1887
Volume 170, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0019-0829
  • E-ISSN: 1783-1490
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This study examines the impact of task repetition on second language learners’ task performance and the mediating role of teacher feedback and learner self-assessment on oral performance. The study was conducted in a university-based English for Academic Purposes (EAP) program, where, as part of a course, intermediate proficiency learners ( = 52) were tasked with preparing and delivering a technology-mediated oral presentation (i.e., task) on a topic of their choice. First, they presented the task to the whole-class, reflected on their performance in terms of language and format quality, and received teacher’s feedback. Four weeks later, they produced a second recording and reflected on it again. A comparison group ( = 26) also delivered a presentation before a class but did it once, without reflection or teacher feedback. Both groups used technology to prepare, deliver, and document their presentations. The recordings were rated on six rubric-determined traits by the teacher and an independent rater, and the scores were compared between groups. To determine the effects of self-assessment, coupled with teacher feedback, on task repetition, learners’ written reflections and teacher’s comments were analyzed using discourse coding techniques. The results revealed benefits for task repetition and self-assessment during the performance of the same task for the experimental group, confirming the importance of task repetition in EAP contexts and the need for continuous and teacher-supported learner self-assessment in learner task performance and outcome.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/itl.19013.kar
2019-08-06
2019-12-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Ahmadian, M. J.
    (2011) The effect of ‘massed’ task repetitions on complexity, accuracy and fluency: does it transfer to a new task?, The Language Learning Journal, 39(3), 269–280. 10.1080/09571736.2010.545239
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2010.545239 [Google Scholar]
  2. (2012) Task repetition in ELT. ELT Journal, 66(3), 380–382. 10.1093/elt/ccs020
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccs020 [Google Scholar]
  3. Airaisian, P. W.
    (1997) Classroom assessment (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bachman, L. F. & Palmer, A. S.
    (1989) The construct validation of self-ratings of communicative language ability. Language Testing, 6, 14–25. 10.1177/026553228900600104
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026553228900600104 [Google Scholar]
  5. (1996) Language testing in practice. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baleghizadeh, S. & Derakhshesh, A.
    (2012) The effect of task repetition and noticing on EFL learners’ oral output. International Journal of Instruction, 5(1), 141–152.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Blue, G.
    (1994) Self-assessment of foreign language skills: Does it work?CLE Working Papers, 3, 18–35.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bygate, M.
    (1996) Effects of task repetition: Appraising the developing language of learners. InJ. Willis & D. Willis (Eds.), Challenge and change in language teaching (pp.136–146). Oxford, UK: Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. (1999) Task as the context for the framing, re-framing and unframing of language. System, 27, 33–48. 10.1016/S0346‑251X(98)00048‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(98)00048-7 [Google Scholar]
  10. (2001) “Effects of task repetition on the structure and control of oral language”. InM. Bygate, P. Skehan, & M. Swain (Eds.), Researching Pedagogic Tasks. Second Language Learning, Teaching and Testing (pp.23–48). Harlow, UK: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. (2006) Areas of work that influence L2 speaking instruction. InE. Uso-Juan & A. Martinez-Flor (Eds.), Current trends in the development and teaching of the four language skills (pp.159–186). Berlin: Mouton DeGruyter. 10.1515/9783110197778.3.159
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197778.3.159 [Google Scholar]
  12. (2018) Introduction. InM. Bygate (Ed.), Learning language through task repetition (pp.1–25). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.11.intro
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.11.intro [Google Scholar]
  13. Chapelle, C. A. & Brindley, G.
    (2010) Assessment. InN. Schmitt (Ed.), An introduction to applied linguistics (2nd ed.) (pp.247–267). London, UK: Hodder Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Chen, Y.-M.
    (2006) Peer and self-assessment for English oral performance: A study of reliability and learning benefits. English Teaching and Learning, 30(4), 1–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. (2008) Learning to self-assess oral performance in English: A longitudinal case study. Language Teaching Research, 12(2), 235–262. 10.1177/1362168807086293
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168807086293 [Google Scholar]
  16. Cram, B.
    (1995) Self-assessment: from theory to practice. Developing a workshop guide for teachers. InBrindley, G. (Ed.). Language Assessment in Action (pp.271–305). Sydney: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. DeKeyser, R. M.
    (1998) Beyond focus on form: Cognitive perspectives on learning and practicing second language grammar. InC. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp.42–63). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. (2007) Introduction: Situating the concept of practice. InR. M. DeKeyser (Ed.), Practice in second language: Perspectives from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology (pp.1–18). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667275.002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667275.002 [Google Scholar]
  19. Dörnyei, Z. & Ryan, S.
    (2015) The psychology of the language learner revisited. New York, NY: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315779553
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315779553 [Google Scholar]
  20. Egbert, J.
    (2005) CALL essentials: Principles and practice in CALL classrooms. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ellis, R.
    (2003) Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. (2009) The differential effects of three types of task planning on the fluency, complexity, and accuracy in L2 oral production. Applied Linguistics, 30(4), 474–509. 10.1093/applin/amp042
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amp042 [Google Scholar]
  23. (2015) Understanding second language acquisition (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Falchichov, N.
    (1986) Product comparisons and process benefits of collaborative peer group and self assessments. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 11(2), 146–165. 10.1080/0260293860110206
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0260293860110206 [Google Scholar]
  25. Forgas, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Tice, D. M.
    (2009) The psychology of self-regulation: An introductory review. InJ. P. Forgas, R. F. Baumeister, & D. M. Tice (Eds.), Psychology of self-regulation: Cognitive, affective, and motivational processes (pp.1–17). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Foster, P. & Skehan, P.
    (1996) The influence of planning on performance in task-based learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 299–324. 10.1017/S0272263100015047
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100015047 [Google Scholar]
  27. Frawley, W. & Lantolf, J.
    (1985) Second language discourse: A Vygotskyan perspective. Applied Linguistics, 6(1), 19–44. 10.1093/applin/6.1.19
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/6.1.19 [Google Scholar]
  28. Gass, S., Mackey, A., Alvarez-Torres, M. J., & Fernández-Garcia, M.
    (1999) The effects of task repetition on linguistic output. Language Learning, 49(4), 549–581. 10.1111/0023‑8333.00102
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00102 [Google Scholar]
  29. Gonzalez-Lloret, M. & Ortega, L.
    (2014) Towards technology-mediated TBLT: An introduction. InM. Gonzalez-Lloret & L. Ortega (Eds.), Technology-mediated TBLT: Researching technology and tasks (pp.1–22). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Hattie, J. & Timperley, H.
    (2007) The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81–112. 10.3102/003465430298487
    https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430298487 [Google Scholar]
  31. Hawkes, M. L.
    (2012) Using task repetition to direct learner attention and focus to form. ELT Journal, 66(3), 327–336. 10.1093/elt/ccr059
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccr059 [Google Scholar]
  32. Hyland, K. & Shaw, P.
    (2016) Introduction. InK. Hyland & P. Shaw (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of English for Academic Purposes (pp.1–13). New York, NY: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315657455
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315657455 [Google Scholar]
  33. Kim, Y. & Tracy-Ventura, N.
    (2013) The role of task repetition in L2 performance development: What needs to be repeated during task-based interaction?System, 41, 829–841. 10.1016/j.system.2013.08.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.08.005 [Google Scholar]
  34. Kluger, A. N. & DeNisi, A.
    (1996) The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254–284. 10.1037/0033‑2909.119.2.254
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.254 [Google Scholar]
  35. Kulhavy, R. W.
    (1977) Feedback in written instruction. Review of Educational Research, 47(1), 211–232. 10.3102/00346543047002211
    https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543047002211 [Google Scholar]
  36. Larson-Freeman, D.
    (2003) Teaching language: From grammar to grammaring. Boston, MA: Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Larsen-Freeman, D.
    (2006) Second language acquisition and the issue of fossilization: There is no end and there is no state. InZ.-H. Han & T. Odlin (Eds.), Studies of fossilization in second language acquisition (pp.189–200). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. (2018) Task repetition or task iteration? It does make a difference. InM. Bygate (Ed.), Learning language through task repetition (pp.311–329). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.11.12lar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.11.12lar [Google Scholar]
  39. Larsen-Freeman, D. & Cameron, L.
    (2008) Complex systems and applied linguistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Levelt, W.
    (1989) Speaking: From intention to articulation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Levy, M.
    (2009) Technologies in use for second language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 93, 769–782. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2009.00972.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00972.x [Google Scholar]
  42. Littlewood, W.
    (1999) Defining and developing autonomy in East Asian contexts. Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 71–94. 10.1093/applin/20.1.71
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/20.1.71 [Google Scholar]
  43. Long, M.
    (2015) Second language acquisition and task-based language teaching. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley and Sons Limited.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Lynch, T.
    (2007) Learning from the transcripts of an oral communication task. ELT Journal, 61(4), 311–320. 10.1093/elt/ccm050
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccm050 [Google Scholar]
  45. (2018) Perform, reflect, recycle: Enhancing task repetition in second language speaking classes. InM. Bygate (Ed.), Learning language through task repetition (pp.193–222). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.11.08lyn
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.11.08lyn [Google Scholar]
  46. Lynch, T. & Anderson, K.
    (1992) Study speaking. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Lynch, T. & Maclean, J.
    (2000) Exploring the benefits of task repetition and recycling for classroom language learning. Language Teaching Research, 4(3), 221–250. 10.1177/136216880000400303
    https://doi.org/10.1177/136216880000400303 [Google Scholar]
  48. Mennim, P.
    (2003) Rehearsed oral output and reactive focus on form. ELT Journal, 57(2), 130–138. 10.1093/elt/57.2.130
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/57.2.130 [Google Scholar]
  49. (2012) Learner negotiation of L2 form in transcription exercises. ELT Journal, 66(1), 52–61. 10.1093/elt/ccr018
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccr018 [Google Scholar]
  50. Orsmond, P., Merry, S., & Reiling, K.
    (1997) A study in self-assessment: Tutor and students’ perception of performance criteria. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 22(4), 357–369. 10.1080/0260293970220401
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0260293970220401 [Google Scholar]
  51. (2000) The use of student derived marking criteria in peer and self-assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 25(1), 23–38. 10.1080/02602930050025006
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930050025006 [Google Scholar]
  52. Oskarsson, M.
    (1989) Self-assessment of language proficiency: Rationale and applications. Language Testing, 6(1), 1–13. 10.1177/026553228900600103
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026553228900600103 [Google Scholar]
  53. Robinson, P.
    (2001) Individual differences, cognitive abilities, aptitude complexes and learning conditions in second language acquisition. Second Language Research, 17, 368–392. 10.1177/026765830101700405
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026765830101700405 [Google Scholar]
  54. (2007) Aptitudes, abilities, contexts, and practice. InR. M. DeKeyser (Ed.), Practice in second language: Perspectives from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology (pp.256–286). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667275.015
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667275.015 [Google Scholar]
  55. (2011) Task-based language learning: A review of the issues. Language Learning, 61, 1–36. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2011.00641.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00641.x [Google Scholar]
  56. Saldaña, J.
    (2016) The coding manual for qualitative researchers (3rd ed.). London; Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Sheppard, C. & Ellis, R.
    (2018) The effects of awareness-raising through stimulated recall on the repeated performance of the same task and on a new task of the same type. InM. Bygate (Ed.), Learning language through task repetition (pp.171–192). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.11.07she
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.11.07she [Google Scholar]
  58. Skehan, P.
    (1989) A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. (2009) Modelling second language performance: Integrating complexity, accuracy, fluency, and lexis. Applied Linguistics, 30, 510–532. 10.1093/applin/amp047
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amp047 [Google Scholar]
  60. Skehan, P. & Foster, P.
    (1999) The influence of task structure and processing conditions on narrative retellings. Language Learning, 49(1), 93–120. 10.1111/1467‑9922.00071
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00071 [Google Scholar]
  61. Stiggins, R. J.
    (2001) Student-involved classroom assessment (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Storch, N., Morton, J., & Thompson, C.
    (2016) EAP pedagogy in undergraduate contexts. InK. Hyland & P. Shaw (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of English for Academic Purposes (pp.477–488). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Taras, M.
    (2001) The use of tutor feedback and student self-assessment in summative assessment tasks: Towards transparency for students and for tutors. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 26(6), 289–306. 10.1080/02602930120093922
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930120093922 [Google Scholar]
  64. (2003) To feedback or not to feedback in student self-assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 28, 549–565. 10.1080/02602930301678
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930301678 [Google Scholar]
  65. Tavakoli, P. & Foster, P.
    (2011) Task design and second language performance: The effect of narrative type on learner output. Language Learning, 61, 37–72. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2011.00642.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00642.x [Google Scholar]
  66. Walker, A. & White, G.
    (2013) Technology enhanced language learning: Connecting theory and practice. Oxford, UK: Oxford University press.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Wigglesworth, G.
    (1993) Exploring bias analysis as a tool for improving rater consistency in assessing oral interaction. Language Testing, 10, 305–335. 10.1177/026553229301000306
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026553229301000306 [Google Scholar]
  68. Winke, P.
    (2014) Formative, task-based oral assessments in an advanced Chinese-language class. InM. Gonzalez-Lloret & L. Ortega (Eds.), Technology-mediated TBLT: Researching technology and tasks (pp.263–293). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Zeidner, M., Boerkaerts, M. & Pintrich, P. R.
    (2000) Self-regulation: Directions and challenges for future research. InM. Boerkaerts, P. R. Pintrich & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp.749–768). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 10.1016/B978‑012109890‑2/50052‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012109890-2/50052-4 [Google Scholar]
  70. Zimmerman, B. J.
    (2001) Theories of self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview and achievement (2nd ed.). InB. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (pp.1–37). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/itl.19013.kar
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/itl.19013.kar
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): English for academic purposes , feedback , self-assessment , task repetition and technology
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error