Volume 169, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0019-0829
  • E-ISSN: 1783-1490
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


The aim of this study is to investigate (1) how often Flemish English-as-a-foreign language learners are exposed to English language media outside of the classroom, (2) whether current out-of-class exposure to English language media is related to learners’ vocabulary knowledge, and (3) whether length of instruction (three or six years), gender, and out-of-class exposure to English language media affect Flemish learners’ vocabulary. Data were collected with 79 English-as-a-foreign language learners. They were administered a frequency-based vocabulary test and a questionnaire. The findings of this study show that Flemish English-as-a-foreign language learners are frequently exposed to English language media. The results also indicate a positive relationship between learners’ vocabulary knowledge and exposure to non-subtitled TV programs and movies, the Internet, and written print (books, magazines). Finally, both length of instruction and current out-of-class exposure to English language media had an effect on learners’ vocabulary knowledge, but out-of-class exposure had a larger effect than length of instruction.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Briggs, J. G.
    (2015) Out-of-class language contact and vocabulary gain in a study abroad context. System, 53, 129–140. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2015.07.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.07.007 [Google Scholar]
  2. Brown, R. , Waring, R. , & Donkaewbua, S.
    (2008) Incidental vocabulary acquisition from reading, reading-while-listening, and listening to stories. Reading in a Foreign Language, 20(2), 136–163.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Cobb, T.
    (2000) One size fits all? Francophone learners and English vocabulary tests. The Canadian Modern Language Review / La Revue Canadienne Des Langues Vivantes, 57(2), 295–324. doi: 10.3138/cmlr.57.2.295
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.57.2.295 [Google Scholar]
  4. Cohen, J.
    (1992) A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155–159. doi: 10.1037/0033‑2909.112.1.155
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155 [Google Scholar]
  5. Coxhead, A. , & Bytheway, J.
    (2015) Learning vocabulary using two massive online resources: You will not blink. In D. Nunan & J. C. Richards (Eds.), Language learning beyond the classroom (pp.65–74). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Davies, M.
    (2008) Corpus of Contemporary American English. Retrieved from corpus.byu.edu/coca/
    [Google Scholar]
  7. European Commission
    European Commission (2012) First European Survey on Language Competences.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. González Fernández, B. , & Schmitt, N.
    (2015) How much collocation knowledge do L2 learners have? The effects of frequency and amount of exposure. ITL International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 166(1), 94–126. doi: 10.1075/itl.166.1.03fer
    https://doi.org/10.1075/itl.166.1.03fer [Google Scholar]
  9. Horst, M.
    (2005) Learning L2 vocabulary through extensive reading: A measurement study. The Canadian Modern Language Review / La Revue Canadienne Des Langues Vivantes, 61(3), 355–382. doi: 10.1353/cml.2005.0018
    https://doi.org/10.1353/cml.2005.0018 [Google Scholar]
  10. Housen, A. Janssens , & Pierrard, M.
    (2001) Frans en Engels als vreemde talen in Vlaamse scholen. Brussel: VUB Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kuppens, A. H.
    (2010) Incidental foreign language acquisition from media exposure. Learning, Media and Technology, 35(1), 65–85. doi: 10.1080/17439880903561876
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17439880903561876 [Google Scholar]
  12. Larson-Hall, J.
    (2010) A guide to doing statistics in second language research using SPSS. New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Laufer, B. , & Levitzky-Aviad, T.
    (2018) Loanword proportion in vocabulary size tests: Does it make a difference?ITL International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 168(2): 94–113.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Laufer, B. , & McLean, S.
    (2016) Loanwords and vocabulary size test scores: A case of different estimates for different L1 learners. Language Assessment Quarterly, 13(3), 202–217. doi: 10.1080/15434303.2016.1210611
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15434303.2016.1210611 [Google Scholar]
  15. Laufer, B. , & Ravenhorst-Kalovski, G.
    (2010) Lexical threshold revisited: Lexical text coverage, learners’ vocabulary size and reading comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language, 22(1), 15–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lin, P. M. S. & Siyanova-Chanturia, A.
    (2015) Internet television for L2 vocabulary learning. In D. Nunan & J. C. Richards (Eds.), Language learning beyond the classroom (pp.149–158). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lindgren, E. , & Muñoz, C.
    (2013) The influence of exposure, parents, and linguistic distance on young European learners’ foreign language comprehension. International Journal of Multilingualism, 10(1), 105–129. doi: 10.1080/14790718.2012.679275
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2012.679275 [Google Scholar]
  18. McNamara, T. , & Roever, C.
    (2006) Psychometric approaches to fairness: Bias and DIF. Language Learning, 56(S2), 81–128. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2006.00381.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2006.00381.x [Google Scholar]
  19. Muñoz, C.
    (2008) Symmetries and asymmetries of age effects in naturalistic and instructed L2 learning. Applied Linguistics, 29(4), 578–596. doi: 10.1093/applin/amm056
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amm056 [Google Scholar]
  20. (2011) Input and long-term effects of starting age in foreign language learning. IRAL – International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 49(2), 113–133. doi: 10.1515/iral.2011.006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.2011.006 [Google Scholar]
  21. Nation, P.
    (2006) How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening?The Canadian Modern Language Review, 63(1), 59–82. doi: 10.1353/cml.2006.0049
    https://doi.org/10.1353/cml.2006.0049 [Google Scholar]
  22. (2015) Principles guiding vocabulary learning through extensive reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 27(1), 136–145.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Noreillie, A. -S. , Kestemont, B. , Heylen, K. , Desmet, P. , & Peters, E.
    (2018) Vocabulary knowledge and listening comprehension at an intermediate level in English and French as foreign languages: an approximate replication study of Stæhr (2009) ITL International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 168(2): 213–232.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Pellicer-Sánchez, A. , & Schmitt, N.
    (2010) Incidental vocabulary acquisition from an authentic novel: Do Things Fall Apart?Reading in a Foreign Language, 22(1), 31–55.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Peters, E. & Webb, S.
    (2018) Incidental vocabulary acquisition through viewing L2 television and factors that affect learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1017/S0272263117000407
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263117000407 [Google Scholar]
  26. Peters, E. , Velghe, T. , Van Rompaey, T.
    (2015, May). A post-entry English and French vocabulary size for Flemish learners. Paper presented atEALTA. Copenhagen, Denmark.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Pigada, M. , & Schmitt, N.
    (2006) Vocabulary acquisition from extensive reading: A case study. Reading in a Foreign Language, 18(1), 1–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Plonsky, L.
    (2015) Statistical power, p values, descriptive statistics, and effect sizes. A “back-to-basics” approach to advancing quantitative methods in L2 research. In L. Plonsky (Ed.), Advancing quantitative methods in second language research (pp.23–45). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Plonsky, L. , & Oswald, F. L.
    (2017) Multiple regression as a flexible alternative to anova in L2 research. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1–14. doi: 10.1017/S0272263116000231
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263116000231 [Google Scholar]
  30. Rodgers, M. P. H.
    (2013) English language learning through viewing television: An investigation of comprehension, incidental vocabulary acquisition, lexical coverage, attitudes, and captions (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Rodgers, M. P. H. , & Webb, S.
    (2011) Narrow viewing: The vocabulary in related television programs. TESOL Quarterly, 45(4), 689–717. doi: 10.5054/tq.2011.268062
    https://doi.org/10.5054/tq.2011.268062 [Google Scholar]
  32. Schmitt, N. & Redwood, S.
    (2011) Learner knowledge of phrasal verbs. A corpus-informed study. In F. Meunier , S. De Cock , G. Gilquin , & M. Paquot (Eds.), A taste for corpora: In honour of Sylviane Granger (pp.173–209). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/scl.45.12sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.45.12sch [Google Scholar]
  33. Sockett, G. & Kusyk, M.
    (2015) Online informal learning of English: Frequency effects in the uptake of chunks of language from participation in web-based activities. In T. Cadierno & S. W. Eskildsen (Eds.), Usage-based perspectives on second language learning (pp.153–177). Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110378528‑009
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110378528-009 [Google Scholar]
  34. Stæhr, L. S.
    (2009) Vocabulary knowledge and advanced listening comprehension in English as a foreign language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 31(4), 577–607. doi: 10.1017/S02722
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S02722 [Google Scholar]
  35. Sundqvist, P. , & Sylvén, L. K.
    (2014) Language-related computer use: Focus on young L2 English learners in Sweden. ReCALL, 26(1), 3–20. doi: 10.1017/S0958344013000232
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344013000232 [Google Scholar]
  36. Sundqvist, P. , & Wikström, P.
    (2015) Out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary outcomes. System, 51, 65–76. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2015.04.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.04.001 [Google Scholar]
  37. Sylvén, L. K. , & Sundqvist, P.
    (2012) Gaming as extramural English L2 learning and L2 proficiency among young learners. ReCALL, 24(3), 302–321. doi: 10.1017/S095834401200016X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S095834401200016X [Google Scholar]
  38. van Zeeland, H. , & Schmitt, N.
    (2013) Lexical coverage in L1 and L2 listening comprehension: The same or different from reading comprehension?Applied Linguistics, 34(4), 457–479. doi: 10.1093/applin/ams074
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/ams074 [Google Scholar]
  39. Verspoor, M. H. , de Bot, K. , & van Rein, E.
    (2011) English as a foreign language. The role of out-of-school language input. In A. De Houwer & A. Wilton (Eds.), English in Europe today. Sociocultural and educational perspectives (pp.147–166). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/aals.8.10ver
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aals.8.10ver [Google Scholar]
  40. Webb, S.
    (2015) Extensive viewing: language learning through watching television. In D. Nunan & J. C. Richards (Eds.) Language learning beyond the classroom (pp.159–168). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Webb, S. , & Chang, A. C. -S.
    (2015a) Second language vocabulary learning through extensive reading with audio support: How do frequency and distribution of occurrence affect learning?Language Teaching Research, 19(6), 667–686. doi: 10.1177/1362168814559800
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168814559800 [Google Scholar]
  42. Webb, S. , & Chang, A. C. S.
    (2015b) How does prior word knowledge affect vocabulary learning progress in an extensive reading program?Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 37(4), 651–675. doi: 10.1017/S0272263114000606
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263114000606 [Google Scholar]
  43. Webb, S. , & Rodgers, M. P. H.
    (2009a) Vocabulary demands of television programs. Language Learning, 59(2), 335–366. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00509.x/full
    [Google Scholar]
  44. (2009b) The lexical coverage of movies. Applied Linguistics, 30(3), 407–427. doi: 10.1093/applin/amp010
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amp010 [Google Scholar]
  45. Zhang, X.
    (2013) The “I don’t Know” option in the Vocabulary Size Test. TESOL Quarterly, 47(4), 790–811. doi: 10.1002/tesq.98
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.98 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): English; out-of-class exposure; viewing; vocabulary
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error