1887
Volume 129, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0019-0829
  • E-ISSN: 1783-1490
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

In this paper, I will examine esl learner attempts at a key component of narrative prose, its complication. The complication is the defining component of the four-part schematic structure of narrative (Labov 1981, labov & Waletzky 1967), because it introduces the crisis of the story. This is the most impassioned phase of the narrative and therefore one expects (following Labov) that the narrator is the least disposed to strive to uphold prestige norms, and adopted rules. It is ironical, then, that what is acknowledged to be effective development of the narrative crisis is highly convention-bound prose. I will describe the basic textual - semantic, informational, organisational and representational - conventions that govern the development of the narrative crisis. I will then take random samples from a body of 35 student narratives, written by Cantonese-speaking esl learners at a Hong Kong university, to illustrate the difficulties these learners face in conforming to these conventions. In a final section, I will discuss the pedagogical implications of this study.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/itl.129-130.02tic
2000-01-01
2019-10-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. ANDERSEN, R.W
    (1991) : 'Developmental sequences: The emergence of aspect marking in second language acquisition', in T. Huebner & C.A. Ferguson (eds), Second language acquisition and linguistic theories (Amsterdam-Netherlands : John Benjamins), pp.305–324.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. BARDOVI-HARLIG, K.
    (1992) : 'The relationship of form and meaning : A cross-sectional study of tense and aspect in interlanguage of learners of English as a second language', Applied Psycholinguistics13(1992) : 253–278.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. (1992a) : 'The use of adverbials and natural order in the development of temporal expression', International Review of Applied Linguistics30(1992):299–320.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. (1992b) : 'Adverbs, aspect, and tense', in N. Bird & J. Harris eds Selected Proceedings of the Seventh ILE (Institute for language in Education) Conference : QUILT and QUILT (Quality in Language Teaching and Quality in Language Learning) (Hong Kong : Institute of Language in Education, Education Department), pp.184–200.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. (1992c) : 'The telling of a tale : Discourse structure and tense use in learner's narratives', in L. Bouton & Y. Kachru (eds) Pragmatics and language learning 3 (Urbana-Champaign, IL:DEIL), pp.144–161.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. (1994) : 'Reverse-order reports and the acquisition of tense : Beyond the principle of chronological order', Language learning44:2: 243–282.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. (1994a) : 'Anecdote or evidence? Evaluation support for hypotheses concerning the development of tense and aspect,' in Elaine E. Tarone , Susan M. Gass and Andrew D. Cohen (ed.s) Research Methodology in Second Language Acquisition. Hillsdale (Lawrence Erlbaum), pp.41–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. BARDOVI-HARLIG, K. & REYNOLDS, D.
    (1995) : 'The acquisition of tense in SLA and FLL : A study of learner narratives in English (SL) and French (FL)', Canadian Modern Language Review (1995) .
    [Google Scholar]
  9. DRY, H.
    (1981)  : 'Sentence aspect and the movement of narrative time', Text1:3 (1981) :233–240.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. HOPPER, P.J
    (1977) : Observations on the typology of focus and aspect in narrative language, in NUSA (1979) .
    [Google Scholar]
  11. HOPPER, P.J. & S. THOMPSON
    (1979) : ' Aspect and foregrounding in discourse', in T. Givon (ed.) Discourse and Syntax (New York : Academic Press), pp.213–242.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. HOPPER, P. J. & S.A. THOMPSON
    (1980) : ' Transitivity in grammar and discourse', Language59:2 (1980) :251–299.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. INDRASUTA, C
    (1998) : ') Narrative styles in the writing of Thai and American students', in Alan C. Purves (ed.), Writing across languages and cultures : Issues in contrastive rhetoric. (Newbury Park : Sage), pp.99–137.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. KAPLAN, MA.
    (1987) : ' Developmental patterns of past tense acquisition among foreign language learners of French', in B. VanPatten , T.R. Gvorak , & J.F. Lee (eds), Foreign language learning : a research perspective (Cambridge, MA : Newbury House), pp.52–60.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. KLEIN, W.
    (1986), Second Language Acquisition (rev ed., Bohuslaw Jankowski, Trans.) (Cambridge University Press) (Original work published 1984).
    [Google Scholar]
  16. KLEIN, W. , R. DIETRICH & C. NOYAU
    (1993) : ' The Acquisition of temporality', in Clive Perdue (ed.), Adult language acquisition : cross-linguistic perspectives. Vol. 2/The results (Cambridge : University Press), pp.73–102.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. KUMPF, L.
    (1982) : ' Tense, aspect and modality in interlanguage : a discourse-functional approach', Unpublished paper, UCLA.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. LABOV, W.
    (1981) : ' Speech actions and reactions in personal narrative', inAnalysing Discourse : Text and Talk (Georgetown University Round Table), (Washington, DC : Georgetown University press).
    [Google Scholar]
  19. LABOV, W. & J, WALETZKY
    (1967) : ' Narrative analysis : oral versions of personal experience' in J. Helm (ed.), Essays on the verbal and visual arts. Proceedings of the 1966 Annual Spring Meeting of the American Ethnological Society. (Seattle : University of Washington Press).
    [Google Scholar]
  20. MARTIN, J.R. & J. ROTHERY
    (1981) : Writing project Number 2. Working Papers in Linguistics', Department of Linguistics, University of Sydney.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (1984) : ' Choice of genre in a suburban primary school', Paper present at the Annual Conference of the Applied Linguistics Association of Australia, Alice Springs.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. (1986) : 'What a functional approach to the writing task can show teachers about 'good writing", in B. Couture (ed.) Functional Approaches to Writing : Research Perspectives. (New Jersey : Ablex).
    [Google Scholar]
  23. MEISEL, J.M
    (1987) : 'Reference to past events and actions in the development of natural language acquisition,' in C.W. Pfaff (ed.), First and Second Language Acquisition Processes (Cambridge, MA : Newbury House), pp.206–224.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. NOYAU, Collete
    (1990) : 'The development of means of temporality in the unguided acquisition of L2: Cross-linguistic perspectives' in Hans W. Dechert (ed.), Current Trends in European Second Language Acquisition Research. (Clevedon : Multilingual Matters), pp.143–170.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. ROBINSON, R.
    (1990) : 'The primacy of aspect : Aspectual marking in English Interlanguage', Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12 (1990) :315–330.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. ROBINSON, P.
    (1995) : 'Task complexity and second language narrative discourse', Language learning45:1 (1995) : 99–140.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Rothery, J
    (1989), 'Learning about language', in R. Hasan & J.R. Martin (eds), Language Development : Learning Culture (Meaning and Choice in Language : Studies for Michael Halliday) (Ablex : New Jersey).
    [Google Scholar]
  28. ROTHERY, J.
    (1990) : 'Story' writing in primary school : assessing narrative type genres. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Sydney.
  29. (1995) : 'Reading and writing narrative : what can we teach in English?', in M.L. Tickoo (Ed.) Reading and Writing : Theory into Practice. Singapore : RELC Anthology Series35.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. SCHUMANN, J.
    (1987) : 'The expression of temporal basilan speech', Studies in Second Language Acquisition9 (1987) :21–41.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. SOTER, A.O.
    (1998) : 'The second language learner and cultural transfer in narration', in Alan C. Purves (ed.) Writing across languages and cultures : Issues in contrastive rhetoric (Newbury Park : Sage Publications), pp.117–205.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/itl.129-130.02tic
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error