Volume 29, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0957-6851
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9838
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The present study aims (1) to study stereotype contents of a target population, and (2) to test the predictive power of three contesting theoretical models in the communication framework of who→says what→in which channel→to whom→with what effect (Lasswell, 1948). A purposive sample of ( = 291) Vietnamese high school and college students found that they have positive stereotypes about Americans in general and a mix of positive and negative stereotypes about Black/African-Americans. Of the three theoretical models, the communication model had collectively the strongest predictors, followed by the psychological model, and then the contact model. Theoretical as well as practical implications of the study is discussed.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Allport, G. W.
    (1954) The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Augoustinos, M., & Walker, I.
    (1998) The construction of stereotypes within social psychology: From social cognition to ideology. Theory and Psychology, 8(5), 629–652. 10.1177/0959354398085003
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354398085003 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bandura, A.
    (1986) Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Clark, A. E., & Kashima, Y.
    (2007) Stereotypes help people connect with others in the community: A situated functional analysis of the stereotype consistency bias in communication. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(6), 1028–1039. 10.1037/0022‑3514.93.6.1028
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.93.6.1028 [Google Scholar]
  5. DeFleur, M. L., & DeFleur, M. H.
    (2003) Learning to hate Americans: How US media shape negative attitudes among teenagers in twelve countries. Spokane, WA: Marquette.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Devine, P. G.
    (1989) Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(1), 5–18. 10.1037/0022‑3514.56.1.5
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.1.5 [Google Scholar]
  7. Devine, P. G., Monteith, M. J., Zuwerink, J. R., & Elliot, A. J.
    (1991) Prejudice with and without compunction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(6), 817–830. 10.1037/0022‑3514.60.6.817
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.60.6.817 [Google Scholar]
  8. Devos, T., & Banaji, M. R.
    (2005) American=white?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(3), 447–466. 10.1037/0022‑3514.88.3.447
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.88.3.447 [Google Scholar]
  9. Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J.
    (2002) A map of (often mixed) stereotypes content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 878–902. 10.1037/0022‑3514.82.6.878
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.82.6.878 [Google Scholar]
  10. Fiske, S. T., & Tablante, C. B.
    (2015) Stereotyping: Processes and content. InM. Mikulincer, P. R. Shaver, E. Borgida, & J. Bargh (Eds.), APA handbook of personality and social psychology, Vol. 1: Attitudes and social cognition (pp.457–507). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorielli, N.
    (1986) Living with television: The dynamics of the cultivation process. InJ. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Perspectives on media effects (pp.17–40). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Grusec, J. E., & Hastings, P. D.
    (2015) Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (Eds.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kagitcibasi, C., & Berry, J. W.
    (1989) Cross-cultural psychology: Current research and trends. Annual Review of Psychology, 40, 493–532. 10.1146/annurev.ps.40.020189.002425
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.40.020189.002425 [Google Scholar]
  14. Karlins, M., Coffman, T. L., & Walters, G.
    (1969) On the fading of social stereotypes: Studies in three generations of college students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13(1), 1–16. 10.1037/h0027994
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0027994 [Google Scholar]
  15. Katz, D., & Braly, K.
    (1935) Racial prejudice and racial stereotypes. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 30(2), 175–193. 10.1037/h0059800
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0059800 [Google Scholar]
  16. Kunda, Z.
    (1999) Social cognition: Making sense of people. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 10.7551/mitpress/6291.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/6291.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  17. Lasswell, H. D.
    (1948) The Structure and function of communication in society. InL. Bryson (Ed.), The communication of ideas (pp.37–51). New York: Institute for Religious and Social Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Lippmann, W.
    (1922) Public opinion. New York: Harcourt, Brace. Reproduced by Greenbook Publications, LLC in 2010.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Madon, S., Guyll, M., Aboufadel, K., Montiel, E., Smith, A., Palumbo, P., & Jussim, L.
    (2001) Ethnic and national stereotypes: The Princeton trilogy revisited and revised. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 996–1010. 10.1177/0146167201278007
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167201278007 [Google Scholar]
  20. Nghe, L. T., Mahalik, J. R., & Lowe, S. M.
    (2003) Influences on Vietnamese men: Examining traditional gender roles, the refugee experience, acculturation, and racism in the United States. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 31(4), 245–261. 10.1002/j.2161‑1912.2003.tb00353.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2003.tb00353.x [Google Scholar]
  21. Nguyen, H.
    (2015) Globalization, consumerism, and the emergence of teens in contemporary Vietnam. Journal of Social History, 49(1), 4–19. 10.1093/jsh/shv009
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jsh/shv009 [Google Scholar]
  22. Nguyen, T. H.
    (2012) Whose weapons? Representations of rape in the print media of modern Vietnam. Journal of Vietnamese Studies, 7(2), 29–66. doi:  10.1525/vs.2012.7.2.29
    https://doi.org/10.1525/vs.2012.7.2.29 [Google Scholar]
  23. Nguyen, B. T., & Thomas, M.
    (2004) Young women and emergent postsocialist sensibilities in contemporary Vietnam. Asian Studies Review, 28(2), 133–149. 10.1080/1035782042000226684
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1035782042000226684 [Google Scholar]
  24. Pew Research Center
    Pew Research Center (2015) How Americans and Japanese see each other. Retrieved fromwww.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/04/09/how-americans-and-japanese-see-each-other/
  25. Ruscher, J. B.
    (2001) Prejudiced communication: A social psychological perspective. New York: Guilford.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Schiappa, E., Gregg, P. B., & Hewes, D. E.
    (2005) The parasocial contact hypothesis. Communication Monographs, 71(1), 92–115. 10.1080/0363775052000342544
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0363775052000342544 [Google Scholar]
  27. Schneider, D. J.
    (2004) The Psychology of stereotypes. New York: Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Smith, T. W.
    (1991) Ethnic images in the United States. The Polling Report, 7(1), 1–5.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Stangor, C., & Schaller, M.
    (1996) Stereotypes as individual and collective representations. InC. N. Macrae, C. Stangor, & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Stereotypes and stereotyping (pp.3–37). New York: The Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Tajfel, H.
    (1981) Social stereotypes and social groups. InJ. C. Turner & H. Giles (Eds.), Intergroup behavior (pp.144–167). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Tan, A. S.
    (2018) Communication and prejudice: Theories, effects, and interventions. San Diego, CA: Cognella Academic Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Tan, A. S., Dalisay, F., Han, E., Zhang, Y., & Merchant, M.
    (2010) A cognitive processing model of information source use and stereotyping: African-American stereotypes in South Korea. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 54(4), 569–587. 10.1080/08838151.2010.519810
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2010.519810 [Google Scholar]
  33. Tan, A. S., Fujioka, Y., & Tan, G.
    (2000) Television use, stereotypes of African Americans and opinions on affirmative action: An affective model of policy reasoning. Communication Monographs, 67(4), 362–371. 10.1080/03637750009376517
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03637750009376517 [Google Scholar]
  34. Tan, A. S., Zhang, Y., Zhang, L., & Dalisay, F.
    (2009) Stereotypes of African-Americans in China and media use. Howard Journal of Communications, 20(3), 260–275. 10.1080/10646170903065803
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10646170903065803 [Google Scholar]
  35. Tran, N.
    (2006) South Vietnamese identity, American intervention, and the newspaper Chính Luan (Political Discussion), 1965–1969. Journal of Vietnamese Studies, 1(1–2), 169–209. doi:  10.1525/vs.2006.1.1‑2.169
    https://doi.org/10.1525/vs.2006.1.1-2.169 [Google Scholar]
  36. Vuong, T. Q.
    (1992) Popular culture and high culture in Vietnamese history. Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 7(2), 5–37.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Wojciszke, B.
    (2005) Morality and competence in person- and self-perception. European Review of Social Psychology, 16, 155–188. 10.1080/10463280500229619
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10463280500229619 [Google Scholar]
  38. Zhang, Y.
    (2017) Stereotyping and communication. Handbook of Intercultural Communication (HOCS 9)in the series ofHandbooks of Communication Science. Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): communication framework; stereotype; stereotype formation; theoretical models
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error