Volume 173, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0019-0829
  • E-ISSN: 1783-1490
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Despite the importance of mastering different types of formulaic sequences in a second language, little is known about the relative effect of different input modes on their acquisition. This study explores the learning of a particular type of formulaic language (binomials) in three input modes (reading-only, listening-only, and reading-while-listening) at different frequencies of exposure (2, 4, 5 and 6 occurrences). Arabic learners of English were presented with three stories, each in a different mode, that contained novel binomials (e.g., ) and existing binomials (e.g., ). Two post-tests (multiple-choice and familiarity ratings) assessed learners’ knowledge of the binomials. Results showed that reading-only and reading-while-listening led to better performance on the tasks than listening-only. Frequency of exposure had an effect on the perceived familiarity of binomials.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): formulaic language; incidental learning; listening; reading; reading-while-listening
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