1887
image of Exploring underlying elements of the motivational self system among learners in two instructional contexts
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Through the lens of Second Language Motivational Self System, this exploratory study focused on two groups of Canadian newcomers learning English in the traditional classroom setting (English as a Second Language [ESL];  = 37) and the workplace (Workplace Language Training [WLT];  = 29) to determine the role of motivation in their integration into Canadian society and development of the ‘Canadian self’. The results, collected by way of a questionnaire and follow-up interviews, show newcomers holding positive attitudes towards English learning and building their Canadian identity in the process. Notably, beliefs concerning the value of employment to fulfill personal obligations and duties promoted the WLT learners’ motivation and willingness to engage with language learning significantly more than those of their ESL counterparts. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/itl.21002.ady
2022-02-24
2022-05-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Al-Hoorie, A. H.
    (2018) The L2 motivational self-system: A meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8(4), 721–754. 10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.4.2
    https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.4.2 [Google Scholar]
  2. (2017) Sixty years of language motivation research: Looking back and looking forward. SAGE Open.   10.1177/2158244017701976
    https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244017701976 [Google Scholar]
  3. Anthony, L.
    (2018) Introducing English for Specific Purposes. Routledge. 10.4324/9781351031189
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351031189 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bartel, J.
    (2013) Pragmatics in the post-TESL certificate course “language teaching for employment”. TESL Canada Journal, 30(7), 108–124.   10.18806/tesl.v30i7.1155
    https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v30i7.1155 [Google Scholar]
  5. Beleche, T., Fairris, D., & Marks, M.
    (2012) Do course evaluations truly reflect student learning? Evidence from an objectively graded post-test. Economics of Education Review, 31(5), 709–719. 10.1016/j.econedurev.2012.05.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2012.05.001 [Google Scholar]
  6. Berry, J.
    (1997) Immigration, Acculturation, and Adaptation. Applied Psychology, 46(1), 5–34.   10.1111/j.1464‑0597.1997.tb01087.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1997.tb01087.x [Google Scholar]
  7. Berry, J. W., & Hou, F.
    (2016) Immigrant acculturation and wellbeing in Canada. Canadian Psychology, 57(4), 254–364.   10.1037/cap0000064
    https://doi.org/10.1037/cap0000064 [Google Scholar]
  8. Boo, Z., Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S.
    (2015) L2 motivation research 2005–2014: Understanding a publication surge and a changing landscape. System, 55, 145–157. 10.1016/j.system.2015.10.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.10.006 [Google Scholar]
  9. Boring, A., Ottoboni, K., & Stark, P.
    (2016) Student evaluations of teaching (mostly) do not measure teaching effectiveness. ScienceOpen Research. 10.14293/S2199‑1006.1.SOR‑EDU.AETBZC.v1
    https://doi.org/10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-EDU.AETBZC.v1 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bremner, S.
    (2010) Collaborative writing: Bridging the gap between the textbook and the workplace. English for Specific Purpose, 29, 121–132.   10.1016/j.esp.2009.11.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2009.11.001 [Google Scholar]
  11. Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks (CCLB)
    Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks (CCLB) (2012) Canadian language benchmarks: English as a second language for adults. Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chan, H. Y. L.
    (2014) Possible selves, vision, and dynamic systems theory in second language learning and teaching. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Nottingham].
  13. Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., & Noels, K. A.
    (1994) Motivation, self-confidence, and group cohesion in the foreign language classroom. Language Learning, 44(3), 417–448.   10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1994.tb01113.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1994.tb01113.x [Google Scholar]
  14. Csizér, K., & Dörnyei, Z.
    (2005) The internal structure of language learning motivation and its relationship with language choice and learning effort. The Modern Language Journal, 89, 19–36.   10.1111/j.0026‑7902.2005.00263.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0026-7902.2005.00263.x [Google Scholar]
  15. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M.
    (2008) Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 182–185.   10.1037/a0012801
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012801 [Google Scholar]
  16. Derwing, T. M., & Waugh, E.
    (2012) Language skills and the social integration of Canada’s adult immigrants. Institute for Research on Public Policy, 31, 1–33.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. DeVellis, R. F.
    (2012) Scale development: Theory and applications. Sage publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dörnyei, Z.
    (2001) Teaching and researching motivation. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. (2003) Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory, research, and applications. Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. (2005) The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (2009) The L2 Motivational Self System. InZ. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp.9–42). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691293‑003
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691293-003 [Google Scholar]
  22. Dornyei, Z., & Chan, L.
    (2013) Motivation and vision: An analysis of future L2 self images, sensory styles, and imagery capacity across two target languages. Language Learning, 63(3), 437–462. 10.1111/lang.12005
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12005 [Google Scholar]
  23. Dörnyei, Z., & Csizér, K.
    (2002) Some dynamics of language attitudes and motivation: Results of a longitudinal nationwide survey. Applied Linguistics, 23(4), 421–462.   10.1093/applin/23.4.421
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/23.4.421 [Google Scholar]
  24. Dörnyei, Z., & Ottó, I.
    (1998) Motivation in action: A process model L2 motivation. Working Papers in Applied Linguistics, 4, 43–69.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S.
    (2015) Motivation. The psychology of the language learner revisited (pp.72–105). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315779553
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315779553 [Google Scholar]
  26. Dörnyei, Z., & Taguchi, T.
    (2010) Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing (2nd ed.). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Douglas, S. R., Doe, C., & Cheng, L.
    (2020) The role of the interlocutor: Factors impeding workplace communication with newcomers speaking English as an Additional Language. The Canadian Modern Language Review/La revue canadienne des langues vivantes, 76(1), 31–49. 10.3138/cmlr.2018‑0161
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.2018-0161 [Google Scholar]
  28. Duval-Couetil, N., & Mikulecky, L.
    (2011) Immigrants, English, and the workplace: Evaluating employer demand for language education in manufacturing companies. Journal of Workplace Learning, 23(3), 209–223.   10.1108/13665621111117233
    https://doi.org/10.1108/13665621111117233 [Google Scholar]
  29. Egbert, J.
    (2003) A study of flow theory in the foreign language classroom. Modern Language Journal, 87(4), 499–518.   10.1111/1540‑4781.00204
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4781.00204 [Google Scholar]
  30. Ellis, R.
    (2015) Understanding second language acquisition (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E.
    (1972) Attitude and motivation in second language learning. Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Ghanizadeh, A., Eishabadi, N., & Rostami, S.
    (2016) Motivational dimension of willingness to communicate in L2: The impacts of criterion measure, ideal L2 self, family influence, and attitudes to L2 culture. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 5(3), 13–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Ghanizadeh, A., & Rostami, S.
    (2015) A Dörnyei-inspired study on second language motivation: A cross-comparison analysis in public and private contexts. Psychological Studies, 60(3), 292–301. 10.1007/s12646‑015‑0328‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12646-015-0328-4 [Google Scholar]
  34. Grenier, G., & Xue, L.
    (2011) Canadian immigrants’ access to a first job in their intended occupation. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 12, 275–303.   10.1007/s12134‑010‑0159‑z
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12134-010-0159-z [Google Scholar]
  35. Gu, M., & Cheung, D. S.
    (2016) Ideal L2 self, acculturation, and Chinese language learning among South Asian students in Hong Kong: A structural equation modelling analysis. System, 57, 14–24.   10.1016/j.system.2016.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2016.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  36. Guo, S., & Guo, Y.
    (2016) Immigration, integration, and welcoming communities: Neighbourhood-based initiative to facilitate the integration of newcomers in Calgary. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 48(3), 45–67.   10.1353/ces.2016.0025
    https://doi.org/10.1353/ces.2016.0025 [Google Scholar]
  37. Henry, A., & Cliffordson, C.
    (2015) The impact of out-of-school factors on motivation to learn English: Self-discrepancies, beliefs, and experiences of self-authenticity. Applied Linguistics, 38(5), 713–736. 10.1093/applin/amv060
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amv060 [Google Scholar]
  38. Henry, A., & Davydenko, S.
    (2020) Thriving? Or surviving? An approach–avoidance perspective on adult language learners’ motivation. The Modern Language Journal, 104(2), 363–380. 10.1111/modl.12635
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12635 [Google Scholar]
  39. Higgins, E. T.
    (1987) Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319–340.   10.1037/0033‑295X.94.3.319
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.94.3.319 [Google Scholar]
  40. (1997) Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52, 1280–1300.   10.1037/0003‑066X.52.12.1280
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.12.1280 [Google Scholar]
  41. (2000) Making a good decision: Value from fit. American Psychologist, 55(11), 1217–1230.   10.1037/0003‑066X.55.11.1217
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.11.1217 [Google Scholar]
  42. Holmes, J., & Riddiford, N.
    (2010) Professional and personal identity at work: Achieving a synthesis through intercultural workplace talk. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 22. https://www.immi.se/intercultural/nr22/holmes.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Immigration, Refugee, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC)
    Immigration, Refugee, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) (2017) Notice – Supplementary information 2018–2020 immigration levels plan. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/notices/supplementary-immigration-levels-2018.html
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Islam, M., Lamb, M., & Chambers, G.
    (2013) The L2 motivational self system and national interest: A Pakistani perspective. System, 41(2), 231–244.   10.1016/j.system.2013.01.025
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.01.025 [Google Scholar]
  45. JASP Team
    JASP Team (2021) JASP (Version 0.16)[Computer software].
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Kim, T. Y.
    (2009) The sociocultural interface between ideal self and ought-to self: A case study of two Korean students’ ESL motivation. InZ. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp.274–294). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691293‑015
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691293-015 [Google Scholar]
  47. Kim, Y. K. & Kim, T. Y.
    (2011) The effect of Korean secondary school students’ perceptual learning styles and ideal L2 self on motivated L2 behavior and English proficiency. Korean Journal of English Language and Linguistics, 11(1), 21–42. 10.15738/kjell.11.1.201103.21
    https://doi.org/10.15738/kjell.11.1.201103.21 [Google Scholar]
  48. Kormos, J., Kiddle, T., & Csizér, K.
    (2011) Systems of goals, attitudes, and self-related beliefs in second language learning motivation. Applied Linguistics, 32(5), 495–516.   10.1093/applin/amr019
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amr019 [Google Scholar]
  49. Kuo, B. C. H., & Sodowsky, G. R.
    (2004) Predictors of acculturation for Chinese adolescents in Canada: Age of arrival, length of stay, social class, and English reading ability. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32, 143–154.   10.1002/j.2161‑1912.2004.tb00367.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2004.tb00367.x [Google Scholar]
  50. Lamb, M.
    (2012) A self system perspective on young adolescents’ motivation to learn English in urban and rural settings. Language Learning, 62(4), 997–1023. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2012.00719.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00719.x [Google Scholar]
  51. Lanvers, U.
    (2016) Lots of selves, some rebellious: Developing the self-discrepancy model for language learners. System, 60, 79–92. 10.1016/j.system.2016.05.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2016.05.012 [Google Scholar]
  52. Lu, Y., Samaratunge, R., & Härtel, C. E.
    (2016) Predictors of acculturation attitudes among professional Chinese immigrants in the Australian workplace. Journal of Management and Organization, 22(1), 49–67.   10.1017/jmo.2015.19
    https://doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2015.19 [Google Scholar]
  53. Markus, H., & Nurius, P.
    (1986) Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41(9), 954.969.   10.1037/0003‑066X.41.9.954
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.9.954 [Google Scholar]
  54. Noels, K., Pon, G., & Clément, R.
    (1996) Language, identity, and adjustment: The role of linguistic self-confidence in the acculturation process. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15(3), 246–264. search.proquest.com/docview/38984813/. 10.1177/0261927X960153003
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X960153003 [Google Scholar]
  55. NVivo
    NVivo (2018) QSR International Pty Ltd. [computer software] (Version 12).
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Omidvar, R., & Richmond, T.
    (2003) Immigrant settlement and social inclusion in Canada. Perspectives on Social Inclusion Working Papers Series. https://laidlawfdn.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/wpsosi_2003_jan_immigrant-settlement.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Papi, M.
    (2018) Motivation as quality. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40, 707–730.   10.1017/S027226311700033X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226311700033X [Google Scholar]
  58. Papi, M. & Abdollahzadeh, E.
    (2012) Teacher motivational practice, student motivation, and possible L2 selves: An examination in the Iranian EFL context. Language Learning, 62(2), 571–594. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2011.00632.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00632.x [Google Scholar]
  59. Papi, M., Bondarenko, A. V., Mansouri, S., Feng, L., & Jiang, C.
    (2019) Rethinking L2 motivation research: The 2x2 model of L2 self-guides. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41(2), 337–361. 10.1017/S0272263118000153
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263118000153 [Google Scholar]
  60. Random
    Random (2019) List randomizer. https://www.random.org/lists/
  61. Richards, J. C.
    (2013) Curriculum approaches in language teaching: Forward, central, and backward design. RELC Journal, 44(1), 5–33.   10.1177/0033688212473293
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688212473293 [Google Scholar]
  62. Robinson, M. A.
    (2018) Using multi-item psychometric scales for research and practice in human resource management. Human Resource Management, 57, 739–750.   10.1002/hrm.21852
    https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21852 [Google Scholar]
  63. Saldaña, J.
    (2009) The coding manual for qualitative researchers (1st ed.). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Settlement.org
    Settlement.org. (n.d.). Education: English as a second language (ESL). https://settlement.org/ontario/employment/
  65. Shan, H., & Butterwick, S.
    (2017) Transformative learning of mentors from an immigrant workplace connections programs. Studies in Continuing Education, 39(1), 1–15.   10.1080/0158037X.2016.1167032
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0158037X.2016.1167032 [Google Scholar]
  66. Shum, M. S., Gao, F., Tsung, L., & Ki, W. W.
    (2011) South Asian students’ Chinese language learning in Hong Kong: Motivations and strategies. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 32(3), 285–297. 10.1080/01434632.2010.539693
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2010.539693 [Google Scholar]
  67. Sodowsky, G. R., Lai, E. W., & Plake, B. S.
    (1991) Moderating effects of sociocultural variables on acculturation variables of Hispanics and Asian Americans. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70, 194–204. search.proquest.com/docview/57775526/
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Statistics Canada (StatCan)
    Statistics Canada (StatCan) (2017) Focus on Geography Series: 2016 Census.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Taguchi, T., Magid, M., & Papi, M.
    (2009) The L2 motivational self system among Japanese, Chinese and Iranian Learners of English: A comparative study. InZ. Dörnyei Editor & E. Ushioda Editor (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp.66–97). Multilingual Matters.   10.21832/9781847691293‑005
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691293-005 [Google Scholar]
  70. Teimouri, Y.
    (2017) L2 selves, emotions, and motivated behaviors. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 39(4), 681–709. 10.1017/S0272263116000243
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263116000243 [Google Scholar]
  71. Thompson, A. S., & Vásquez, C.
    (2015) Exploring motivational profiles through language learning narratives. Modern Language Journal, 99(1), 158–174. 10.1111/modl.12187
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12187 [Google Scholar]
  72. Tomlinson, B.
    (2012) Materials development for language learning and teaching. Language Teaching, 45(2), 143–179.   10.1017/S0261444811000528
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444811000528 [Google Scholar]
  73. Ushioda, E.
    (2001) Language learning at university: Exploring the role of motivational thinking. InZ. Dörnyei & R. W. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp.93–125). University of Hawaii Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. (2009) A person-in-context relational view of emergent motivation, self and identity. InZ. Dörnyei Editor & E. Ushioda Editor (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp.215–228). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691293‑012
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691293-012 [Google Scholar]
  75. (2011) Language learning motivation, self and identity: Current theoretical perspectives. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(3), 199–210.   10.1080/09588221.2010.538701
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2010.538701 [Google Scholar]
  76. Van Dijk, D., & Kluger, A. N.
    (2011) Task type as moderator of positive/negative feedback effects on motivation and performance: A regulatory focus perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(8), 1084–1105.   10.1002/job.725
    https://doi.org/10.1002/job.725 [Google Scholar]
  77. Vandergrift, L.
    (2005) Relationships among motivation orientations, metacognitive awareness and proficiency in L2 listening. Applied Linguistics, 26(1), 70–89.   10.1093/applin/amh039
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amh039 [Google Scholar]
  78. Vine, B.
    (2020) Introducing language in the workplace. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108689984
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108689984 [Google Scholar]
  79. Weiner, B.
    (2010) The development of an attribution-based theory of motivation: A history of ideas. Educational Psychologist, 45(1), 28–36.   10.1080/00461520903433596
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903433596 [Google Scholar]
  80. Yates, L., & Major, G.
    (2015) “Quick-chatting”, “smart dogs”, and how to “say without saying”: Small talk and pragmatic learning in the community. System, 48, 141–152.   10.1016/j.system.2014.09.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.09.011 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/itl.21002.ady
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/itl.21002.ady
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error