1887
Volume 21, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1384-6647
  • E-ISSN: 1569-982X
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

In complex tasks such as interpreting, the importance of a well-functioning working memory can hardly be overestimated. However, empirical studies have failed to produce consistent results with regard to an interpreter advantage in working memory. Recent studies tend to focus on the executive component of working memory. To our knowledge, no such study has compared the possible cognitive advantage of aspiring interpreters relative to other multilinguals before training takes place, in spite of the fact that excellent cognitive abilities are considered important in many interpreter selection procedures. In this study, we compared the working memory capacity and executive functions of a group of 20 student interpreters with two other groups of advanced language users who were all at the start of their Master’s training. Data were collected on three executive control functions: inhibition, shifting and updating. A forward and a backward digit span task for measuring the participants’ working memory capacity was also included in this study. Results revealed only negligible differences between the three groups at onset of training. The presumed cognitive advantage of aspiring interpreters with regard to executive control was not found.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/intp.00022.ros
2019-03-13
2019-05-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Alexieva, B.
    (1993) Aptitude tests and intertextuality in simultaneous interpreting. The Interpreters’ Newsletter5, 8–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Baddeley, A.
    (1992) Working memory. Science255 (5044), 556–559. 10.1126/science.1736359
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1736359 [Google Scholar]
  3. (2000) The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory?Trends in Cognitive Sciences4 (11), 417–423. 10.1016/S1364‑6613(00)01538‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01538-2 [Google Scholar]
  4. (2003) Working memory and language: An overview. Journal of Communication Disorders36, 189–208. 10.1016/S0021‑9924(03)00019‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9924(03)00019-4 [Google Scholar]
  5. Baddeley, A. & Hitch, G. J.
    (1974) Working memory. InG. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory, Vol.8. New York: Academic Press, 47–89.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bialystok, E.
    (2006) Effect of bilingualism and computer video game experience on the Simon task. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology60 (1), 68–79. 10.1037/cjep2006008
    https://doi.org/10.1037/cjep2006008 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., Klein, R. & Viswanathan, M.
    (2004) Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: Evidence from the Simon task. Psychology and Aging19, 290–303. 10.1037/0882‑7974.19.2.290
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.19.2.290 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M. & Ryan, J.
    (2006) Executive control in a modified antisaccade task: Effects of aging and bilingualism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition32 (6), 1341–1354.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chincotta, D. & Underwood, G.
    (1998) Simultaneous interpreters and the effect of concurrent articulation on immediate memory: A bilingual digit span study. Interpreting3 (1), 1–20. 10.1075/intp.3.1.01chi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.3.1.01chi [Google Scholar]
  10. Christoffels, I. K., de Groot, A. M. B. & Kroll, J. F.
    (2006) Memory and language skills in simultaneous interpreters: The role of expertise and language proficiency. Journal of Memory and Language54 (3), 324–345. 10.1016/j.jml.2005.12.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2005.12.004 [Google Scholar]
  11. Costa, A., Hernández, M., Costa-Faidella, J. & Sebastián-Gallés, N.
    (2009) On the bilingual advantage in conflict processing: Now you see it, now you don’t. Cognition113, 135–149. 10.1016/j.cognition.2009.08.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2009.08.001 [Google Scholar]
  12. Costa, A., Hernández, M. & Sebastián-Gallés, N.
    (2008) Bilingualism aids conflict resolution: Evidence from the ANT task. Cognition106, 59–86. 10.1016/j.cognition.2006.12.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2006.12.013 [Google Scholar]
  13. Darò, V.
    (1995) Attentional, auditory and memory indexes as prerequisites for simultaneous interpreting. InJ. Tommola (Ed.), Topics in interpreting research. Turku: University of Turku Centre for Translation and Interpreting, 3–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Engle, R. W., Laughlin, J. E., Tuholski, S. W. & Conway, A. R. A.
    (1999) Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: A latent-variable approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General128 (3), 309–331. 10.1037/0096‑3445.128.3.309
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.128.3.309 [Google Scholar]
  15. Fan, J., McCandliss, B. D., Sommer, T., Raz, M. & Posner, M. I.
    (2002) Testing the efficiency and independence of Attentional Networks. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience14, 340–347. 10.1162/089892902317361886
    https://doi.org/10.1162/089892902317361886 [Google Scholar]
  16. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A. & Lang, A.-G.
    (2009) Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods41, 1149–1160. 10.3758/BRM.41.4.1149
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.41.4.1149 [Google Scholar]
  17. Friedman, N. P., Miyake, A., Young, S. E., DeFries, J. C., Corley, R. P. & Hewitt, J. K.
    (2008) Individual differences in executive functions are almost entirely genetic in origin. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General137 (2), 201–225. 10.1037/0096‑3445.137.2.201
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.137.2.201 [Google Scholar]
  18. Gile, D.
    (1999) Testing the effort models’ tightrope hypothesis in simultaneous interpreting – a contribution. Hermes. Journal of Linguistics23, 153–172.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. (2009) Basic concepts and models for interpreter and translator training. (Rev. ed.). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.8 [Google Scholar]
  20. Hervais-Adelman, A., Moser-Mercer, B. & Golestani, N.
    (2015) Brain functional plasticity associated with the emergence of expertise in extreme language control. NeuroImage114, 264–274. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.03.072
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.03.072 [Google Scholar]
  21. Jurado, M.-B. & Rosselli, M.
    (2007) The elusive nature of executive functions: A review of our current understanding. Neuropsychology Review17 (3), 213–233. doi:  10.1007/s11065‑007‑9040‑z
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-007-9040-z [Google Scholar]
  22. Keiser, W.
    (1965) Definitions d’aptitude. InAIIC Colloque sur l’enseignement de l’interprétation, Paris, 18–19December, 28–37.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kirchner, W. K.
    (1958) Age differences in short-term retention of rapidly changing information. Journal of Experimental Psychology55 (4), 352–358. 10.1037/h0043688
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0043688 [Google Scholar]
  24. Klingberg, T.
    (2009) The overflowing brain: Information overload and the limits of working memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Köpke, B. & Nespoulous, J.-L.
    (2006) Working memory performance in expert and novice interpreters. Interpreting8 (1), 1–23. 10.1075/intp.8.1.02kop
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.8.1.02kop [Google Scholar]
  26. Liu, M., Schallert, D. L. & Carroll, P. J.
    (2004) Working memory and expertise in simultaneous interpreting. Interpreting6 (1), 19–42. 10.1075/intp.6.1.04liu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.6.1.04liu [Google Scholar]
  27. Luk, G., De Sa, E. & Bialystok, E.
    (2011) Is there a relation between onset age of bilingualism and enhancement of cognitive control?Bilingualism: Language and Cognition14, 588–595. 10.1017/S1366728911000010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728911000010 [Google Scholar]
  28. Martin-Rhee, M. M. & Bialystok, E.
    (2008) The development of two types of inhibitory control in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition11 (1), 81–93. 10.1017/S1366728907003227
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728907003227 [Google Scholar]
  29. Michael, E. B., Tokowicz, N., Degani, T. & Smith, C. J.
    (2011) Individual differences in the ability to resolve translation ambiguity across languages. Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics8, 79–97.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Miyake, A. & Friedman, N. P.
    (2012) The nature and organization of individual differences in executive functions: Four general conclusions. Current Directions in Psychological Science21 (1), 8–14. doi:  10.1177/0963721411429458
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721411429458 [Google Scholar]
  31. Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A. & Wagner, T. D.
    (2000) The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex ‘frontal lobe’ tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology41, 49–100. 10.1006/cogp.1999.0734
    https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1999.0734 [Google Scholar]
  32. Morales, J., Padilla, F., Gómez-Ariza, C. J. & Bajo, M. T.
    (2015) Simultaneous interpretation selectively influences working memory and attentional networks. Acta Psychologica155, 83–91. 10.1016/j.actpsy.2014.12.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2014.12.004 [Google Scholar]
  33. Morris, N. & Jones, D. M.
    (1990) Memory updating in working memory: The role of the central executive. British Journal of Psychology81, 111–121. 10.1111/j.2044‑8295.1990.tb02349.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1990.tb02349.x [Google Scholar]
  34. Obler, L.
    (2012) Conference interpreting as extreme language use. International Journal of Bilingualism16 (2), 177–182. 10.1177/1367006911403199
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006911403199 [Google Scholar]
  35. Park, D. C., Lautenschlager, G., Hedden, T., Davidson, N. S., Smith, A. D. & Smith, P. K.
    (2002) Models of visuospatial and verbal memory across the adult life span. Psychology and Aging17 (2), 299–320. 10.1037/0882‑7974.17.2.299
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.17.2.299 [Google Scholar]
  36. Rogers, R. D. & Monsell, S.
    (1995) Costs of a predictable switch between simple cognitive tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General124 (2), 207–231. 10.1037/0096‑3445.124.2.207
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.124.2.207 [Google Scholar]
  37. Rothe-Neves, R.
    (2003) The influence of working memory features on some formal aspects of translation performance. InF. Alves (Ed.), Triangulating translation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 97–119. 10.1075/btl.45.09rot
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.45.09rot [Google Scholar]
  38. Salthouse, T. A. & Babcock, R. L.
    (1991) Decomposing adult age differences in working memory. Developmental Psychology27, 763–776. 10.1037/0012‑1649.27.5.763
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.27.5.763 [Google Scholar]
  39. Severens, E., Van Lommel, S., Ratinckx, E. & Hartsuiker, R. J.
    (2005) Timed picture naming norms for 590 pictures in Dutch. Acta Psychologica119 (2), 159–187. 10.1016/j.actpsy.2005.01.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2005.01.002 [Google Scholar]
  40. Signorelli, T. M.
    (2008) Working memory in simultaneous interpreters. PhD dissertation, City University of New York.
  41. Simon, J. R. & Rudell, A. P.
    (1967) Auditory S-R compatibility: The effect of an irrelevant cue on information processing. Journal of Applied Psychology51, 300–304. 10.1037/h0020586
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0020586 [Google Scholar]
  42. Stevens, M., Lammertyn, J., Verbruggen, F. & Vandierendonck, A.
    (2006) Tscope: A C library for programming cognitive experiments on the MS Windows platform. Behavior Research Methods38 (2), 280–286. 10.3758/BF03192779
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03192779 [Google Scholar]
  43. Timarová, S. & Ungoed-Thomas, H.
    (2008) Admission testing for interpreting courses. The Interpreter and Translator Trainer2, 29–46. 10.1080/1750399X.2008.10798765
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2008.10798765 [Google Scholar]
  44. Timarová, S., Čeňkova, I., Meylaerts, R., Hertog, E., Szmalec, A. & Duyck, W.
    (2014) Simultaneous interpreting and working memory executive control. Interpreting16 (2), 139–168. 10.1075/intp.16.2.01tim
    https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.16.2.01tim [Google Scholar]
  45. Turner, S. E. & Bowen, W. G.
    (1999) The changing (unchanging) gender gap. Industrial and Labor Relations Review52 (2), 289–313. 10.1177/001979399905200208
    https://doi.org/10.1177/001979399905200208 [Google Scholar]
  46. Tzou, Y.-Z., Eslami, Z. R., Chen, H.-C. & Vaid, J.
    (2012) Effects of language proficiency and degree of formal training in simultaneous interpreting on working memory and interpreting performance: Evidence from Mandarin-English speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism16 (2), 213–227. 10.1177/1367006911403197
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006911403197 [Google Scholar]
  47. Van Assche, E., Duyck, W. & Hartsuiker, R. J.
    (2012) Bilingual word recognition in a sentence context. Frontiers in Psychology3, 174.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Verreyt, N., Woumans, E., Vandelanotte, D., Szmalec, A. & Duyck, W.
    (2015) The influence of language switching experience on the bilingual executive control advantage. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. doi:  10.1017/S1366728914000352
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728914000352 [Google Scholar]
  49. Wechsler, D.
    (1997) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – 3rd Edition (WAIS-3®). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Woumans, E., Ceuleers, E., Van der Linden, L., Szmalec, A. & Duyck, W.
    (2015) Verbal and non-verbal cognitive control in bilinguals and interpreters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition41 (5), 1579–1586.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Yudes, C., Macizo, P. & Bajo, T.
    (2011) The influence of expertise in simultaneous interpreting on non-verbal executive processes. Frontiers in Psychology2, 309. doi:  10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00309
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00309 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/intp.00022.ros
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/intp.00022.ros
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): executive control , inhibiting , switching , updating and working memory
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error