1887
Volume 23, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1572-0373
  • E-ISSN: 1572-0381
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have pronounced difficulties in attending to relevant visual information during social interactions. We designed and evaluated the feasibility of a novel method to train this ability, by exposing participants to virtual human characters displayed on a screen which was entirely blurred, except for a gaze-contingent viewing window that followed participants’ eyes direction. The goal was to incite participants to direct their gaze towards the facial expressions of the virtual characters. Twenty-one adolescents with ASD who attended ordinary school were randomized to either an experimental group, who was trained during a month and a half, or to a control group. Social communicative abilities were assessed during pre, post and follow-up tests. After training, the experimental group showed significantly more interest in facial expressions on a test which involved understanding a dialogue. Significant differences were not found for the other tests used. This outcome suggests that the training method fostered participants’ awareness of the relevance of facial expressions.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/is.21022.gry
2022-10-20
2022-12-08
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association
    American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub. 10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
    https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596 [Google Scholar]
  2. Baron-Cohen, S.
    (1997) Mindblindness : An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barzy, M., Black, J., Williams, D., & Ferguson, H. J.
    (2019) Autistic adults anticipate and integrate meaning based on the speaker’s voice : Evidence from eye-tracking and event-related potentials. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General. 10.1037/xge0000705
    https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000705 [Google Scholar]
  4. Berggren, S., Fletcher-Watson, S., Milenkovic, N., Marschik, P. B., Bölte, S., & Jonsson, U.
    (2018) Emotion recognition training in autism spectrum disorder : A systematic review of challenges related to generalizability. Developmental neurorehabilitation, 21(3), 141–154. 10.1080/17518423.2017.1305004
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17518423.2017.1305004 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bolte, S., Hubl, D., Feineis-Matthews, S., Prvulovic, D., Dierks, T., & Poustka, F.
    (2006) Facial affect recognition training in autism : Can we animate the fusiform gyrus?Behavioral Neuroscience, 120(1), 211–216. 10.1037/0735‑7044.120.1.211
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7044.120.1.211 [Google Scholar]
  6. Brooks, B. L., Sherman, E. M. S., & Strauss, E.
    (2009) NEPSY-II : A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition. Child Neuropsychology, 16(1), 80–101. 10.1080/09297040903146966
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09297040903146966 [Google Scholar]
  7. Brown, S. M., & Bebko, J. M.
    (2012) Generalization, overselectivity, and discrimination in the autism phenotype : A review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(2), 733–740. 10.1016/j.rasd.2011.10.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2011.10.012 [Google Scholar]
  8. Caruana, N., Stieglitz Ham, H., Brock, J., Woolgar, A., Kloth, N., Palermo, R., & McArthur, G.
    (2018) Joint attention difficulties in autistic adults : An interactive eye-tracking study. Autism, 22(4), 502–512. 10.1177/1362361316676204
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361316676204 [Google Scholar]
  9. Chawarska, K., Macari, S., & Shic, F.
    (2012) Context modulates attention to social scenes in toddlers with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(8), 903–913. 10.1111/j.1469‑7610.2012.02538.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02538.x [Google Scholar]
  10. (2013) Decreased spontaneous attention to social scenes in 6-month-old infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 74(3), 195–203. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.11.022
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.11.022 [Google Scholar]
  11. Chita-Tegmark, M.
    (2016) Attention Allocation in ASD : A Review and Meta-analysis of Eye-Tracking Studies. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1–15. 10.1007/s40489‑016‑0077‑x
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-016-0077-x [Google Scholar]
  12. Evers, K., Belle, G. V., Steyaert, J., Noens, I., & Wagemans, J.
    (2018) Gaze-Contingent Display Changes as New Window on Analytical and Holistic Face Perception in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Child Development, 89(2), 430–445. 10.1111/cdev.12776
    https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12776 [Google Scholar]
  13. Faja, S., Webb, S. J., Jones, E., Merkle, K., Kamara, D., Bavaro, J., Aylward, E., & Dawson, G.
    (2012) The effects of face expertise training on the behavioral performance and brain activity of adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(2), 278–293. 10.1007/s10803‑011‑1243‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1243-8 [Google Scholar]
  14. Falck-Ytter, T., Hofsten, C. von, Gillberg, C., & Fernell, E.
    (2013) Visualization and Analysis of Eye Movement Data from Children with Typical and Atypical Development. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(10), 2249–2258. 10.1007/s10803‑013‑1776‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1776-0 [Google Scholar]
  15. Fletcher-Watson, S., Petrou, A., Scott-Barrett, J., Dicks, P., Graham, C., O’Hare, A., Pain, H., & McConachie, H.
    (2016) A trial of an iPadTM intervention targeting social communication skills in children with autism. Autism, 20(7), 771–782. 10.1177/1362361315605624
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361315605624 [Google Scholar]
  16. Frazier, T. W., Strauss, M., Klingemier, E. W., Zetzer, E. E., Hardan, A. Y., Eng, C., & Youngstrom, E. A.
    (2017) A Meta-Analysis of Gaze Differences to Social and Nonsocial Information Between Individuals With and Without Autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(7), 546–555. 10.1016/j.jaac.2017.05.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.05.005 [Google Scholar]
  17. Freeth, M., & Bugembe, P.
    (2019) Social partner gaze direction and conversational phase; factors affecting social attention during face-to-face conversations in autistic adults?Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 23(2), 503–513. 10.1177/1362361318756786
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361318756786 [Google Scholar]
  18. Golan, O., Ashwin, E., Granader, Y., McClintock, S., Day, K., Leggett, V., & Baron-Cohen, S.
    (2010) Enhancing emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum conditions : An intervention using animated vehicles with real emotional faces. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(3), 269–279. 10.1007/s10803‑009‑0862‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0862-9 [Google Scholar]
  19. Golan, O., & Baron-Cohen, S.
    (2006) Systemizing empathy : Teaching adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism to recognize complex emotions using interactive multimedia. Development and psychopathology, 18(02), 591–617. 10.1017/S0954579406060305
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579406060305 [Google Scholar]
  20. Grossard, C., Grynspan, O., Serret, S., Jouen, A.-L., Bailly, K., & Cohen, D.
    (2017) Serious games to teach social interactions and emotions to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Computers & Education, 113, 195–211. 10.1016/j.compedu.2017.05.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.05.002 [Google Scholar]
  21. Grynszpan, O., Bouteiller, J., Grynszpan, S., Le Barillier, F., Martin, J.-C., & Nadel, J.
    (2019) Altered sense of gaze leading in autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 67, 101441. 10.1016/j.rasd.2019.101441
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2019.101441 [Google Scholar]
  22. Grynszpan, O., Martin, J., & Nadel, J.
    (2007) Exploring the influence of task assignment and output modalities on computerized training for autism. Interaction Studies, 8(2), 241–266. 10.1075/is.8.2.04gry
    https://doi.org/10.1075/is.8.2.04gry [Google Scholar]
  23. (2008) Multimedia interfaces for users with high functioning autism : An empirical investigation. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66(8), 628–639. 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2008.04.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2008.04.001 [Google Scholar]
  24. Grynszpan, O., Nadel, J., Martin, J.-C., Simonin, J., Bailleul, P., Wang, Y., Gepner, D., Le Barillier, F., & Constant, J.
    (2012) Self-monitoring of gaze in high functioning autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 42(8), 1642–1650. 10.1007/s10803‑011‑1404‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1404-9 [Google Scholar]
  25. Grynszpan, O., Weiss, P. L. (Tamar), Perez-Diaz, F., & Gal, E.
    (2014) Innovative technology-based interventions for autism spectrum disorders : A meta-analysis. Autism, 18(4), 346–361. 10.1177/1362361313476767
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361313476767 [Google Scholar]
  26. Guillon, Q., Hadjikhani, N., Baduel, S., & Rogé, B.
    (2014) Visual social attention in autism spectrum disorder : Insights from eye tracking studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 42, 279–297. 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.03.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.03.013 [Google Scholar]
  27. Happé, F. G.
    (1993) Communicative competence and theory of mind in autism : A test of relevance theory. Cognition, 48(2), 101–119. 10.1016/0010‑0277(93)90026‑R
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(93)90026-R [Google Scholar]
  28. Hochhauser, M., & Grynszpan, O.
    (2017) Methods Investigating How Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder Spontaneously Attend to Social Events. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 4(1), 82–93. 10.1007/s40489‑016‑0099‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-016-0099-4 [Google Scholar]
  29. Hopkins, I. M., Gower, M. W., Perez, T. A., Smith, D. S., Amthor, F. R., Wimsatt, F. C., & Biasini, F. J.
    (2011) Avatar assistant : Improving social skills in students with an ASD through a computer-based intervention. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 41(11), 1543–1555. 10.1007/s10803‑011‑1179‑z
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1179-z [Google Scholar]
  30. Jolliffe, T., & Baron-Cohen, S.
    (1999) A test of central coherence theory : Linguistic processing in high-functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome: is local coherence impaired?Cognition, 71(2), 149–185. 10.1016/S0010‑0277(99)00022‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(99)00022-0 [Google Scholar]
  31. Jones, W., Carr, K., & Klin, A.
    (2008) Absence of preferential looking to the eyes of approaching adults predicts level of social disability in 2-year-old toddlers with autism spectrum disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(8), 946–954. 10.1001/archpsyc.65.8.946
    https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.65.8.946 [Google Scholar]
  32. Keemink, J. R., Keshavarzi-Pour, M. J., & Kelly, D. J.
    (2019) Infants’ responses to interactive gaze-contingent faces in a novel and naturalistic eye-tracking paradigm. Developmental Psychology, 55(7), 1362–1371. 10.1037/dev0000736
    https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000736 [Google Scholar]
  33. Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., Volkmar, F., & Cohen, D.
    (2002) Defining and quantifying the social phenotype in autism. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(6), 895–908. 10.1176/appi.ajp.159.6.895
    https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.159.6.895 [Google Scholar]
  34. Kuhn, G., Kourkoulou, A., & Leekam, S. R.
    (2010) How Magic Changes Our Expectations About Autism. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1487–1493. 10.1177/0956797610383435
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610383435 [Google Scholar]
  35. Little, G. E., Bonnar, L., Kelly, S. W., Lohan, K. S., & Rajendran, G.
    (2016) Gaze contingent joint attention with an avatar in children with and without ASD. 2016 Joint IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning and Epigenetic Robotics (ICDL-EpiRob), 15–20. 10.1109/DEVLRN.2016.7846780
    https://doi.org/10.1109/DEVLRN.2016.7846780 [Google Scholar]
  36. Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., Pickles, A., & Rutter, M.
    (2000) The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule – Generic : A Standard Measure of Social and Communication Deficits Associated with the Spectrum of Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223. 10.1023/A:1005592401947
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005592401947 [Google Scholar]
  37. Mei, C., Zahed, B. T., Mason, L., & Ouarles, J.
    (2018) Towards Joint Attention Training for Children with ASD – a VR Game Approach and Eye Gaze Exploration. 2018 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR), 289–296. 10.1109/VR.2018.8446242
    https://doi.org/10.1109/VR.2018.8446242 [Google Scholar]
  38. Nakano, T., Tanaka, K., Endo, Y., Yamane, Y., Yamamoto, T., Nakano, Y., Ohta, H., Kato, N., & Kitazawa, S.
    (2010) Atypical gaze patterns in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders dissociated from developmental changes in gaze behaviour. Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society, 277(1696), 2935–2943. 10.1098/rspb.2010.0587
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.0587 [Google Scholar]
  39. Papagiannopoulou, E. A., Chitty, K. M., Hermens, D. F., Hickie, I. B., & Lagopoulos, J.
    (2014) A systematic review and meta-analysis of eye-tracking studies in children with autism spectrum disorders. Social Neuroscience, 9(6), 610–632. 10.1080/17470919.2014.934966
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17470919.2014.934966 [Google Scholar]
  40. Pennington, R. C.
    (2010) Computer-Assisted Instruction for Teaching Academic Skills to Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders : A Review of Literature. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 25(4), 239. 10.1177/1088357610378291
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1088357610378291 [Google Scholar]
  41. Ramdoss, S., Lang, R., Mulloy, A., Franco, J., O’Reilly, M., Didden, R., & Lancioni, G.
    (2011) Use of computer-based interventions to teach communication skills to children with autism spectrum disorders : A systematic review. Journal of Behavioral Education, 20(1), 55–76. 10.1007/s10864‑010‑9112‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-010-9112-7 [Google Scholar]
  42. Sasson, N. J., Pinkham, A. E., Weittenhiller, L. P., Faso, D. J., & Simpson, C.
    (2016) Context Effects on Facial Affect Recognition in Schizophrenia and Autism : Behavioral and Eye-Tracking Evidence. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 42(3), 675–683. 10.1093/schbul/sbv176
    https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbv176 [Google Scholar]
  43. Shic, F., Wang, Q., Macari, S. L., & Chawarska, K.
    (2020) The role of limited salience of speech in selective attention to faces in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 61(4), 459–469. 10.1111/jcpp.13118
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13118 [Google Scholar]
  44. Tanaka, J. W., Wolf, J. M., Klaiman, C., Koenig, K., Cockburn, J., Herlihy, L., Brown, C., Stahl, S., Kaiser, M. D., & Schultz, R. T.
    (2010) Using computerized games to teach face recognition skills to children with autism spectrum disorder : The Let’s Face It! program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 51(8), 944–952. 10.1111/j.1469‑7610.2010.02258.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02258.x [Google Scholar]
  45. Trepagnier, C. Y., Sebrechts, M. M., Finkelmeyer, A., Stewart, W., Woodford, J., & Coleman, M.
    (2006) Simulating social interaction to address deficits of autistic spectrum disorder in children. Cyberpsychology & Behavior: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society, 9(2), 213–217. 10.1089/cpb.2006.9.213
    https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2006.9.213 [Google Scholar]
  46. von Hofsten, C., Uhlig, H., Adell, M., & Kochukhova, O.
    (2009) How children with autism look at events. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3(2), 556–569. 10.1016/j.rasd.2008.12.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2008.12.003 [Google Scholar]
  47. Voss, C., Schwartz, J., Daniels, J., Kline, A., Haber, N., Washington, P., Tariq, Q., Robinson, T. N., Desai, M., Phillips, J. M., Feinstein, C., Winograd, T., & Wall, D. P.
    (2019) Effect of Wearable Digital Intervention for Improving Socialization in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatrics, 173(5), 446–454. 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.0285
    https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.0285 [Google Scholar]
  48. Wang, Q., Wall, C. A., Barney, E. C., Bradshaw, J. L., Macari, S. L., Chawarska, K., & Shic, F.
    (2020) Promoting social attention in 3-year-olds with ASD through gaze-contingent eye tracking. Autism Research, 13(1), 61–73. 10.1002/aur.2199
    https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.2199 [Google Scholar]
  49. Warren, Z. E., Zheng, Z., Swanson, A. R., Bekele, E., Zhang, L., Crittendon, J. A., Weitlauf, A. F., & Sarkar, N.
    (2015) Can Robotic Interaction Improve Joint Attention Skills?Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(11), 3726–3734. 10.1007/s10803‑013‑1918‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1918-4 [Google Scholar]
  50. Wechsler, D.
    (2003) Wechsler intelligence scale for children–Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. https://www.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=015-8979-044&Mode=resource
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/is.21022.gry
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/is.21022.gry
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Autism; eye-tracking; gaze-contingent; social cognition; training
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error