1887
Volume 160, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0019-0829
  • E-ISSN: 1783-1490
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The present paper deals with second language learning in an increasingly common type of situation: the one encountered by children of families that move to a different country for a limited period of time. These children enjoy a learning experience that provides them with a naturalistic setting for full immersion in the language community as well as formal instruction at school. The paper presents a case study that investigates the longitudinal development of English proficiency in two Catalan-Spanish bilingual siblings during a year’s stay abroad with their family. Specifically, the study measures gains in the two learners’ written productions in English by examining the development of the dimensions of fluency, syntactic complexity, lexical diversity and accuracy. The findings highlight the variability inherent in L2 development and the possible effects of proficiency level on the language gains. In addition, the on-site observation provides insights into the qualities of the stay abroad experience that also help explain the results.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/itl.160.02mun
2010-01-01
2019-12-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Bongartz, C. and Schneider, M.
    (2003) Linguistic development in social contexts: A study of two brothers learning German. Modern Language Journal87, 13–37. doi:  10.1111/1540‑4781.00176
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4781.00176 [Google Scholar]
  2. Brecht, R., Davidson, D. & Ginsberg, R.
    (1990) The empirical study of proficiency gain in study abroad environments of American students of Russian. InD. Davidson (Ed.), American contributions to the VII International Congress of MAPRIAL (123–152). Washington, D.C.: American Council of Teachers of Russian.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. (1995) Predictors of Foreign Language Gain During Study Abroad. InB. Freed (Ed.), Second Language Acquisition in a Study Abroad Context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/sibil.9.05bre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.05bre [Google Scholar]
  4. Brecht, R., Robinson, J.
    (1995) On the Value of Formal Instruction in Study Abroad: Student Reactions in Context. InB. Freed (Ed.), Second Language Acquisition in a Study Abroad Context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/sibil.9.19bre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.19bre [Google Scholar]
  5. Carroll, J.
    (1967) Foreign Language Proficiency Levels Attained by Language Majors Near Graduation from College. Foreign Language Annals, 1, 131–151. doi:  10.1111/j.1944‑9720.1967.tb00127.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1967.tb00127.x [Google Scholar]
  6. Chamot, A. U., El-Dinary, P. B.
    (1999) Children’s Learning Strategies in Language Immersion Classrooms. The Modern Language Journal, 83, 319–338. doi:  10.1111/0026‑7902.00025
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00025 [Google Scholar]
  7. Churchill, E.
    (2006) Variability in the study abroad classroom and learner competence. InM. A. DuFon & E. Churchill (Eds.), Language Learners in Study Abroad Contexts (pp.203–229). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Collentine, J.
    (2004) The effects of learning contexts on morphosyntactic and lexical development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 227–248. doi:  10.1017/S0272263104262040
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262040 [Google Scholar]
  9. (2009) Study Abroad Research: Findings, Implications and Future Directions. InM. Long & C. Doughty (Eds.). The Handbook of Language Teaching (pp.218–233). Wiley-Blackwell. doi:  10.1002/9781444315783.ch13
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444315783.ch13 [Google Scholar]
  10. DeKeyser, R.
    (1991) Foreign language development during a semester abroad. InB. Freed (Ed.), Foreign language acquisition research and the classroom (pp. 104–119). Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. (2007) Study Abroad as foreign language practice. InR. DeKeyser (Ed.), Practice in a Second Language. Perspectives from Applied Linguistics and Cognitive Psychology (pp.208–226). New York: CUP. doi:  10.1017/CBO9780511667275.012
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667275.012 [Google Scholar]
  12. Díaz-Campos, M.
    (2004) Context of learning in the acquisition of Spanish second language phonology. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 249–273. doi:  10.1017/S0272263104262052
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262052 [Google Scholar]
  13. Dyson, P.
    (1988) The year abroad. Report for the Central Bureau for Educational Visits and Exchanges. Oxford University Language Teaching Centre.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Foster, P. & Skehan, P.
    (1996) The influence of planning and task type on second language performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 299–233. doi:  10.1017/S0272263100015047
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100015047 [Google Scholar]
  15. Freed, B.
    (1995) What makes us think that students who study abroad become fluent?InB. Freed (Ed.), Second Language Acquisition in a Study Abroad Context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/sibil.9.09fre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.09fre [Google Scholar]
  16. (1998) An overview of issues and research in language learning in a study abroad setting. Frontiers: The interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, IV, 31–60.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Freed, B., Segalowitz, N. & Dewey P.D.
    (2004) Context of learning and second language fluency in French: Comparing regular classroom, study abroad, and intensive domestic immersion programs. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 275–301. doi:  10.1017/S0272263104262064
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262064 [Google Scholar]
  18. Freed, B., So, S. & Lazar, N. A.
    (2003) Language Learning Abroad: How Do Gains in Written Fluency Compare with Gains in Oral Fluency in French as a Second Language. ADFL Bulletin, 34 (3), 34–40. doi:  10.1632/adfl.34.3.34
    https://doi.org/10.1632/adfl.34.3.34 [Google Scholar]
  19. Ginsberg, R.
    (1992) Language gains during study abroad: An analysis of the ACTR data. National Foreign Language Center Working Papers. Washington, D.C.: National Foreign Language Center.
  20. Hakuta, K.
    (1974) A Report on the Development of the Grammatical Morphemes in a Japanese Girl Learning English as a Second Language. Working Papers on Bilingualism4 (3): 18–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hunt, K.W.
    (1965) Differences in Grammatical Structures Written at Three Grade Levels. Research Report No. 3. Urbana, Illinois, USA: National Council of Teachers of English.
  22. Huot, D.
    (1995) Observer l’attention: quelques résultats d’un étude de cas. InR. Schmidt (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning (Technical Report No. 9) (pp.85–126). Honolulu, Hawai’i: University of Hawai’i, Second Language Teaching and Learning Center.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kinginger, C.
    (2008) Language learning in study abroad: Case studies of Americans in France. The Modern Language Journal92, s1, 1–131. doi:  10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2008.00821.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2008.00821.x [Google Scholar]
  24. Lafford, B.
    (2004) The effect of context of learning on the use of communication strategies by learners of Spanish as a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition26, 201–26. doi:  10.1017/S0272263104262039
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262039 [Google Scholar]
  25. Lafford, B. & Collentine, J.
    (2006) The effects of study abroad and classroom contexts on the acquisition of Spanish as a second language: From research to application. InB. Lafford & R. Salaberry (Eds.), Spanish second language acquisition: From research findings to teaching applications (pp.103–26). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lapkin, S., Hart, D. & Swain, M.
    (1995) A Canadian Interprovincial Exchange: Evaluating the Linguistic Impact of a Three-Month Stay in Quebec. InB. Freed (Ed.), Second Language Acquisition in a Study Abroad Context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/sibil.9.06lap
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.06lap [Google Scholar]
  27. Larsen-Freeman, D.
    (2006) The Emergence of Complexity, Fluency, and Accuracy in the Oral and Written Production of Five Chinese Learners of English. Applied Linguistics, 27, 590–619. doi:  10.1093/applin/aml029
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/aml029 [Google Scholar]
  28. Lee, C. N.
    (2005) Supporting English Learning in the Family: An Ethnographic Case Study of a Young Korean-English Learner. PhD dissertation, University of Southampton.
  29. Lennon, P.
    (1990) Investigating Fluency in EFL: A Quantitative Approach. Language Learning, 40, 387–417. doi:  10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1990.tb00669.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1990.tb00669.x [Google Scholar]
  30. Llanes, A. & Muñoz, C.
    (2009) A short stay abroad: does it make a difference?System, 37, 353–365. doi:  10.1016/j.system.2009.03.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2009.03.001 [Google Scholar]
  31. Lynch, A., Klee, C.A., & Tedick, D.J
    2001 Social Factors and Language Proficiency in Postsecondary Spanish Immersion: Issues and Implications. Hispani, 84, 510–524. doi:  10.2307/3657811
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3657811 [Google Scholar]
  32. MacIntyre, P. D. & Charos, C.
    (1996) Personality, attitudes and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15, 3–26. doi:  10.1177/0261927X960151001
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X960151001 [Google Scholar]
  33. MacIntyre, P. D., Dörnyei, Z., Clément, R. & Noels, K. A.
    (1998) Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. Modern Language Journal, 82, 545–562. doi:  10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1998.tb05543.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb05543.x [Google Scholar]
  34. Malvern, D. & Richards, B.
    (1997) A new measure of lexical diversity. InA. Ryan & A. Wray (Eds.), Evolving models of language. Papers from the Annual Meeting of the BAAL (pp.58–71). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Malvern, D., Richards, B., Chipere, N., & Durán, P.
    (2004) Lexical diversity and language development. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. doi:  10.1057/9780230511804
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230511804
  36. Marriott, H.
    (1995) The Acquisition of Politeness Patterns by Exchange Students in Japan. InB. Freed (Ed.), Second Language Acquisition in a Study Abroad Context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/sibil.9.13mar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.13mar [Google Scholar]
  37. Meara, P.M. & Miralpeix, I.
    (2008) D_Tools (Version 2.0) [Computer software]. Swansea: Lognostics.
  38. Milton, I. & Meara, P.
    (1995) How periods abroad affect vocabulary growth in a foreign language. ITI Review of Applied Linguistics, 107, 17–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Miralpeix, I.
    (2008) The influence of age on vocabulary acquisition in English as a Foreign Language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Barcelona.
  40. Mitchell, R. & Lee, C. N.
    (2008) Learning a second language in the family. InJ. Philp, R. Oliver & A. Mackey, (Eds). Second Language Acquisition and the Younger Learner. Child’s play? (pp.255–277). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi:  10.1075/lllt.23.16mit
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.23.16mit [Google Scholar]
  41. Mora, J.C
    (2007) Learning Context Effects on the Acquisition of a Second Language Phonology. InC. Pérez-Vidal, M. Juan-Garau & A. Bel (Eds.), A Portrait of the Young in the New Multilingual Spain (pp.241–263). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Nation, I. S. P.
    (2001) Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:  10.1017/CBO9781139524759
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524759
  43. Navés, T.
    (2007) Analytical measures of learners’ written interlanguage. Paper presented at the XXV Aesla Conference. University of Murcia.
  44. Navés, T., Torras, M. R. & Celaya, M. L.
    (2003) Long-term effects of an earlier start. An analysis of EFL written production. InS. Foster-Cohen & S. Pekarek (Eds.), Eurosla Yearbook, vol. 3, (pp.103–130). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Opper, S. Teichler, U. & Carlson, J.
    (Eds.) (1990) Impact of study abroad programmes on students and graduates. London: Jessica Kingsley.
  46. Ortega, L.
    (2003) Syntactic complexity measures and their relationship to L2 proficiency: A research synthesis of college-level l2 writing. Applied Linguistics, 24, 92–518. doi:  10.1093/applin/24.4.492
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/24.4.492 [Google Scholar]
  47. Ortega, L. & Iberri-Shea, G.
    (2005) Longitudinal research in second language acquisition: recent trends and future directions. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 26–45. doi:  10.1017/S0267190505000024
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190505000024 [Google Scholar]
  48. Park, E-S.
    (2005) A case study of young Korean children’s English learning experiences in the US: a sociocultural perspective. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Virginia State University.
  49. Pérez-Vidal, C. & Juan-Garau, M.
    (2009) The effect of Study Abroad (SA) on written performance. Eurosla Yearbook, vol. 9, 269–295. doi:  10.1075/eurosla.9.13per
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.9.13per [Google Scholar]
  50. Philp, J., Mackey, A., & Oliver, R.
    (2008) Child’s play? Second language acquisition and the younger learner in context. InJ. Philp, R. Oliver & A. Mackey, (Eds). Second Language Acquisition and the Younger Learner. Child’s play?Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi:  10.1075/lllt.23.02phi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.23.02phi [Google Scholar]
  51. Ravem, R.
    (1978) Two Norwegian Children’s Acquisition of English Syntax. InE. M. Hatch (Ed.) Second Language Acquisition. A Book of Readings (pp.148–154). Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Regan, V.
    (1995) The Acquisition of Sociolinguistic Native Speech Norms: Effects of a Year Abroad on Second Language Learners of French. InB. Freed (Ed.), Second Language Acquisition in a Study Abroad Context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/sibil.9.15reg
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.15reg [Google Scholar]
  53. (1998) Sociolinguistics and Language Learning in a Study Abroad Context. The interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, IV, 61–90.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Riazantseva, A.
    (2001) Second language proficiency and pausing: A Study of Russian Speakers of English. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23, 497–526. doi:  10.1017/S027226310100403X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226310100403X [Google Scholar]
  55. Robinson, P.
    (2001) Individual differences, cognitive abilities, aptitude complexes and learning conditions in second language acquisition. Second Language Research, 17, 368–392. doi:  10.1191/026765801681495877
    https://doi.org/10.1191/026765801681495877 [Google Scholar]
  56. (2003) Attention and memory during SLA. InC. Doughty & M. Long (Eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp.631–678). Oxford: Blackwell. doi:  10.1002/9780470756492.ch19
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756492.ch19 [Google Scholar]
  57. Rohde, A.
    (1996) The aspect hypothesis and emergence of tense distinctions in naturalistic L2 acquisition. Linguistics34, 1115–1137. doi:  10.1515/ling.1996.34.5.1115
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1996.34.5.1115 [Google Scholar]
  58. (2008) Input Frequency and the Acquisition of the Progressive. InT. Piske & M. Young-Scholten (Eds.), Input Matters in SLA (pp.29–46). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Sasaki, M.
    (2004) A multiple-data analysis of a 3.5 year development of EFL student writers. Language Learning, 54, 525–582. doi:  10.1111/j.0023‑8333.2004.00264.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0023-8333.2004.00264.x [Google Scholar]
  60. (2009) Changes in English as a Foreign Language Students’ Writing Over 3.5 Years: A Sociocognitive Account. InR. Manchón (Ed.) Writing in Foreign Language Contexts: Learning, Teaching, and Research (pp.49–76). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Schmidt, R. & Frota, S.
    (1986) Developing basic conversational ability in a second language: A case study of an adult learner of Portuguese. InR. R. Day (Ed.), Talking to learn: Conversation in second language acquisition (pp.237–322). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Segalowitz, N., Freed, F. B.
    (2004) Context, Contact, and Cognition in Oral Fluency Acquisition: Learning Spanish in At Home and Study Abroad Contexts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 173–199. doi:  10.1017/S0272263104262027
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262027 [Google Scholar]
  63. Segalowitz, N., Freed, B., Collentine, J., Lafford, B., Lazar, N. & Díaz-Campos, M.
    (2004) A Comparison of Spanish Second Language Acquisition in Two Different Learning Contexts: Study Abroad and the Domestic Classroom. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, X, 1–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Siegal, M.
    (1995) Individual Differences and Study Abroad: Women Learning Japanese in Japan. InB. Freed (Ed.), Second Language Acquisition in a Study Abroad Context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/sibil.9.14sie
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9.14sie [Google Scholar]
  65. Skehan, P., & Foster, D.
    (1997) Task type and task processing conditions as influences on foreign language performance. Language Teaching Research, 1, 1–27. doi:  10.1177/136216889700100302
    https://doi.org/10.1177/136216889700100302 [Google Scholar]
  66. Skehan, P. & Foster, D.
    (1999) The influence of task structure and processing conditions on narrative retellings. Language Learning, 49, 93–120. doi:  10.1111/1467‑9922.00071
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00071 [Google Scholar]
  67. Sotillo, S. M.
    (2000) Discourse functions and syntactic complexity in synchronous and asynchronous communication. Language Learning & Technology, 4, 82–119llt.msu.edu/vol114num111/sotillo/default.html.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Torras, M.R., Navés, T., Celaya, M.L. & Pérez-Vidal, C.
    (2006) Age and Interlanguage Development in Writing. InC. Muñoz (Ed.), Age and the Rate of Foreign Language Learning (pp.156–182). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Tschirner, E.
    (2004) Breadth of Vocabulary and Advanced English Study: An Empirical Investigation. Electronic Journal of English Language Teaching, 1, 27–39.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Van Lier, L.
    (2005) Case Study. InE. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook in Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning (pp.195–208). Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Vermeer, A.
    (2000) Coming to grips with lexical richness in spontaneous speech data. Language Testing, 17, 65–83. doi:  10.1191/026553200676636328
    https://doi.org/10.1191/026553200676636328 [Google Scholar]
  72. Wode, H.
    (1978) Developmental Sequences in Naturalistic L2 Acquisition. InE. Miquel Hatch (Ed.) Second Language Acquisition. A Book of Readings (pp.101–117). Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Wolfe-Quintero, K. Inagaki, S. & Kim, H.-Y.
    (1998) Second language development in writing: Measures of fluency, accuracy and complexity. Technical report 17. Manoa. Hawai’i: University of Hawai’i Press.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/itl.160.02mun
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error