1887
image of Greek migrant jokes online
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This study adheres to critical humor studies investigating how humor targeting the migrant ‘Other’ may reproduce social inequalities in the form of racist stereotypes. We examine two datasets of online migrant-targeting jokes from two different time periods in Greece. Our first collection of jokes comes from the period 1990–2010, i.e., when Greece, enjoying financial prosperity, received mostly Albanian migrants, while the second one comes from 2014 onwards, i.e., when Greece, facing a severe financial crisis, received mostly Muslim migrants. Our analysis shows that the local sociopolitical context plays a significant role in shaping the ways migrants are humorously represented and targeted: the incongruities identified in the first dataset are different from those of the second. In both cases, however, migrant-targeting jokes seem to reinforce national homogenization by circulating racist stereotypes for migrants in a light-hearted manner and by naturalizing the latter’s marginalization and/or assimilation.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ip.00063.tsa
2020-07-24
2020-08-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Archakis, Argiris
    2018 “The representations of racism in immigrant students’ essays in Greece: The ‘hybrid balance’ between legitimizing and resistance identities.” Pragmatics28(1): 1–28. 10.1075/prag.16016.arc
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.16016.arc [Google Scholar]
  2. 2020Από τον εθνικό στον μετα-εθνικό λόγο: Μεταναστευτικές ταυτότητες και κριτική εκπαίδευση [From National to Post-national Discourse: Migrants’ Identities and Critical Education]. Athens: Patakis.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Archakis, Argiris, Sofia Lampropoulou, and Villy Tsakona
    2018 “‘I’m not racist but I expect linguistic assimilation’: The concealing power of humor in an anti-racist campaign.” Discourse, Context & Media23: 53–61. 10.1016/j.dcm.2017.03.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2017.03.005 [Google Scholar]
  4. Archakis, Argiris, and Villy Tsakona
    2019 “Racism in recent Greek migrant jokes.” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research32(2): 267–287. 10.1515/humor‑2018‑0044
    https://doi.org/10.1515/humor-2018-0044 [Google Scholar]
  5. Attardo, Salvatore
    2001Humorous Texts: A Semantic and Pragmatic Analysis. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110887969
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110887969 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bergson, Henri
    1914Laughter: An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic (trans. byCloudesley Brereton, and Fred Rothwell). New York: The Macmillan Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Billig, Michael
    2001 “Humor and hatred: The racist jokes of the Ku Klux Klan.” Discourse and Society12(3): 267–289. 10.1177/0957926501012003001
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926501012003001 [Google Scholar]
  8. 2005a “Comic racism and violence.” InBeyond a Joke: The Limits of Humor, ed. bySharon Lockyer, and Michael Pickering, 25–44. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230236776_2
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230236776_2 [Google Scholar]
  9. 2005bLaughter and Ridicule: Towards a Social Critique of Humor. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Blackledge, Adrian, and Angela Creese
    2010Multilingualism: A Critical Perspective. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Blommaert, Jan, and Ben Rampton
    2011 “Language and superdiversity.” Diversities13(2): 1–20.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Blommaert, Jan, and Jef Verschueren
    1998Debating Diversity: Analyzing the Discourse of Tolerance. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Chakour, Toumader, and Jesús Portillo Fernández
    2018 “La interpretación inferencial y los espacios mentales en el discurso mediático sobre inmigración en España [Inferential interpretation and mental spaces in media discourse about immigration in Spain].” Revista de Humanidades33: 63–88. 10.5944/rdh.33.2018.18504
    https://doi.org/10.5944/rdh.33.2018.18504 [Google Scholar]
  14. Charalambous, Constadina, Panayiota Charalambous, Kamran Khan, and Ben Rampton
    2016 “Security and language policy.” Working Papers in Urban Language and Literacies194: 1–19.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Chun, Elaine, and Keith Walters
    2011 “Orienting to Arab orientalisms: Language, race, and humor in a YouTube video.” InDigital Discourse: Language in the New Media, ed. byCrispin Thurlow, and Kristine Mroczek, 251–273. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199795437.003.0012
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199795437.003.0012 [Google Scholar]
  16. Davies, Christie
    1998Jokes and Their Relation to Society. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110806144
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110806144 [Google Scholar]
  17. Dilmaç, Julie Alev, and Özker Kocadal
    2018 “Syrian refugees in Turkish cartoons: A social semiotic analysis.” Studii de Lingvistică8: 211–229.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hanson-Easey, Scott Alen, and Martha Augoustinos
    2012 “Narratives from the neighborhood: The discursive construction of integration problems in talkback radio.” Journal of Sociolinguistics16(1): 28–55. 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2011.00519.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2011.00519.x [Google Scholar]
  19. Hatzidaki, Ourania, and Dionysis Goutsos
    2017 “The discourses of the Greek crisis.” InGreece in Crisis: Combining Critical Discourse and Corpus Linguistics Perspectives, ed. byOurania Hatzidaki, and Dionysis Goutsos, 1–41. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/dapsac.70.01hat
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.70.01hat [Google Scholar]
  20. Hill, Jane H.
    2008The Everyday Language of White Racism. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781444304732
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444304732 [Google Scholar]
  21. Kompatsiaris, Panos
    2017 “Whitewashing the nation: Racist jokes and the construction of the African ‘other’ in Greek popular cinema.” Social Identities: Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture23(3): 360–375. 10.1080/13504630.2016.1207513
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13504630.2016.1207513 [Google Scholar]
  22. Laineste, Liisi, and Piret Voolaid
    2016 “Laughing across borders: Intertextuality of internet memes.” European Journal of Humor Research4(4): 26–49. 10.7592/EJHR2016.4.4.laineste
    https://doi.org/10.7592/EJHR2016.4.4.laineste [Google Scholar]
  23. Lockyer, Sharon, and Michael Pickering
    2008 “You must be joking: The sociological critique of humor and comic media.” Sociology Compass2(3): 808–820. 10.1111/j.1751‑9020.2008.00108.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9020.2008.00108.x [Google Scholar]
  24. Malmquist, Karl
    2015 “Satire, racist humor and the power of (un)laughter: On the restrained nature of Swedish online racist discourse targeting EU-migrants begging for money.” Discourse and Society26(6): 733–753. 10.1177/0957926515611792
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926515611792 [Google Scholar]
  25. Markantonatou, Maria
    2013 “Diagnosis, treatment, and effects of the crisis in Greece: A ‘special case’ or a ‘test case’?” MPIfG Discussion Paper13(3): 1–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Özdemir, Özlem, and Emrah Özdemir
    2017 “Whose problem is it anyway? The depiction of Syrian refugee influx in political cartoons.” Syria Studies9(1): 33–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Raskin, Victor
    1985Semantic Mechanisms of Humor. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Santa Ana, Otto
    2009 “Did you call in Mexican? The racial politics of Jay Leno immigrant jokes.” Language in Society38(1): 23–45. 10.1017/S0047404508090027
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404508090027 [Google Scholar]
  29. Selim, Yasser Fouad
    2014 “Performing Arabness in Arab American stand-up comedy.” American, British and Canadian Studies23(1): 77–92. 10.1515/abcsj‑2014‑0028
    https://doi.org/10.1515/abcsj-2014-0028 [Google Scholar]
  30. Sue, Christina A., and Tanya Golash-Boza
    2013 “‘It was only a joke’: How racial humor fuels colorblind ideologies in Mexico and Peru.” Ethnic and Racial Studies36(10): 1582–1598. 10.1080/01419870.2013.783929
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2013.783929 [Google Scholar]
  31. Tsakona, Villy
    2000 “Το ανέκδοτο στην επικοινωνία: Πραγματολογική ανάλυση [Jokes in communication: A pragmatic analysis].” Unpublished MA thesis, National and Kapodistrian UniversityofAthens.
  32. 2002 “Οι γλωσσικοί και πραγματολογικοί παράγοντες επιτυχίας των ανεκδότων [Linguistic and pragmatic aspects of successful joke-telling].” Studies in Greek Linguistics22: 659–670.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 2003 “Combining two different realities: Evidence from Greek Bin Laden jokes.” Antares6: 49–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 2015 “‘The doctor said I suffer from vitamin € deficiency’: Investigating the multiple social functions of Greek crisis jokes.” Pragmatics25(2): 287–313. 10.1075/prag.25.2.07tsa
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.25.2.07tsa [Google Scholar]
  35. 2020Recontexualizing Humor: Rethinking the Analysis and Teaching of Humor. Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781501511929
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501511929 [Google Scholar]
  36. van Dijk, Teun A.
    1992 “Discourse and the denial of racism.” Discourse and Society3(1): 87–118. 10.1177/0957926592003001005
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926592003001005 [Google Scholar]
  37. 2008Discourse and Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑1‑137‑07299‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-07299-3 [Google Scholar]
  38. Ventoura, Lina
    2004 “Εθνικισμός, ρατσισμός και μετανάστευση στη σύγχρονη Ελλάδα [Nationalism, racism and migration in contemporary Greece].” InΗ Ελλάδα της μετανάστευσης: Κοινωνική συμμετοχή, δικαιώματα και ιδιότητα του πολίτη [Greece of Migration: Social Participation, Rights and Citizenship], ed. byMiltos Pavlou, and Dimitris Christopoulos, 174–204. Athens: Kritiki and KEMO.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Weaver, Simon
    2011 “Jokes, rhetoric and embodied racism: A rhetorical discourse analysis of the logics of racist jokes on the internet.” Ethnicities11(4): 413–435. 10.1177/1468796811407755
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1468796811407755 [Google Scholar]
  40. 2013 “A rhetorical discourse analysis of online anti-Muslim and anti-Semitic jokes.” Ethnic and Racial Studies36(3): 483–499. 10.1080/01419870.2013.734386
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2013.734386 [Google Scholar]
  41. 2016The Rhetoric of Racist Humor: US, UK and Global Race Joking. Abingdon: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315553504
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315553504 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ip.00063.tsa
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ip.00063.tsa
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error