  40. Schwartz, G. E., Brown, S. & Ahern, G. L.
    (1980) Facial muscle patterning and subjective experience during affective imagery: Sex differences. Psychophysiology, 17, 75–82. 10.1111/j.1469‑8986.1980.tb02463.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1980.tb02463.x [Google Scholar]
  41. Schwarz, N.
    (2002) Situated cognition and the wisdom of feelings: Cognitive tuning. InL. F. Barrett & P. Salovey (Eds.), The wisdom in feelings: Psychological processes in emotional intelligence (pp.144–166). New York: Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Searle, J.
    (1969) Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139173438
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173438 [Google Scholar]
  43. Shobeiry, M.
    (2021a) Pragmatic functions of formulaic expressions of embarrassment in Persian refusals: A qualitative study. Journal of International Social Research, 14(76), 33–41. 10.17719/jisr.11353
    https://doi.org/10.17719/jisr.11353 [Google Scholar]
  44. (2021b) Gender differences in using hedges and external pragmatic modifiers of “Taarof” in Persian native speakers’ refusals. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 8(1), 11–35.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Thomas, J.
    (1983) Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. Applied Linguistics, 4, 91–112. 10.1093/applin/4.2.91
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/4.2.91 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ijolc.21072.all
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ijolc.21072.all
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): expressions of self-sacrifice; Persian language; pragmatics; speech act
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error