Volume 85, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0019-0829
  • E-ISSN: 1783-1490
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


The present paper is an attempt to gain a better understanding of the role of linguistic awareness in second language learning by studying the relationship between linguistic awareness and significant aspects of formal language learning : the learner, the classroom, and the curriculum. Accordingly, this paper examines the contribution of linguistic awareness to second language development and aims to show that classroom intervention in heightening linguistic awareness can be beneficial to the learner in the process of acquiring a second language. In addition, arguments are presented to point out that linguistic awareness can play a vital role within the framework of communicative language teaching. Finally, individual differences in language and language-related behaviour are examined in relationship to individual variation in linguistic awareness.

This research was supported in part by a grant from the Quebec Ministry of Education (F.C.A.R. 86-AR-0274).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. d'Anglejan, A.
    (1975) : Dynamics of second language development: a search for linguistic regularity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Montreal : McGill University.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. d'Anglejan, A. and C. Renaud
    (1985) : Learner characteristics and second language acquisition : a multivariate study of adult immigrants and some thoughts on methodology. Language Learning35(1): 1–19.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anthony, R.J.
    (1984) : Metalinguistic awareness and reading in bilingual education : implications of a Chilcotin/English study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Toronto: University of Toronto.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bewell, D. and S. Straw
    (1981) : Metalinguistic awareness, cognitive development and language learning. In V. Froese and S. Straw (eds.), Research in the language : language and schooling, pp. 105–121. Baltimore : University Park Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bialystok, E. and M. Fröhlich
    (1978) : Variables of classroom achievement in second language learning. Modern Language Journal62:327–336.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bialystok, E. and E.B. Ryan
    (1985) : Toward a definition of metalinguistic skill. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 31(3):229–251.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Breen, M. and C.N. Candlin
    (1980) : The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language teaching. Applied Linguistics1(2):89–112.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Brumfit, C.
    (1984) : Communicative methodology in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bruner, J.
    (1963) : The process of education. New York : Vantage.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Canale, M.
    (1983) : From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In J.C. Richards and R.W. Schmidt (eds.), Language and communication, pp. 2–28. London : Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Canale, M. and M. Swain
    (1980) : Theoretical basis of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics1:1–47.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Carroll, J.B.
    (1973) : Implications of aptitude test research and psycholinguistic theory for foreign language teaching. Linguistics112:5–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cazden, C.
    (1975) : Play with language and metalinguistic awareness : one dimension of language experience. In J.S. Bruner , A. Jolly and K. Sylva (eds.), Play : its role in evolution and development, pp. 603–608. London : Penguin.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cummins, J.
    (1984) : A theoretical framework for relating language proficiency to academic achievement among bilingual students. In C. Rivera (ed.), Language proficiency and academic achievement, pp. 2–19. Clevedon, England : Multilingual Matters 10.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Daneman, M. and P.A. Carpenter
    (1980) : Working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 19:450–466.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Donaldson, M.
    (1978) : Children's minds. Glasgow : Fontana.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Dornic, S.
    (1977) : Information processing and bilingualism. Stockholm : University of Stockholm, Psychology Department, report #510.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Downing, J. and R. Valtin
    (eds.) (1984) : Linguistic awareness and learning to read. Berlin : Springer Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Dulany, D.E. , R.A. Carlson , and G.I. Dewey
    (1985) : A case of syntactical learning and judgement : How conscious and how abstract?Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, vol. 113(4): 541–554.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ellis, R.
    (1985) : Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gass, S.
    (1983) : Developing L2 intuitions. TESOL Quarterly17(2):273–290.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gleitman, H. and L. Gleitman
    (1979) : Language use and language judgement. In C.W. Fillmore , D. Kempler and W.S.-Y. Wang (eds.), Individual differences in language ability and language behavior, pp. 103–126. New York : Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Heath, S.B.
    (1983) : Ways with words. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (198u) : Literacy or literate skills? Consideration for ESL/EFL learners. In P. Larson , E.L. Judd and D.S. Messerschmitt (eds.), On Tesol '84, pp. 15–28. Washington, DC : Tesol Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Krashen, S.D.
    (1981) : Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. (1982) : Principles and practices in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lawson, M.
    (1984) : Being executive about metacognition. In J.R. Kirby (ed.), Cognitive strategies and educational performance, pp. 89–110.New York : Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lightbown, P.M.
    (1984) : Input and acquisition in second language classrooms. TESL Canada Journal, l(2):55–67.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Long, M.H.
    (1977) : Teacher feedback on learner error - mapping cognitions. Revised version of a paper presented atthe 11th Annual TESOL Convention, Miami Beach, Florida.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. (1982) : Does second language instruction make a difference? A review of research. Paper presented atthe TESOL Research Committee's state-of-the-art session, 16th Annual TESOL Convention, Honolulu.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Masny, D.
    (1983) : Cognitive and linguistic correlates of second language grammaticality judgements. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Montreal : Université de Montréal.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. (1985) : Metalinguistic awareness and second language competency: the relationship between grammatical acceptability and second language skills. Paper presented atthe U.C.L.A. Second Language Research Forum, Los Angeles.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Masny, D. and A. d'Anglejan
    (1985) : Language, cognition and second language grammaticality judgements. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research14:175–197.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Myhill, M.E. and M.L. Herriman
    (1984) : The educational implications of language awareness. In W.T. Tunmer , C. Pratt , M.L. Herriman (eds.), Metalinguistic awareness in children : theory, research, and implications. Berlin, pp. 102–112, Springer Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Oller, J. jr.
    (1979) : Language tests at school. London : Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Reber, A.S. , and Allen, R.
    (1985) : Syntactical learning and judgement, still unconscious and still abstract : Comment on Dulany, Carlson and Dewey. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, vol. 114(l):17–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Rutherford, W.E. and Sharwood-Smith, M.
    (1985) : Consciousness-raising and universal grammar. Applied Linguistics, 6(3): 274–282.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Ryan E.B.
    (1980) : Metalinguistic awareness and reading. In L.H. Waterhouse , K.M. Fischer and E.B. Ryan (eds.), Linguistic awareness and reading, pp. 193–206. Newark, Del.: International Reading Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Ryan, E.B. and G.W. Ledger
    (1984) : Learning to attend to sentence structure : links between metalinguistic development and reading. In J. Downing and R. Valtin (eds.), Linguistic awareness and learning to read, pp. 149–171. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Seliger, H.
    (1979) : On the nature and function of rules in language teaching. TESOL Quarterlyl3:118–131.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Sharwood-Smith, M.
    (1981) : Consciousness-raising and the second language learner. Applied Linguistics11(2):159–168.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Smith, C.L. and H.T. Flusberg
    (1982) : Metalinguistic awareness and language development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology34:449–468.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Snow, C.E.
    (1987) : Beyond conversation: second language learners' acquisition of description and explanation. In J.P. Lantolf and A. Labarca (eds.), Research in second language learning : Focus on the classroom, pp. 3–16. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Stern, H.H.
    (1983) : Fundamental concepts of language teaching. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Thomas, J.
    (1985) : Language awareness in a multicultural environment. Paper presented at19th Annual TESOL Convention, New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. White, L.
    (1985) : Is there a «logical problem» of second language acquisition?TESL Canada2(2):29–42.
    [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error