Volume 10, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2211-4742
  • E-ISSN: 2211-4750
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Are we living in an age of unreason? And what to do about it? Can we combat unreason? We discuss situations in which one may presume to be confronted with unreasonable behavior by an interlocutor: fallacies, changing rules of the game, shifting to some other type of dialogue, and abandonment of reasonable dialogue. We recommend ways that could be helpful to obtain a return to reason. These possibilities lead us to a moderately optimistic conclusion.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Aikin, Scott F.
    (2013) Deep disagreement, the dark enlightenment, and the rhetoric of the red pill. Journal of Applied Logic36 (3), 420–435. doi:  10.1111/japp.12331
    https://doi.org/10.1111/japp.12331 [Google Scholar]
  2. Aikin, Scott F., & Robert B. Talisse
    (2019) Why We Argue (and How We Should): A Guide to Political Disagreement in an Age of Unreason. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Carpenter, Amanda
    (2018) Gaslighting America: Why We Love It When Trump Lies to Us. New York, N.Y.: HarperCollins Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cillizza, Chris
    (2017) Donald Trump doesn’t think much of climate change, in 20 quotes. CNN, August8 2017 RetrievedMarch 11 2019fromhttps://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/08/politics/trump-global-warming/index.html
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cohen, Daniel
    (1995) Argument is war…and war is hell: Philosophy, education, and metaphors for argumentation. Informal Logic17, 177–188. 10.22329/il.v17i2.2406
    https://doi.org/10.22329/il.v17i2.2406 [Google Scholar]
  6. (2017) The virtuous troll: Argumentative virtues in the age of (technologically enhanced) argumentative pluralism. Philosophy & Technology, 30, 179–189,. 10.1007/s13347‑016‑0226‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s13347-016-0226-2 [Google Scholar]
  7. Descartes, René
    (1637) Discours de la méthode: Pour bien conduire sa raison, & chercher la verité dans les sciences […] [Discourse on the Method: For Rightly Conducting One’s Reason and Seeking the Truth in the Sciences […]]. Leiden: Ian Maire.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Fearnside, W. Ward, & William B. Holther
    (1959) Fallacy: The Counterfeit of Argument. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Frankfurt, Harry G.
    (2005) On Bullshit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Reprint of: On Bullshit, Raritan Quarterly Review, 6 (2): 81–100 1986.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Friedman, Lisa
    (2018) ‘I don’t know that it’s man-made,’ Trump Says of climate change. It is. The New York Times, October15 2018 Retrieved fromhttps://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/15/climate/trump-climate-change-fact-check.html, March11 2019
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Govier, Trudy
    (1999) The Philosophy of Argument. Edited byJohn Hoagland with a preface by J. Anthony Blair. Newport News VA: Vale press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hayes, Christal
    (2018) Trump is skeptical of climate change report because of his ‘high levels of intelligence’, USA TODAY, November27 2018 Retrieved onMarch 11 2019fromhttps://eu.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2018/11/27/donald-trump-cites-high-levels-intelligence-climate-change-denial/2132448002/
  13. Habgood-Coote, Joshua
    (2019) Stop talking about fake news!Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy62 (9–10), 1–33. 10.1080/0020174X.2018.1508363
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0020174X.2018.1508363 [Google Scholar]
  14. Hamblin, Charles L.
    (1970) Fallacies. London: Methuen. Reprinted with a preface byJohn Plecnik and John Hoaglund: Newport News, VA: Vale Press 1986.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jacobs, Scott
    (2009) Nonfallacious rhetorical design in argumentation. InFrans H. van Eemeren and Bart Garssen (Eds.), Pondering on problems of argumentation: Twenty essays on theoretical issues (pp.55–78). (Argumentation library 14). Dordrecht: Springer. 10.1007/978‑1‑4020‑9165‑0_5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9165-0_5 [Google Scholar]
  16. Johnson, Ralph H., & J. Anthony Blair
    (1983) Logical Self-Defense. 2nd ed.Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson. First ed. 1977.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Krabbe, Erik C. W. Metadialogues
    (2003) In: Frans. H. van Eemeren, J. Anthony Blair, Charles A. Willard and A. Fransisca Snoeck Henkemans (Eds.), Anyone Who has a View: Theoretical Contributions to the Study of Argumentation (pp.83–90), Dordrecht: Kluwer. 10.1007/978‑94‑007‑1078‑8_7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1078-8_7 [Google Scholar]
  18. Kristiansen, Lars J. & Bernd Kaussler
    (2018) The bullshit doctrine: Fabrications, Lies, and Nonsense in the Age of Trump. Informal Logic38 (2018), 13–52. 10.22329/il.v38i1.5067
    https://doi.org/10.22329/il.v38i1.5067 [Google Scholar]
  19. Lakoff, George P., & Gil Duran
    (2018) Trump has turned words into weapons: And he’s winning the linguistic war. The Guardian, 13 June 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Lanius, David
    (2017) Wie argumentieren Rechtspopulisten? Eine Argumentationsanalyse des AfD-Wahlprogramms [How do rightwing populists argue? An argumentation analysis of the AfD election platform]. Karlsruhe: Institut für Technikzukünfte (Diskussionspapiere 4).
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Lozada, Carlos
    (2018) Can truth survive this president? An honest investigation. The Washington Post, July13 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Smith, Justin
    (2019) Irrationality: A History of the Dark Side of Reason. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Stanley, Jason
    (2015) How Propaganda Works. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. The White House
    The White House (2017) Statement by president Trump on the Paris Climate Accord. Retrieved, June 13 2019, from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/statement-president-trump-paris-climate-accord/
  25. Tumulty, Karen
    (2019) Trump is trolling us again. Stop falling for it. The Washington Post, May 6, 2019. Retrieved onMarch 25from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/trump-is-trolling-us-again-stop-falling-for-it/2019/05/06/09679ae0-7009-11e9-8be0-ca575670e91c_story.html
    [Google Scholar]
  26. van Eemeren, Frans H., & Rob Grootendorst
    (2004) A Systematic Theory of Argumentation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. van Laar, Jan Albert, & Erik C. W. Krabbe
    (2016) Fair and Unfair Strategies in Public Controversies. Journal of Argumentation in Context5 (3), 315–347. doi:  10.1075/jaic.5.3.04kra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jaic.5.3.04kra [Google Scholar]
  28. Walton, Douglas N., & Erik C. W. Krabbe
    (1995) Commitment in Dialogue: Basic Concepts of Interpersonal Reasoning. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
    [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error