1887
Volume 10, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2211-4742
  • E-ISSN: 2211-4750
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This project investigates orientations toward interpersonal arguing among Chilean seniors ( = 243), having a mean age of 72 years. We found no prior attention to seniors in the interpersonal arguing literature, and only a little to Chileans. Sited within the US framework for studying interpersonal arguing (see Hample, 2016), this project collected seniors’ responses to survey items indexing argumentativeness, verbal aggressiveness, argument frames, personalization of conflict, and power distance. Our exploratory work involved use of a second sample of Chilean undergraduates ( = 80) for comparison. Comparisons showed that the seniors were less likely to argue, especially for play. Seniors were more interested in asserting dominance and were less cooperative and civil. Few sex differences were observed among the seniors, whereas quite a few had been previously found for Chilean undergraduates. These differences are attributed to the age of the seniors, although the possibility of a cadre effect is considered. Neither Chilean seniors nor younger adults displayed negative correlations between approaching and avoiding arguments, a result which has become an increasingly urgent theoretical issue across the world.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jaic.20002.san
2021-07-05
2021-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Birditt, K. S., & Fingerman, K. L.
    (2005) Do we get better at picking our battles? Age group differences in descriptions of behavioral reactions to interpersonal tensions. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 60B, 121–128. 10.1093/geronb/60.3.P121
    https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/60.3.P121 [Google Scholar]
  2. Birditt, K. S., Fingerman, K. L., & Almeida, D. M.
    (2005) Age differences in exposure and reactions to interpersonal tensions: A daily diary study. Psychology and Aging, 20, 330–340. 10.1037/0882‑7974.20.2.330
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.20.2.330 [Google Scholar]
  3. Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C.
    (1987) Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511813085
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813085 [Google Scholar]
  4. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R.
    (1988) Personality in adulthood: A six-year longitudinal study of self-reports and spouse ratings on the NEO Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 853–863. 10.1037/0022‑3514.54.5.853
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.5.853 [Google Scholar]
  5. Dickson, F. C., Hughes, P. C., Manning, L. D., Walker, K. L., Bollis-Pecci, T., & Gratson, S.
    (2002) Conflict in later-life, long-term marriages. Southern Communication Journal, 67, 110–121. 10.1080/10417940209373224
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10417940209373224 [Google Scholar]
  6. Diehl, M., Coyle, N., & Labouvie-Vief, G.
    (1996) Age and sex differences in strategies of coping and defense across the life span. Psychology and aging, 11, 127–139. 10.1037/0882‑7974.11.1.127
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.11.1.127 [Google Scholar]
  7. Etchegaray, N., Scherman, A., & Valenzuela, S.
    (2018) Testing the Hypothesis of ‘‘Impressionable Years’’ With Willingness to Self-Censor in Chile. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, edy012. doi:  10.1093/ijpor/edy012
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijpor/edy012 [Google Scholar]
  8. Gavrilov, L. A., & Heuveline, P.
    (2003) Aging of population. InP. Demeny & G. McNicoll (Eds.), The encyclopedia of population (pp.32–37) New York: Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Grossmann, I., Na, J., Varnum, M. E., Park, D. C., Kitayama, S., & Nisbett, R. E.
    (2010) Reasoning about social conflicts improves into old age. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 7246–7250. 10.1073/pnas.1001715107
    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1001715107 [Google Scholar]
  10. Hample, D.
    (2003) Arguing skill. InJ. O. Greene & B. R. Burleson (Eds.), Handbook of communication and social interaction skills (pp.439–478). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. (2016) The psychological approach to interpersonal argumentation in the U.S. argumentation community. InF. Paglieri, L. Bonelli, & S. Felletti (Eds.), The psychology of argument: Cognitive approaches to argumentation and persuasion (pp.257–274). London: College Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. (2018) Interpersonal arguing. New York: Peter Lang. 10.3726/b12877
    https://doi.org/10.3726/b12877 [Google Scholar]
  13. Hample, D., & Cionea, I. A.
    (2010) Taking conflict personally and its connections with aggressiveness. InT. A. Avtgis & A. S. Rancer (Eds.), Arguments, aggression, and conflict: New directions in theory and research (pp.372–387). New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor, and Francis.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hample, D., & Dallinger, J. M.
    (1995) A Lewinian perspective on taking conflict personally: Revision, refinement, and validation of the instrument. Communication Quarterly, 43, 297–319. 10.1080/01463379509369978
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01463379509369978 [Google Scholar]
  15. Hample, D., & Irions, A.
    (2015) Arguing to display identity. Argumentation, 29, 389–416. 10.1007/s10503‑015‑9351‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10503-015-9351-9 [Google Scholar]
  16. Holley, S. R., Haase, C. M., & Levenson, R. W.
    (2013) Age-related changes in demand-withdraw communication behaviors. Journal of Marriage and Family, 75, 822–836. 10.1111/jomf.12051
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12051 [Google Scholar]
  17. INE
    INE (2018) Estimaciones y proyecciones de la población de Chile 1992–2050, custom data acquired via website. www.censo2017.cl/descargas/proyecciones/sintesis-estimaciones-y-proyecciones-de-la-poblacion-chile-1992-2050.pdf, Retrieved: 04/27/2019.
  18. Infante, D. A., & Rancer, A. S.
    (1982) A conceptualization and measure of argumentativeness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 46, 72–80. 10.1207/s15327752jpa4601_13
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4601_13 [Google Scholar]
  19. Infante, D. A., & Wigley, C. J.
    (1986) Verbal aggressiveness: An interpersonal model and measure. Communication Monographs, 53, 61–69. 10.1080/03637758609376126
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03637758609376126 [Google Scholar]
  20. Juncos, O., Pereiro, A. & Rodriquez, M.
    (2005) Narrative speech in aging: Quantity, information content, and cohesion. Brain and Language, 95, 423–434. 10.1016/j.bandl.2005.04.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2005.04.001 [Google Scholar]
  21. Johnson, A. J., Hample, D., & Cionea, I. A.
    (2014) Understanding argumentation in interpersonal communication: The implications of distinguishing between public and personal topics. Communication Yearbook, 38, 145–174. InE. L. Cohen (Ed.) New York: Taylor & Francis.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kemper, S., Thompson, M. & Marquis, J.
    (2001) Longitudinal change in language production: Effects of aging and dementia on grammatical complexity and propositional content. Psychology and Aging, 16, 600–614. 10.1037/0882‑7974.16.4.600
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.16.4.600 [Google Scholar]
  23. Kline, S. L.
    (1998) Influence opportunities and the development of argumentation competencies in childhood. Argumentation, 12, 367–385. 10.1023/A:1007780507894
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007780507894 [Google Scholar]
  24. Lemaster, P., Delaney, R., & Strough, J.
    (2017) Crossover, degendering, or…? A multidimensional approach to life-span gender development. Sex Roles, 76, 669–681. 10.1007/s11199‑015‑0563‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-015-0563-0 [Google Scholar]
  25. Lin, R., Chen, H. Y., Li, H., & Li, J.
    (2019) Effects of creative expression therapy on Chinese elderly patients with dementia: an exploratory randomized controlled trial. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 15, 2171–2180. 10.2147/NDT.S200045
    https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S200045 [Google Scholar]
  26. Macedo, A. P.
    (2011) The development of children’s argument skills. Dissertation, University of London.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Mackenzie, C.
    (2000) Adult spoken discourse: The influences of age and education. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 35, 269–285. 10.1080/136828200247188
    https://doi.org/10.1080/136828200247188 [Google Scholar]
  28. Martin, M. M., & Anderson, C. M.
    (1996) Communication traits: A cross-generalization investigation. Communication Research Reports, 13, 58–67. 10.1080/08824099609362071
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08824099609362071 [Google Scholar]
  29. McHorney, C. A.
    (1996) Measuring and monitoring general health status in elderly persons: Practical and methodological issues in using the SF-36 health survey. The Gerontologist, 36, 571–583. 10.1093/geront/36.5.571
    https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/36.5.571 [Google Scholar]
  30. Miles, J. R. & Stine–Morrow, E. A. L.
    (2004) Adult age differences in self regulated learning in reading sentences. Psychology & Aging, 19, 626–636. 10.1037/0882‑7974.19.4.626
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.19.4.626 [Google Scholar]
  31. Rancer, A. S., & Avtgis, T. A.
    (2014) Argumentative and aggressive communication: Theory, research, and application, 2d. ed.New York: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Rapanta, C.
    (2019) Argumentation strategies in the classroom. Wilmington DE: Vernon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Reiter, A. M., Kanske, P., Eppinger, B., & Li, S. C.
    (2017) The aging of the social mind-differential effects on components of social understanding. Scientific reports, 7 (11046), 1–8. 10.1038/s41598‑017‑10669‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-10669-4 [Google Scholar]
  34. Santibáñez, C., & Hample, D.
    (2015) Orientations toward interpersonal arguing in Chile. Pragmatics, 25, 453–476. 10.1075/prag.25.3.06san
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.25.3.06san [Google Scholar]
  35. Schullery, N. M., & Schullery, S. E.
    (2003) Relationship of argumentativeness to age and higher education. Western Journal of Communication, 67, 207–223. 10.1080/10570310309374767
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10570310309374767 [Google Scholar]
  36. Schuman, H., & Corning, A. D.
    (2006) Comparing Iraq to Vietnam: Recognition, recall, and the nature of cohort effects. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70, 78–87. 10.1093/poq/nfj010
    https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfj010 [Google Scholar]
  37. (2017) The conversion of generational effects into collective memories. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 29, 520–532.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Schuman, H., Corning, A., & Schwartz, B.
    (2012) Framing variations and collective memory. Social Science History, 36, 451–472. 10.1017/S0145553200010439
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0145553200010439 [Google Scholar]
  39. Silver, C. B.
    (2003) Gendered identities in old age: Toward (de) gendering?. Journal of aging studies, 17, 379–397. 10.1016/S0890‑4065(03)00059‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0890-4065(03)00059-8 [Google Scholar]
  40. Soto, C. J., John, O. P., Gosling, S. D., & Potter, J.
    (2011) Age differences in personality traits from 10 to 65: Big five domains and facets in a large cross-sectional sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 33–348. 10.1037/a0021717
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021717 [Google Scholar]
  41. Stine-Morrow, E. A. L.
    (2007) The Dumbledore hypothesis of cognitive aging”. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16 (6), 295–299. 10.1111/j.1467‑8721.2007.00524.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00524.x [Google Scholar]
  42. Stine-Morrow, E. A. L., Miller, L., & Hertzog, C.
    (2006) Aging and self-regulated language processing. Psychological Bulletin, 132 (4), 582–606. 10.1037/0033‑2909.132.4.582
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.4.582 [Google Scholar]
  43. Stine-Morrow, E. A. L., Shake, M. C., Miles, J. R., & Noh, S. R.
    (2006) Adult age differences in the effects of goals on self-regulated sentence processing. Psychology & Aging, 21 (4), 790–803. 10.1037/0882‑7974.21.4.790
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.21.4.790 [Google Scholar]
  44. Strough, J., Leszczynski, J. P., Neely, T. L., Flinn, J. A., & Margrett, J.
    (2007) From adolescence to later adulthood: Femininity, masculinity, and androgyny in six age groups. Sex roles, 57, 385–396. 10.1007/s11199‑007‑9282‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9282-5 [Google Scholar]
  45. Tessler, M., Konold, C., & Reif, M.
    (2004) Political generations in developing countries: Evidence and insights from Algeria. Public Opinion Quarterly, 68, 184–216. 10.1093/poq/nfh011
    https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfh011 [Google Scholar]
  46. Turabian, J. L.
    (2019) Differential characteristics in communication and relationship of the general practitioner with the elderly patient. Journal of Family Medicine Forecast, 2 (2), 1017.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Ulatowska, H.
    (Ed) (1985) The aging brain. Communication in the Elderly. Boston: College-Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division
    United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017) World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision, custom data acquired via website. https://population.un.org/wpp/DataQuery/Retrieved: 2/23/2019
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Véliz, M., Riffo, B., & Arancibia, B.
    (2010) Envejecimiento cognitivo y procesamiento del lengauje: cuestiones relevantes. Revista de Lingüística Teórica y Aplicada Concepción, 48 (1), 75–103.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Yoo, B., Donthu, N., & Lenartowicz, T.
    (2011) Measuring Hofstede’s five dimensions of cultural values at the individual level: Development and validation of CVSCALE. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23, 193–210.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Zietlow, P. H., & Sillars, A. L.
    (1988) Life-stage differences in communication during marital conflicts. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 5, 223–245. 10.1177/026540758800500206
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026540758800500206 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jaic.20002.san
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jaic.20002.san
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error