Volume 25, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1384-6647
  • E-ISSN: 1569-982X
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



To ensure the quality of interpreter-mediated encounters, not only interpreters but also service providers need to be trained. However, most of them lack adequate training. This study aimed to evaluate educational videos as a (self-)learning tool with which to train service providers to work with interpreters. Eight educational videos were developed in a multi-stage evidence-based process. For the evaluation, semi-structured interviews with 32 service providers across settings and 12 experts in the field of interpreting were conducted in Switzerland and Germany. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a structuring content analysis approach. Service providers described an increase in their knowledge (e.g. of the complexity of interpreter-mediated encounters, potential challenges, and how to deal with them appropriately) and confidence (e.g. reduced inhibitions about working with interpreters, perceived permission to feel insecure, and encouragement to deal with problematic situations in an interpreter-mediated encounter). However, the need for hands-on practice limits the effectiveness of the educational videos as a standalone (self-)learning tool, as noted in particular by the experts. It is recommended that they be used in combination with other methods, such as face-to-face training, which provide opportunities for hands-on practice. Nonetheless, the videos can be considered a low-threshold and initial (self-)learning tool with which to increase service providers’ competence in working with interpreters.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Al Shamsi, H., Almutairi, A. G., Al Mashrafi, S. & Al Kalbani, T.
    (2020) Implications of language barriers for healthcare: A systematic review. Oman Medical Journal35 (2), e122. 10.5001/omj.2020.40
    https://doi.org/10.5001/omj.2020.40 [Google Scholar]
  2. Ali, P. A. & Watson, R.
    (2018) Language barriers and their impact on provision of care to patients with limited English proficiency: Nurses’ perspectives. Journal of Clinical Nursing271, e1152–e1160. 10.1111/jocn.14204
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.14204 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bansal, A., Swann, J. & Smithson, W. H.
    (2014) Using professional interpreters in undergraduate medical consultation skills teaching. Advances in Medical Education and Practice51, 439–450. 10.2147/AMEP.S71332
    https://doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S71332 [Google Scholar]
  4. Barratt, J.
    (2010) A focus group study of the use of video-recorded simulated objective structured clinical examinations in nurse practitioner education. Nurse Education in Practice10 (3), 170–175. 10.1016/j.nepr.2009.06.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2009.06.004 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bäwert, A. & Holzinger, A.
    (2019) Practice makes perfect! Patient safety starts in medical school: Do instructional videos improve clinical skills and hygiene procedures in undergraduate medical students?GMS Journal for Medical Education36 (2), 1–12. CitetononCRdoi:10.3205/zma001224
    https://doi.org/Cite to nonCR doi: 10.3205/zma001224 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bieri, F. A., Gray, D. J., Raso, G., Li, Y. S. & McManus, D. P.
    (2012) A systematic review of preventive health educational videos targeting infectious diseases in schoolchildren. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene87 (6), 972–978. 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12‑0375
    https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0375 [Google Scholar]
  7. Breitsprecher, C., Mueller, J. T. & Mösko, M.
    (2020) Between languages – quality standards and minimum requirements for the qualification of interpreters in social work settings in Germany. Hamburg: Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Burch, N.
    (1970) The four stages for learning any new skill. California: Gordon Training International.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Coetzee, D., Pereira, A. G., Scheurer, J. M. & Olson, A. P.
    (2020) Medical student workshop improves student confidence in working with trained medical interpreters. Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development71, 1–5. 10.1177/2382120520918862
    https://doi.org/10.1177/2382120520918862 [Google Scholar]
  10. Corsellis, A.
    (1997) Training needs of public personnel working with interpreters. InS. E. Carr, R. P. Roberts, A. Dufour & D. Steyn (Eds.), The Critical Link: Interpreters in the community. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 77–89. 10.1075/btl.19.10cor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.19.10cor [Google Scholar]
  11. (2000) Turning good intentions into good practice: Enabling the public services to fulfil their responsibilities. InR. P. Roberts, S. E. Carr, D. Abraham & A. Dufour (Eds.), The Critical Link 2: Interpreters in the community. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 89–102. 10.1075/btl.31.11cor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.31.11cor [Google Scholar]
  12. (2008) Responsibilities and training of public service staff. InA. Corsellis (Ed.), Public service interpreting: The first steps. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 118–149. 10.1057/9780230581951_7
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230581951_7 [Google Scholar]
  13. Costa, B.
    (2017) Team effort – training therapists to work with interpreters as a collaborative team. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling391, 56–69. 10.1007/s10447‑016‑9282‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-016-9282-7 [Google Scholar]
  14. Creswell, J. W.
    (2013) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4 ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Denny, M. C., Vahidy, F., Vu, K. Y. T., Sharrief, A. Z. & Savitz, S. I.
    (2017) Video-based educational intervention associated with improved stroke literacy, self-efficacy, and patient satisfaction. PLoS One12 (3), e0171952. 10.1371/journal.pone.0171952
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0171952 [Google Scholar]
  16. Dew, K. N., Turner, A. M., Choi, Y. K., Bosold, A. & Kirchhoff, K.
    (2018) Development of machine translation technology for assisting health communication: A systematic review. Journal of Biomedical Informatics851, 56–67. 10.1016/j.jbi.2018.07.018
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2018.07.018 [Google Scholar]
  17. Diamond, L. C., Schenker, Y., Curry, L., Bradley, E. H. & Fernandez, A.
    (2008) Getting by: Underuse of interpreters by resident physicians. Journal of General Internal Medicine24 (2), 256–262. 10.1007/s11606‑008‑0875‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-008-0875-7 [Google Scholar]
  18. Ertl, A. & Pöllabauer, S.
    (2010) Training (medical) interpreters – the key to good practice. MedInt: A joint European training perspective. The Journal of Specialised Translation141, 165–193.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Felberg, T. R. & Sagli, G.
    (2019) Training public service employees in how to communicate via interpreters in Norway: achievements and challenges. FITISPos International Journal61, 141–155. 10.37536/FITISPos‑IJ.2019.6.1.194
    https://doi.org/10.37536/FITISPos-IJ.2019.6.1.194 [Google Scholar]
  20. Forbes, H., Oprescu, F. I., Downer, T., Phillips, N. M., McTier, L., Lord, B., Barr, N., Alla, K., Bright, P., Dayton, J., Simbag, V. & Visser, I.
    (2016) Use of videos to support teaching and learning of clinical skills in nursing education: A review. Nurse Education Today421, 53–56. 10.1016/j.nedt.2016.04.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2016.04.010 [Google Scholar]
  21. Gentile, A., Ozolins, U. & Vasilakakos, M.
    (1996) Liaison interpreting: A handbook. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gill, P. S., Beavan, J., Calvert, M. & Freemantle, N.
    (2011) The unmet need for interpreting provision in UK primary care. PLoS One6 (6), e20837. 10.1371/journal.pone.0020837
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020837 [Google Scholar]
  23. Hale, S.
    (2007) Community interpreting. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230593442
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230593442 [Google Scholar]
  24. Hale, S. & Ozolins, U.
    (2014) Monolingual short courses for language-specific accreditation: can they work? A Sydney experience. The Interpreter and Translator Trainer8 (2), 217–239. 10.1080/1750399X.2014.929371
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2014.929371 [Google Scholar]
  25. Hanft-Robert, S., Römer, M., Morgenroth, O., Redlich, A. & Metzner, F.
    (2018) Interpreter-supported psychotherapy with refugees and asylum seekers: Results of qualitative interviews with psychotherapists and interpreters on opportunities and challenges in the triad. Verhaltenstherapie28 (2), 73–81. 10.1159/000480667
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000480667 [Google Scholar]
  26. Helfferich, C.
    (2009) Die Qualität qualitativer Daten: Manual für die Durchführung qualitativer Interviews (3rd ed.). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. 10.1007/978‑3‑531‑91858‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-91858-7 [Google Scholar]
  27. Hsieh, E.
    (2010) Provider–interpreter collaboration in bilingual health care: Competitions of control over interpreter-mediated interactions. Patient Education and Counseling78 (2), 154–159. 10.1016/j.pec.2009.02.017
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2009.02.017 [Google Scholar]
  28. Hudelson, P., Perneger, T., Kolly, V. & Perron, N. J.
    (2012) Self-assessed competency at working with a medical interpreter is not associated with knowledge of good practice. PLoS One7 (6), e38973. 10.1371/journal.pone.0038973
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038973 [Google Scholar]
  29. Ikram, U. Z., Essink-Bot, M. L. & Suurmond, J.
    (2015) How we developed an effective e-learning module for medical students on using professional interpreters. Medical Teacher37 (5), 422–427. 10.3109/0142159X.2014.939579
    https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2014.939579 [Google Scholar]
  30. Jacobs, E. A., Diamond, L. C. & Stevak, L.
    (2010) The importance of teaching clinicians: when and how to work with interpreters. Patient Education and Counseling78 (2), 149–153. 10.1016/j.pec.2009.12.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2009.12.001 [Google Scholar]
  31. Jaeger, F. N., Pellaud, N., Laville, B. & Klauser, P.
    (2019a) Barriers to and solutions for addressing insufficient professional interpreter use in primary healthcare. BMC Health Services Research19 (1), 753. 10.1186/s12913‑019‑4628‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4628-6 [Google Scholar]
  32. (2019b) The migration-related language barrier and professional interpreter use in primary health care in Switzerland. BMC Health Services Research19 (1), 429. 10.1186/s12913‑019‑4164‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4164-4 [Google Scholar]
  33. Jang, H. W. & Kim, K. J.
    (2014) Use of online clinical videos for clinical skills training for medical students: Benefits and challenges. BMC Medical Education14 (56), 1–6. 10.1186/1472‑6920‑14‑56
    https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-14-56 [Google Scholar]
  34. Juckett, G. & Unger, K.
    (2014) Appropriate use of medical interpreters. American Family Physician90 (7), 476.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kalet, A. L., Mukherjee, D., Felix, K., Steinberg, S. E., Nachbar, M., Lee, A., Changrani, J. & Gany, F.
    (2005) Can a web-based curriculum improve students’ knowledge of, and attitudes about, the interpreted medical interview?Journal of General Internal Medicine20 (10), 929–934. 10.1111/j.1525‑1497.2005.0193.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.0193.x [Google Scholar]
  36. Karliner, L. S., Jacobs, E. A., Chen, A. H. & Mutha, S.
    (2007) Do professional interpreters improve clinical care for patients with limited english proficiency? A systematic review of the literature. Health Research and Educational Trust42 (2), 727–754. 10.1111/j.1475‑6773.2006.00629.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00629.x [Google Scholar]
  37. Karliner, L. S., Pérez-Stable, E. J. & Gildengorin, G.
    (2004) The language divide: The importance of training in the use of interpreters for outpatient practice. Journal of General Internal Medicine19 (2), 175–183. 10.1111/j.1525‑1497.2004.30268.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30268.x [Google Scholar]
  38. Kilian, S., Swartz, L., Dowling, T., Dlali, M. & Chiliza, B.
    (2014) The potential consequences of informal interpreting practices for assessment of patients in a South African psychiatric hospital. Social Science & Medicine1061, 159–167. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.01.019
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.01.019 [Google Scholar]
  39. Kim, G., Aguado Loi, C. X., Chiriboga, D. A., Jang, Y., Parmelee, P. & Allen, R. S.
    (2011) Limited English proficiency as a barrier to mental health service use: A study of Latino and Asian immigrants with psychiatric disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research45 (1), 104–110. 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.04.031
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.04.031 [Google Scholar]
  40. Kim, S., Ju, M. K., Son, S., Jun, S., Lee, S. Y. & Han, C. S.
    (2020) Development of video-based educational materials for kidney-transplant patients. PLoS One15 (8), e0236750. 10.1371/journal.pone.0236750
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236750 [Google Scholar]
  41. Kuckartz, U.
    (2014) Qualitative text analysis: A guide to methods, practice and using software (2 ed.). London: Sage. 10.4135/9781446288719
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446288719 [Google Scholar]
  42. Lebrun, L. A.
    (2012) Effects of length of stay and language proficiency on health care experiences among immigrants in Canada and the United States. Social Science & Medicine74 (7), 1062–1072. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.11.031
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.11.031 [Google Scholar]
  43. Liebau, E. & Romiti, A.
    (2014) Migranten investieren in Sprache und Bildung. IAB-Kurzbericht 21.2/2014.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Marshall, M. N.
    (1996) Sampling for qualitative research. Family Practice13 (6), 522–525. 10.1093/fampra/13.6.522
    https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/13.6.522 [Google Scholar]
  45. Martínez-Gómez, A.
    (2015) Non-professional interpreters. InH. Mikkelson & R. Jourdenais (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of interpreting. London/New York: Routledge, 417–431.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. McAuliffe, M. & Triandafyllidou, A.
    (2021) World migration report 2022. Geneva: International Organization for Migration (IOM).
    [Google Scholar]
  47. McEvoy, M., Santos, M. T., Marzan, M., Green, E. H. & Milan, F. B.
    (2009) Teaching medical students how to use interpreters: A three year experience. Medical Education Online14 (12), 1–7. 10.3402/meo.v14i.4507
    https://doi.org/10.3402/meo.v14i.4507 [Google Scholar]
  48. Mikkelson, H.
    (2014) Evolution of public service interpreter training in the US. FITISPos International Journal11, 9–22. 10.37536/FITISPos‑IJ.2014.1.0.6
    https://doi.org/10.37536/FITISPos-IJ.2014.1.0.6 [Google Scholar]
  49. Mösko, M. O., Gil-Martinez, F. & Schulz, H.
    (2013) Cross-cultural opening in German outpatient mental healthcare service: An exploratory study of structural and procedural aspects. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy20 (5), 434–446. 10.1002/cpp.1785
    https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.1785 [Google Scholar]
  50. Patriksson, K., Wigert, H., Berg, M. & Nilsson, S.
    (2019) Health care professionals’ communication through an interpreter where language barriers exist in neonatal care: A national study. BMC Health Services Research19 (586), 1–8. 10.1186/s12913‑019‑4428‑z
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4428-z [Google Scholar]
  51. Perez, I. A. & Wilson, C. W. L.
    (2007) Interpreter-mediated police interviews: Working as a professional team. InC. Wadensjö, B. E. Dimitrova & A. L. Nilsson (Eds.), The Critical Link 4: Professionalisation of interpreting in the community. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 79–93. 10.1075/btl.70.11per
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.70.11per [Google Scholar]
  52. Quick, K. K., Selameab, T., Woll, A., Mazzei, C. & Miller, J. L.
    (2019) Creating and evaluating skills-based training in working with spoken-language interpreters for oral health professions students. Journal of Dental Education83 (6), 645–653. 10.21815/JDE.019.081
    https://doi.org/10.21815/JDE.019.081 [Google Scholar]
  53. Roberts-Smith, L.
    (2009) Forensic interpreting: Trial and error. InS. Hale, U. Ozolins & L. Stern (Eds.), The Critical Link 5: Quality in interpreting – a shared responsibility. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 13–35. 10.1075/btl.87.03rob
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.87.03rob [Google Scholar]
  54. Shriner, C. J. & Hickey, D. P.
    (2008) Teaching and assessing family medicine clerks’ use of medical interpreters. Innovations in Family Medicine Education40 (5), 313–315.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Smith, J., Swartz, L., Kilian, S. & Chiliza, B.
    (2013) Mediating words, mediating worlds: Interpreting as hidden care work in a South African psychiatric institution. Transcultural Psychiatry50 (4), 493–514. 10.1177/1363461513494993
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1363461513494993 [Google Scholar]
  56. Swartz, L., Kilian, S., Twesigye, J., Attah, D. & Chiliza, B.
    (2014) Language, culture, and task shifting – an emerging challenge for global mental health. Global Health Action71, 23433. 10.3402/gha.v7.23433
    https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v7.23433 [Google Scholar]
  57. Tebble, H.
    (2003) Training doctors to work effectively with interpreters. InL. Brunette, G. Bastin, I. Hemlin & H. Clarke (Eds.), The Critical Link 3: Interpreters in the community. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 81–95. 10.1075/btl.46.12teb
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.46.12teb [Google Scholar]
  58. ten Thije, J. D.
    (2018) Receptive multilingualism. InD. Singleton & L. Aronin (Eds.), Twelve lectures on multilingualism. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 329–364. 10.21832/9781788922074‑014
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781788922074-014 [Google Scholar]
  59. Tong, A., Sainsbury, P. & Craig, J.
    (2007) Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): A 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups. International Journal for Quality in Health Care19 (6), 349–357. 10.1093/intqhc/mzm042
    https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzm042 [Google Scholar]
  60. Wadensjö, C.
    (1998) Interpreting as interaction. London/New York: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Wilson, E., Chen, A. H., Grumbach, K., Wang, F. & Fernandez, A.
    (2005, Sep). Effects of limited English proficiency and physician language on health care comprehension. Journal of General Internal Medicine201, 800–806. 10.1111/j.1525‑1497.2005.0174.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.0174.x [Google Scholar]
  62. Woll, A., Quick, K. K., Mazzei, C., Selameab, T. & Miller, J. L.
    (2020) Working with interpreters as a team in health care (WITH Care) curriculum tool kit for oral health professions. MedEdPORTAL161, 10894. 10.15766/mep_2374‑8265.10894
    https://doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10894 [Google Scholar]
  63. Yao, C. S., Merz, E. L., Nakaji, M., Harry, K. M., Malcarne, V. L. & Sadler, G. R.
    (2012) Cervical cancer control: Deaf and hearing women’s response to an educational video. Journal of Cancer Education27 (1), 62–66. 10.1007/s13187‑011‑0264‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-011-0264-5 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error