image of Multimodal joint fantasising as a category‑implicative and category‑relations‑implicative action in online
multi‑party interaction



Drawing on interactional pragmatics and membership categorisation analysis, with a focus on (un)accomplished intersubjectivity, categories and social action, this paper explores some new aspects of multimodal joint fantasising in online interaction. The data for this study comes from the public Facebook event page regarding the ‘ski field opening’ in Brisbane, a sub-tropical city in Australia. The first part of the analysis examines how intersubjectivity is accomplished through joint fantasising co-constructed among the posters, serving entertainment purposes. Invoking their membership in the category ‘fantasisers’, this is done in two ways: (1) ; and (2) . The second part focusses on the instances wherein intersubjectivity in relation to the fantasy world is unaccomplished. It is indexed through (1) metapragmatic labels of humour types; (2) treating the event as real; and (3) doubting the authenticity of the event and challenging the joint fantasising posts. As a result, additional categories emerge, thereby constructing category relations, namely, oppositional categories such as ‘fantasisers’-‘the gullible’ and ‘fantasisers’-‘sceptics’. This change, I argue, creates a shift in the pragmatic function of joint fantasising, moving from a category-implicative action (serving ) to a category-relations-implicative action (serving ). This paper adds to the research on joint fantasising, categorial work and social action, and broadly contributes to our understanding of how members of the society orient to contexts and categories in and through talk-in-interaction.

Available under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Arundale, Robert B.
    2008 “Against (Gricean) intentions at the heart of human interaction.” Intercultural Pragmatics: –. 10.1515/IP.2008.012
    https://doi.org/10.1515/IP.2008.012 [Google Scholar]
  2. Béal, Christine, and Kerry Mullan
    2013 “Issues in conversational humour from a cross-Cultural perspective: Comparing French and Australian corpora.” InCross-culturally Speaking, Speaking Cross-Culturally, ed. byChristine Béal, Kerry Mullan, and Bert Peeters, –. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bolden, Galina B., and Jeffrey D. Robinson
    2011 “Soliciting accounts with why-interrogatives in conversation.” Journal of Communication: –. 10.1111/j.1460‑2466.2010.01528.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01528.x [Google Scholar]
  4. Cekaite, Asta
    2013 “Child pragmatic development.” InThe Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, ed. byCarol A. Chapelle, –. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chang, Wei-Lin Melody, and Michael Haugh
    2021 “Teasing and claims to non-serious intent in Chinese talk shows.” East Asian Pragmatics(): –. 10.1558/eap.18158
    https://doi.org/10.1558/eap.18158 [Google Scholar]
  6. Chang, Wei-Lin Melody, and Valeria Sinkeviciute
    2022 “The role of ‘familiarity’ in Mandarin Chinese speakers’ metapragmatic evaluations of Australian conversational humour.” The European Journal of Humour Research(): –. 10.7592/EJHR.2022.10.2.651
    https://doi.org/10.7592/EJHR.2022.10.2.651 [Google Scholar]
  7. Chovanec, Jan
    2012 “Conversational humour and joint fantasizing in online journalism.” InLanguage and Humour in the Media, ed. byIsabel Ermida, and Jan Chovanec, –. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Choi, Seongsook, and Stephanie Schnurr
    2016 “Enacting and negotiating power relations through teasing in distributed leadership constellations.” Pragmatics and Society(): –. 10.1075/ps.7.3.07cho
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ps.7.3.07cho [Google Scholar]
  9. Clark, Herbert H.
    1996Using Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620539
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620539 [Google Scholar]
  10. Clark, Herbert H., and Mija M. Van der Wege
    2001 “Imagination in discourse.” InThe Handbook of Discourse Analysis, ed. byDeborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen, and Heidi E. Hamilton, –. Malden: Blackwell Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Culpeper, Jonathan
    2011Impoliteness: Using Language to Cause Offence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511975752
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511975752 [Google Scholar]
  12. Davies, Catherine E.
    1984 “Joint joking: Improvisational humorous episodes in conversation.” Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: –. 10.3765/bls.v10i0.3177
    https://doi.org/10.3765/bls.v10i0.3177 [Google Scholar]
  13. Deppermann, Arnulf
    2018 “Inferential practices in social interaction: A conversation-analytic account.” Open Linguistics: –. 10.1515/opli‑2018‑0003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/opli-2018-0003 [Google Scholar]
  14. Djordjilovic, Olga
    2012 “Displaying and developing team identity in workplace meetings.” Discourse Studies: –. 10.1177/1461445611427205
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445611427205 [Google Scholar]
  15. Dynel, Marta
    2011 “Joker in the pack: Towards determining the states of humorous framing in conversations.” InThe Pragmatics of Humour Across Discourse Domains, ed. byMarta Dynel, –. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.210.15dyn
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.210.15dyn [Google Scholar]
  16. 2017a “But seriously: On conversational humour and (un)truthfulness.” Lingua: –. 10.1016/j.lingua.2017.05.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2017.05.004 [Google Scholar]
  17. 2017b “‘Is there a tumour in your humour?’: On misunderstanding and miscommunication in conversational humour.” InDoing Pragmatics Interculturally: Cognitive, Philosophical, and Sociopragmatic Perspectives, ed. byRachel Giora, and Michael Haugh, –. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110546095‑004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110546095-004 [Google Scholar]
  18. 2018a “No child’s play: A philosophical pragmatic view of overt pretense as a vehicle for conversational humor.” InThe Dynamics of Interactional Humor: Creating and Negotiating Humor in Everyday Encounters, ed. byVilly Tsakona, and Jan Chovanec, –. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/thr.7.09dyn
    https://doi.org/10.1075/thr.7.09dyn [Google Scholar]
  19. 2018bIrony, Deception and Humour: Seeking the Truth about Overt and Covert Untruthfulness. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781501507922
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501507922 [Google Scholar]
  20. 2022 “Memefying deception and deceptive memefication: Multimodal deception on social media.” InFrom Lying to Perjury: Linguistic and Legal Perspectives on Lies and Other Falsehoods, ed. byLaurence R. Horn, –. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110733730‑007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110733730-007 [Google Scholar]
  21. 2024 “The pragmatics of sharing memes on Twitter.” Journal of Pragmatics: –. 10.1016/j.pragma.2023.12.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2023.12.001 [Google Scholar]
  22. Elder, Chi-Hé, and Michael Haugh
    2018 “The interactional achievement of speaker meaning: Toward a formal account of conversational inference.” Intercultural Pragmatics(): –. 10.1515/ip‑2018‑0021
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ip-2018-0021 [Google Scholar]
  23. Fitiou, Constantina
    2024 “Didn’t she say to you, ‘Oh my God! In Pafos?’: Hypothetical quotations in everyday conversation.” Pragmatics(): –. 10.1075/prag.20049.fot
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.20049.fot [Google Scholar]
  24. Fitzgerald, Richard
    2015 “Membership categorization analysis.” InThe International Encyclopedia of Language and Social Interaction, ed. byKaren Tracy, Cornelia Ilie, and Tood Sanders, –. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. 10.1002/9781118611463.wbielsi018
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118611463.wbielsi018 [Google Scholar]
  25. Fitzgerald, Richard, and William Housley
    (eds) 2015Advances in Membership Categorisation Analysis. Los Angeles: Sage. 10.4135/9781473917873
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781473917873 [Google Scholar]
  26. Garfinkel, Harold
    1967Studies in Ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Geyer, Naomi
    2010 “Teasing and ambivalent face in Japanese multi-party discourse.” Journal of Pragmatics: –. 10.1016/j.pragma.2009.12.015
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2009.12.015 [Google Scholar]
  28. Giles, David, Wyke Stommel, Trena Paulus, Jessica Lester, and Darren Reed
    2015 “Microanalysis of online data: The methodological development of ‘digital CA’.” Discourse, Context & Media: –. 10.1016/j.dcm.2014.12.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2014.12.002 [Google Scholar]
  29. Goddard, Cliff
    2006 “‘Lift your game Martina!’: Deadpan jocular irony and the ethnopragmatics of Australian English.” InEthnopragmatics: Understanding Discourse in Cultural Context, ed. byCliff Goddard, –. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110911114.65
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110911114.65 [Google Scholar]
  30. Haugh, Michael
    2010 “Jocular mockery, (dis)affiliation, and face.” Journal of Pragmatics(): –. 10.1016/j.pragma.2009.12.018
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2009.12.018 [Google Scholar]
  31. 2011 “Humour, face and im/politeness in getting acquainted.” InSituated Politeness, ed. byBethan L. Davies, Michael Haugh, and Andrew John Merrison, –. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 2012 “Conversational interaction.” In: The Cambridge Handbook of Pragmatics, ed. byKeith Allan, and Kasia M. Jaszczolt, –. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139022453.014
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139022453.014 [Google Scholar]
  33. 2013 “Implicature, inference and cancellability.” InPerspectives on Pragmatics and Philosophy, ed. byAlessandro Capone, Franco Lo Piparo, and Marco Carapezza, –. Cham: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑01011‑3_6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01011-3_6 [Google Scholar]
  34. 2014 “Jocular mockery as interactional practice in everyday Anglo-Australian conversation.” Australian Journal of Linguistics(): –. 10.1080/07268602.2014.875456
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07268602.2014.875456 [Google Scholar]
  35. 2016 “Jocular language play, social action and (dis)affiliation in conversational interaction.” InMultiple Perspectives on Language Play, ed. byNancy Bell, –. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9781501503993‑007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501503993-007 [Google Scholar]
  36. 2017 “Mockery and (non-)seriousness in initial interactions amongst American and Australian speakers of English.” InHandbook of Communication in Cross-Cultural Perspective, ed. byDonal Carbaugh, –. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Haugh, Michael, and Derek Bousfield
    2012 “Mock impoliteness in interactions amongst Australian and British speakers of English.” Journal of Pragmatics: –. 10.1016/j.pragma.2012.02.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2012.02.003 [Google Scholar]
  38. Hay, Jennifer
    2001 “The pragmatics of humour support.” Humor:–. 10.1515/humr.14.1.55
    https://doi.org/10.1515/humr.14.1.55 [Google Scholar]
  39. Heritage, John
    2011 “Territories of knowledge, territories of experience: Empathic moments in interaction.” InThe Morality of Knowledge in Conversation, ed. byTanya Stivers, Lorenza Mondada, and Jakob Steensig, –. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511921674.008
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511921674.008 [Google Scholar]
  40. Hester, Stephen, and Peter Eglin
    1997Culture in Action: Studies in Membership Categorization Analysis. Lanham: International Institute for Ethnomethodology & University Press of America.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Hester, Sally, and Stephen Hester
    2010 “Conversational actions and category relations: An analysis of a children’s argument.” Discourse Studies(): –. 10.1177/1461445609347233
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445609347233 [Google Scholar]
  42. Hester, Stephen, and Sally Hester
    2012 “Category relations, omnirelevance, and children’s disputes.” InDisputes in Everyday Life: Social and Moral Orders of Children and Young People, ed. bySusan Danby, and Maryanne Theobald, –. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. 10.1108/S1537‑4661(2012)0000015005
    https://doi.org/10.1108/S1537-4661(2012)0000015005 [Google Scholar]
  43. Housley, William, Helena Webb, Adam Edwards, Rob Procter, and Marina Jirotka
    2017 “Digitizing Sacks? Approaching social media as data.” Qualitative Research(): –. 10.1177/1468794117715063
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794117715063 [Google Scholar]
  44. Inya, Onwu
    2021 “‘Egungun be careful, na Express you dey go’: Socialising a newcomer-celebrity and co-constructing relational connection on Twitter Nigeria.” Journal of Pragmatics: –. 10.1016/j.pragma.2021.08.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.08.005 [Google Scholar]
  45. Inya, Blessing T., and Onwu Inya
    2018 “Conversational humour in a Nigerian radio news programme: A case study of Lati inu aka aka Biodun/Kayode.” European Journal of Humour Research(): –. 10.7592/EJHR2018.6.4.inya
    https://doi.org/10.7592/EJHR2018.6.4.inya [Google Scholar]
  46. Kotthoff, Helga
    1999 “Coherent keying in conversational humour: Contextualising joint fictionalisation.” InCoherece in Spoken and Written Discourse: How to Create It and How to Decsribe It, ed. byWolfram Bublitz, Uta Lenk, and Eija Ventola, –. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.63.10kot
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.63.10kot [Google Scholar]
  47. 2007 “Oral genres of humor: On the fialectic of genre knowledge and creative authoring.” Pragmatics(): –.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Lave, Jean, and Etienne Wenger
    1991Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511815355
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815355 [Google Scholar]
  49. Lee, David
    1987 “The semantics of just.” Journal of Pragmatics: –. 10.1016/0378‑2166(87)90138‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(87)90138-X [Google Scholar]
  50. Levinson, Stephen C.
    1983Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511813313
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813313 [Google Scholar]
  51. Maíz-Arévalo, Carmen
    2013 ““Just click ‘Like’’’: Computer-mediated responses to Spanish compliments.” Journal of Pragmatics: –. 10.1016/j.pragma.2013.03.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2013.03.003 [Google Scholar]
  52. 2015 “Jocular mockery in computer-mediated communication: A contrastive study of a Spanish and English Facebook community.” Journal of Politeness Research(): –. 10.1515/pr‑2015‑0012
    https://doi.org/10.1515/pr-2015-0012 [Google Scholar]
  53. Meredith, Joanne
    2019 “Conversation analysis and online interaction.” Research on Language and Social Interaction(): –. 10.1080/08351813.2019.1631040
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08351813.2019.1631040 [Google Scholar]
  54. Meredith, Joanne, and Elizabeth Stokoe
    2014 “Repair: Comparing Facebook ‘chat’ with spoken interaction.” Discourse & Communication() –. 10.1177/1750481313510815
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481313510815 [Google Scholar]
  55. Mullan, Kerry
    2020 “Pile of dead leaves free to a good home: Humour and belonging in a Facebook community.” InStudies in Ethnopragmatics, Cultural Semantics, and Intercultural Communication: Ethnopragmatics and Semantic Analysis, ed. byKerry Mullan, Bert Peeters, and Lauren Sadow, –. Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑32‑9983‑2_8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9983-2_8 [Google Scholar]
  56. Norrick, Neal R.
    2012 “Listening practices in English conversation: The responses responses elicit.” Journal of Pragmatics(): –. 10.1016/j.pragma.2011.08.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.08.007 [Google Scholar]
  57. Okazawa, Ryo
    2021 “Resisting categorization in interaction: Membership categorization analysis of sitcom humor.” Journal of Pragmatics: –. 10.1016/j.pragma.2021.09.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.09.011 [Google Scholar]
  58. Page, Ruth
    2012 “The linguistics of self-branding and micro-celebrity in Twitter: The role of hashtags.” Discourse & Communication(): –. 10.1177/1750481312437441
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481312437441 [Google Scholar]
  59. Pomerantz, Anita
    1986 “Extreme case formulations: A way of legitimizing claims.” Human Studies: –. 10.1007/BF00148128
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00148128 [Google Scholar]
  60. Poppi, Fabio Indìo Massimo
    2021a “Sancte et sapienter: Joint fantasizing as the interactional practice of micro and macro contextual understanding.” Pragmatics and Society(): –. 10.1075/ps.18043.ind
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ps.18043.ind [Google Scholar]
  61. 2021b “Pro Domo Sua: Narratives of sexual abstinence.” Sexuality & Culture: –. 10.1007/s12119‑020‑09782‑w
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-020-09782-w [Google Scholar]
  62. Poppi, Fabio Indìo Massimo, and Heith Copes
    2024 “Identitas per fabulam: Joint fantasising in the construction of criminal group identities.” Critical Criminology. 10.1007/s10612‑024‑09760‑w
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10612-024-09760-w [Google Scholar]
  63. Priego-Valverde, Beatriz
    2006 “How funny it is when everybody gets going! A case of co-construction of humor in convesation.” CÍRCULO de Lingüística Aplicada a la Comunicación (clac): –.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Raymond, Geoffrey, and John Heritage
    2006 “The epistemics of social relationships: Owning grandchildren.” Language in Society: –. 10.1017/S0047404506060325
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404506060325 [Google Scholar]
  65. Raymond, Chase Wesley
    2019 “Intersubjectivity, normativity, and grammar.” Social Psychology Quarterly(): –. 10.1177/0190272519850781
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0190272519850781 [Google Scholar]
  66. Raymond, Chase Wesley, and Tanya Stivers
    2016 “The omnirelevance of accountability: Off-record account solicitation.” InAccountability in Social Interaction, ed. byJeffrey D. Robinson, –. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190210557.003.0011
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190210557.003.0011 [Google Scholar]
  67. Rossi, Giovanni, and Tanya Stivers
    2021 “Category-sensitive actions in interaction.” Social Psychology Quarterly(): –. 10.1177/0190272520944595
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0190272520944595 [Google Scholar]
  68. Sacks, Harvey
    1974 “An analysis of the course of a joke’s telling in conversation.” InExplorations in the Ethnography of Speaking, ed. byRichard Bauman, and Joel Sherzer, –. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 1992Lectures on Conversation. Malden: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Sampietro, Agnese
    2021 “Emojis and the performance of humour in everyday electronically-mediated conversation: A corpus study of WhatsApp chats.” Internet Pragmatics(): –. 10.1075/ip.00062.samp
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ip.00062.samp [Google Scholar]
  71. Sawyer, Keith
    1993 “The pragmatics of play: Interactional strategies during children’s pretend play.” Pragmatics(): –.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Scott, Kate
    2015 “The pragmatics of hashtags: Inference and conversational style on Twitter.” Journal of Pragmatics: –. 10.1016/j.pragma.2015.03.015
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2015.03.015 [Google Scholar]
  73. Sidnell, Jack
    2011 “The epistemics of make-believe.” InThe Morality of Knowledge in Conversation, ed. byStivers, Tanya, Lorenza Mondada, and Jakob Steensig, –. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511921674.007
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511921674.007 [Google Scholar]
  74. Sinkeviciute, Valeria
    2013 “Decoding encoded (im)politeness: ‘Cause on my teasing you can depend’.” InDevelopments in Linguistic Humour Theory, ed. byMarta Dynel, –. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/thr.1.13sin
    https://doi.org/10.1075/thr.1.13sin [Google Scholar]
  75. 2014 “‘When a joke’s a joke and when it’s too much’: Mateship as a key to interpreting jocular FTAs in Australian English.” Journal of Pragmatics: –. 10.1016/j.pragma.2013.11.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2013.11.004 [Google Scholar]
  76. 2016 “‘Everything he says to me it’s like he stabs me in the face’: Frontstage and backstage reactions to teasing.” InMultiple Perspectives on Language Play, ed. byNancy Bell, –. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9781501503993‑008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501503993-008 [Google Scholar]
  77. 2017 “What makes teasing impolite in Australian and British English? ‘Step[ping] over those lines […] you shouldn’t be crossing’.” Journal of Politeness Research(): –. 10.1515/pr‑2015‑0034
    https://doi.org/10.1515/pr-2015-0034 [Google Scholar]
  78. 2018 “‘Ya bloody drongo!!!’: Impoliteness as situated moral judgement on Facebook.” Internet Pragmatics(): –. 10.1075/ip.00013.sin
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ip.00013.sin [Google Scholar]
  79. 2019a “Juggling identities in interviews: The metapragmatics of ‘doing humour’.” Journal of Pragmatics: –. 10.1016/j.pragma.2018.08.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.08.005 [Google Scholar]
  80. 2019bConversational Humour and (Im)politeness: A Pragmatic Analysis of Social Interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/thr.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/thr.8 [Google Scholar]
  81. Stallone, Letícia, and Michael Haugh
    2017 “Joint fantasising as relational practice in Brazilian Portuguese interaction.” Language & Communication: –. 10.1016/j.langcom.2016.08.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2016.08.012 [Google Scholar]
  82. Stokoe, Elizabeth
    2012 “Moving forward with membership categorization analysis: Methods for systematic analysis.” Discourse Studies(): –. 10.1177/1461445612441534
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445612441534 [Google Scholar]
  83. Tsakona, Villy
    2018 “Online joint fictionalization.” InThe Dynamics of Interactional Humor: Creating and Negotiating Humor in Everyday Encounters, ed. byVilly Tsakona, and Jan Chovanec, –. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/thr.7.10tsa
    https://doi.org/10.1075/thr.7.10tsa [Google Scholar]
  84. Vandergriff, Ilona, and Carolin Fuchs
    2012 “Humor support in synchronous computer-mediated classroom discussions.” Humor(): –. 10.1515/humor‑2012‑0022
    https://doi.org/10.1515/humor-2012-0022 [Google Scholar]
  85. Winchatz, Michaela R., and Alexander Kozin
    2008 “Comical hypothetical: Arguing for a conversational phenomenon.” Discourse Studies(): –. 10.1177/1461445608089917
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445608089917 [Google Scholar]
  86. Xie, Chaoqun, and Francisco Yus
    2018 “Introducing internet pragmatics.” Internet Pragmatics(): –. 10.1075/ip.00001.xie
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ip.00001.xie [Google Scholar]
  87. Yu, Guodong, and Yaxin Wu
    2021 “Managing expert/novice identity with actions in conversation: Identity construction & negotiation.” Journal of Pragmatics: –. 10.1016/j.pragma.2021.03.021
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.03.021 [Google Scholar]
  88. Ziv, Avner
    1984Personality and Sense of Humor. New York: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error