Volume 21, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1572-0373
  • E-ISSN: 1572-0381
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



In recent years the possibility of using humanoid robots to perform interviews with children has been explored in a number of studies. This paper details a study in which a potential real-world user trialled a Robot-Mediated Interviewing system with children to establish if this approach could realistically be used in a real-world context. In this study a senior educational psychologist used the humanoid robot Kaspar to interview ten primary school children about a video they had watched prior to the interview. We conducted a pre and post interview with the educational psychologist before and after using the system to establish how the system worked for him and the perceived potential for real-world applications. The educational psychologist successfully used the system to interview the children and believed that principally using a small humanoid robot to interview children could be useful in a real-world setting provided the system was developed further.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Screaming Bee. MorphVOX Pro
    Screaming Bee. MorphVOX Pro. Retrieved fromwww.screamingbee.com/product/MorphVOX.aspx
  2. Bethel, C. L., Eakin, D. K., Anreddy, S., Stuart, J. K., & Carruth, D.
    (2013) Eyewitnesses are misled by human but not robot interviewers. Paper presented at theProceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction. 10.1109/HRI.2013.6483498
    https://doi.org/10.1109/HRI.2013.6483498 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bethel, C. L., Henkel, Z., Stives, K., May, D. C., Eakin, D. K., Pilkinton, M., … Stubbs-Richardson, M.
    (2016) Using Robots to Interview Children about Bullying: Lessons Learned from an Exploratory Study. Paper presented at thePresentation in the Special Session on Child-Robot Interaction at the 25th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN 2016).
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bethel, C. L., Stevenson, M. R., & Scassellati, B.
    (2011) Sharing a Secret: Interactions Between a Child, Robot, and Adult. Paper presented at thePresented at the Children with Robots Workshop at the 6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cabibihan, J.-J., Javed, H., Ang Jr, M., & Aljunied, S. M.
    (2013) Why robots? A survey on the roles and benefits of social robots in the therapy of children with autism. International Journal of Social Robotics, 5(4), 593–618. 10.1007/s12369‑013‑0202‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12369-013-0202-2 [Google Scholar]
  6. Chevalier, P., Martin, J.-C., Isableu, B., Bazile, C., & Tapus, A.
    (2017) Impact of sensory preferences of individuals with autism on the recognition of emotions expressed by two robots, an avatar, and a human. Autonomous Robots, 41(3), 613–635. 10.1007/s10514‑016‑9575‑z
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10514-016-9575-z [Google Scholar]
  7. Conti, D., Di Nuovo, S., Buono, S., & Di Nuovo, A.
    (2017) Robots in education and care of children with developmental disabilities: a study on acceptance by experienced and future professionals. International Journal of Social Robotics, 9(1), 51–62. 10.1007/s12369‑016‑0359‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12369-016-0359-6 [Google Scholar]
  8. Costa, S., Lehmann, H., Dautenhahn, K., Robins, B., & Soares, F.
    (2015) Using a humanoid robot to elicit body awareness and appropriate physical interaction in children with autism. International Journal of Social Robotics, 7(2), 265–278. 10.1007/s12369‑014‑0250‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12369-014-0250-2 [Google Scholar]
  9. Costescu, C. A., Vanderborght, B., & David, D. O.
    (2014) The effects of robot-enhanced psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Review of General Psychology, 18(2), 127. 10.1037/gpr0000007
    https://doi.org/10.1037/gpr0000007 [Google Scholar]
  10. Esteban, P. G., Baxter, P., Belpaeme, T., Billing, E., Cai, H., Cao, H.-L., … De Beir, A.
    (2017) How to build a supervised autonomous system for robot-enhanced therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder. Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics, 8(1), 18–38. 10.1515/pjbr‑2017‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/pjbr-2017-0002 [Google Scholar]
  11. UK Government
    UK Government (2011) Achieving Best Evidence in Criminal Proceedings: Guidance on Interviewing Victims and Witnesses, and Using Special Measures. Home Office Criminal Justice System.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hsu, C.-W., & Teoh, Y.-S.
    (2017) Investigating Event Memory in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effects of a Computer-Mediated Interview. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 47(2), 359–372. 10.1007/s10803‑016‑2959‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2959-2 [Google Scholar]
  13. Jones, L., Bellis, M. A., Wood, S., Hughes, K., McCoy, E., Eckley, L., … Officer, A.
    (2012) Prevalence and risk of violence against children with disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. The Lancet. 10.1016/S0140‑6736(12)60692‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60692-8 [Google Scholar]
  14. Kyriakidou, M.
    (2016) Discussing robot crime interviewers for children’s forensic testimonies: a relatively new field for investigation. AI & SOCIETY, 31(1), 121–126. 10.1007/s00146‑014‑0566‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00146-014-0566-3 [Google Scholar]
  15. Martínez-Miranda, J., Pérez-Espinosa, H., Espinosa-Curiel, I., Avila-George, H., & Rodríguez-Jacobo, J.
    (2018) Age-based differences in preferences and affective reactions towards a robot’s personality during interaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 84, 245–257. 10.1016/j.chb.2018.02.039
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.02.039 [Google Scholar]
  16. Mead, R., Grollman, D. H., Lim, A., Yeung, C., Stout, A., & Knox, W. B.
    (2018) HRI 2018 Workshop: Social Robots in the Wild. Paper presented at theCompanion of the 2018 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction. 10.1145/3173386.3173569
    https://doi.org/10.1145/3173386.3173569 [Google Scholar]
  17. Meghdari, A., Alemi, M., Khamooshi, M., Amoozandeh, A., Shariati, A., & Mozafari, B.
    (2016) Conceptual design of a social robot for pediatric hospitals. Paper presented at theRobotics and Mechatronics (ICROM), 2016 4th International Conference on. 10.1109/ICRoM.2016.7886804
    https://doi.org/10.1109/ICRoM.2016.7886804 [Google Scholar]
  18. Mencap
    (1999) Submission to the Sex Offences Review.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Pennisi, P., Tonacci, A., Tartarisco, G., Billeci, L., Ruta, L., Gangemi, S., & Pioggia, G.
    (2015) Autism and social robotics: A systematic review. Autism Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Robins, B., & Dautenhahn, K.
    (2014) Tactile interactions with a humanoid robot: novel play scenario implementations with children with autism. International Journal of Social Robotics, 6(3), 397–415. 10.1007/s12369‑014‑0228‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12369-014-0228-0 [Google Scholar]
  21. Robins, B., Dautenhahn, K., & Dickerson, P.
    (2009, February1–7). From isolation to communication: A case study evaluation of robot assisted play for children with autism with a minimally expressive humanoid robot. Paper presented at theProc. the Second International Conferences on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions, ACHI 09, Cancun, Mexico.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Sartorato, F., Przybylowski, L., & Sarko, D. K.
    (2017) Improving therapeutic outcomes in autism spectrum disorders: Enhancing social communication and sensory processing through the use of interactive robots. Journal of psychiatric research, 90, 1–11. 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.02.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.02.004 [Google Scholar]
  23. Wood, L. J., Dautenhahn, K., Lehmann, H., Robins, B., Rainer, A., & Syrdal, D. S.
    (2013a) Robot-Mediated Interviews: Do robots possess advantages over human interviewers when talking to children with special needs?Paper presented at theInternational Conference on Social Robotics, Bristol, UK.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (2013b) Robot-Mediated Interviews: Does a robotic interviewer impact question difficulty and information recovery?Paper presented at the12th European AAATE Conference, Vilamoura, Portugal.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Wood, L. J., Dautenhahn, K., Rainer, A., Robins, B., Lehmann, H., & Syrdal, D. S.
    (2013) Robot-Mediated Interviews-How Effective Is a Humanoid Robot as a Tool for Interviewing Young Children?PLOS ONE, 8(3), e59448. 10.1371/journal.pone.0059448
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059448 [Google Scholar]
  26. Wood, L. J., Lehmann, H., Dautenhahn, K., Robins, B., Rainer, A., & Syrdal, D. S.
    (2014) Robot-Mediated Interviews with Children: What do potential users think?Paper presented at theAISB Symposium New Frontiers in HRI.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. (2016) Robot-Mediated Interviews with Children: What do potential users think?Interaction Studies, Vol. 17:3, pp.439–461.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Wood, L.J., Zaraki, A., Robins, B. and Dautenhahn, K.
    2019 Developing kaspar: a humanoid robot for children with autism. International Journal of Social Robotics, pp.1-18.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): educational robots; Kaspar; Robot-Mediated Interview; social robots
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error