Volume 30, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0019-0829
  • E-ISSN: 1783-1490
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


LIANA is a question answering system in PL/1. The program takes German natural language input and, by morphological, syntactic and semantic analysis, creates a representation of the text, which is stored and can be accessed for retrieval purposes.

All individuals (objects) mentioned in the sentence are found and stored. In continuous text, therefore, information about individuals can be piled up successively.

LIANA uses the programming concept of the Boston Syntax Analyzer. Therefore, the output of syntactic analysis is a tree structure, simulated through pointers which connect the nodes in the tree. Each node is associated with a feature table which is operated on by the semantic interpretation. Node and feature handling is facilitated by a set of macros for adding, erasing, and checking features and copying, deleting, and inserting nodes.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Andrada, J. , Lewis, Cl. , Schrier, Martha , Sironi, E. , Tabory, R. , Wehrly, D.
    : Language Generator and Processor, IBM FSC-69 0532, Boston Programming Center, Cambridge, Mass (1969).
  2. Bàtori, Istvan
    : Die generative Grammatik und die maschinelle Sprachanalyse, IBM Nachrichten 208 (1971).
    [Google Scholar]
  3. : Extraposition in Koordinierten Konstruktionenin Linguistische Perspektiven, Referate des VII. Linguistischen Kollogquiums, Nijmegen ed. Abraham et al. (1973).
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Carnap, Rudolf
    : The Logical Syntax of Language, London (1937).
  5. : Meaning and Necessity, London (1947).
  6. Chomsky, Noam
    : Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, Cambridge, Mass (1965).
  7. Dostert, B.H. , Thompson, F.B.
    : The REL System (Vortrag und Vorführung auf der International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Pisa (1973).
  8. DUDEN - Grammatik der deutschen Gegewartssprache
    DUDEN - Grammatik der deutschen Gegewartssprache Hrg. Paul Grebe Dudenverlag, Mannheim (19662).
  9. Ebert, Karen
    : Präsuppositionen im Sprechakt - Zur automatischen Erkennung der Referenzidentitäten (unveröffentlicht, 1972).
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Eggers, Hans , und Mitarbeiter
    : Elektronische Syntaxanalyse der deutschen Gegenwartssprache, Tübingen, Niemeyer (1969).
  11. Fillmore, Charles
    : The Case for Casein Universals in Linguistics ed. E. Bach und R.T. Harms (1968).
    [Google Scholar]
  12. : Some Problems for Case Grammar (unveröffentlicht, 1971).
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kay, Martin , Sparck Jones , Karen
    : Linguistics and Information Science, Report prepared for the FID/LD Committee (1970).
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Keenan, Edward L.
    : A Logical Base for a Transformational Grammar of English. Dissertation Univ. Pennsylvania Philadelphia (1969).
  15. Krägeloh, Klaus-Dieter und Lockemann, Peter
    : Struktur eines Frage-Antwort-Systems auf mengentheoretischen Grundlage, BMBW - GMD - 55 (1972).
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lehmann, Hubert
    : Linguistische Modellbildung und Methodologie, Tübingen (1973).
  17. : Report on QuantifiersBericht für das Linguistic Institute 1971 at Buffalo (unveröffentlicht).
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Montague, Richard
    : English as a Formal Language, in Brune Visenti et al. (ed.) Linguaggi nella societa e nella technica. Milano (1970).
  19. : The Proper Treatment of Quantification in Ordinary English, in Hintikka et al.Approaches to Natural Language, Dordrecht (1973).
  20. Moyne, J.A.
    : A Progress Report on the Use of English in Information RetrievalPreprint No. 40. International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Stockholm (1969).
  21. Petrick, S.R.
    : A Recognition Procedure for Transformational Grammars, Ph.D. Thesis MIT (1965).
  22. : Transformational Analysisin Natural Language Processing ed. Randell Rustin , Algorithmics Press (1973).
  23. Plath, J.W.
    : Transformational GrammarTransformational Parsing in the REQUEST-System, Vortrag auf der International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Pisa (1973).
  24. Rustin, Randall
    : Natural Language Processing, Algorithmic Press 1973.
  25. Schmitter, Hans
    : Ein automatisches Fragenbeantwortungssystem, Arbeitspapiere 8, Universität Bern, Institut für Sprachwissenschaft (1973).
  26. Simmons, R.F.
    : Answering English Questions by Computerin Automated Language Processing ed. Harold Borko , John Wiley and Sons, Inc (1967).
  27. Natural Language Question-Answering Systems, CACM (1970) 13. No1, p.15-30.
    [Google Scholar]
    STUDIA GRAMMATICA, Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, BndeI-X, Berlin, Akademie Verlag, 1962-1969.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Thompson, F.B. , Dostert, B.
    : A Rapidly Extensible Language System (REL English), International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Stockholm (1969).
  30. Ungeheuer, Gerold
    : Linguistische Datenverarbeitung - die Realität und eine Konzeption, IBM Nachrichten 206 (1971).
  31. Vater, Heinz
    : Das System der Artikelformen im gegenwärtigen Deutsch, Tübingen, Niemeyer (1963).
  32. Walker, Donald E.
    : Automated Language ProcessingStanford Research Institute, (Technical Note No 77. of the Artificial Intelligence Center) (1973).
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Woods, W.A. , Kaplan, R.M. , Nash-Webber, B.
    : The LUNAR Sciences Natural Language Information System : Final Report, Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. Report No. 2378 1972.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. : An Experimental Parsing System for Transition Network Grammars, in Natural Language Processing, Randal Rustin ed. (1973).
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Zoeppritz, Magdalena
    : On the Requirement that Agentives be AnimateBeiträge zur Linguistik und Informationsverarbeitung 21 (1971).
    [Google Scholar]
  36. : SOV or SVO in the Deep Structure of German (unveröffentlicht, 1971).
    [Google Scholar]
  37. : Konkurrierende Kasus, Vortrag Universität Köln (unveröffentlicht, 1972).
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Bàtori, I.
    IBM Deutschland GmbH. Wissenschaftliches Zentrum 69 Heidelberg Tiergartenstr. 15.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Henning, R.
    IBM Deutschland GmbH. DV SZ Systemservice An-wendungen Stuttgart-Möhringen Breitwiesenstr. 20-22.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Lehmann, H.
    IBM Deutschland GmbH. Wissenschaftliches Zentrum 69 Heidelberg Tiergartenstr. 15.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Schirmer, Brigitte
    , IBM Deutschland GmbH. DV Universelle An-wendungstechniken, Stuttgart-Möhringen, Vaihinger Str. 124.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Zoeppritz, Magdalena
    , IBM Deutschland GmbH. Wissenschaftliches Zentrum 69 Heidelberg Tiergartenstr. 15.
    [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error