Volume 31, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0957-6851
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9838
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This study explores the transmission of Japanese in Japanese-Catalan/Spanish speaking families in Catalonia from the perspective of . Based on the data obtained through in-depth interviews with nine Japanese-speaking parents whose spouses are Catalan native speakers, we describe these families’ language policies in terms of how they shed light on how parents cope with transmitting Japanese in such contexts. One of the most striking findings of this study is that socially weaker languages – namely Japanese and Catalan – have an important presence in most of the participants’ families despite the use of Spanish between the parents in their home. The result of our analysis also suggests that parental beliefs and attitudes have a significant influence on their language practice and the maintenance of the heritage language (HL) at home.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Arnberg, L.
    (1987) Raising children bilingually: The preschool years. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Baker, C.; Sienkewicz, A.
    (2000) The Care and Education of Young Bilinguals: An Introduction for Professionals. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barron-Hauwaert, S.
    (2004) Language Strategies for Bilingual Families: The One Parent One Language Approach. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853597169
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853597169 [Google Scholar]
  4. (2011) Bilingual Siblings. Language Use in Families. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847693280
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847693280 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bastardas i Boada, A.
    (2016) Famílies lingüísticament mixtes a Catalunya: competències, usos i autoorganització evolutiva, Treballs de Sociolingüística Catalana, 26, 285–308.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bernat i Baltrons, F.
    (2017) Usos i ideologies lingüístics en families mixtes francocatalanes del Principat, Treballs de Sociolingüística Catalana, 27, 13–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Boix-Fuster, E. and Vila, F. X.
    (2006) Pròleg: Les noves immigracions, la integració i la llengua. InE. Boix-Fuster; F. X. Vila i Moreno and N. Alturo i Monné (eds.) Integrar, des de la fragilitat?. Societats plurilingües davant els reptes de les immigracions multilingües: Suïssa, Luxemburg, Brusel•les, Quebec i Catalunya. Col•lecció XARXA CRUSCAT, 4. Barcelona: Institut d’Estudis Catalans.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Braun, A. and Cline, T.
    (2014) Language Strategies for Trilingual Families. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783091164
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783091164 [Google Scholar]
  9. Cohen, D., and Crabtree, B.
    (2006) Qualitative Research Guidelines Project. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Curdt-Cristiansen, X. L.
    (2009) Invisible and visible language planning: ideological factors in the family language policy of Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Language Policy, 8:351–375. 10.1007/s10993‑009‑9146‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-009-9146-7 [Google Scholar]
  11. (2014) Family language policy: Is learning Chinese at odds with learning English?InX. Curdt-Christiansen & A. Hancock (eds) Learning Chinese in Diasporic Communities, (p.35–55), Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/aals.12.03cur
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aals.12.03cur [Google Scholar]
  12. Danjo, C.
    (2015) A Critical Ethnographic Inquiry into the Negotiation of Language Practice among Japanese Multilingual Families in the UK: Discourse, Language Use and Percepton in the Hoshuko and the Family Home, doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Arts, Design & Social Science, University of Northumbria at Newcastle.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. De Houwer, A.
    (1999) Environmental factors in early bilingual development: the role of parental beliefs and attitudes. InG. Extra and L. Verhoeven (eds.) Bilingualism and Migration. Studies on Language Acquisition, 75–95, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110807820.75
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110807820.75 [Google Scholar]
  14. (2007) Parental language input patterns and children’s bilingual use. Applied psycholinguistics28(3): 411–424. 10.1017/S0142716407070221
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716407070221 [Google Scholar]
  15. De Klerk, V.
    (2001) The Cross-Marriage Language Dilemma: His Language or Hers?International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 4 (3):197–216. 10.1080/13670050108667728
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050108667728 [Google Scholar]
  16. Döpke, S.
    (1992) One Parent-One Language. An Interactional Approach. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.3
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.3 [Google Scholar]
  17. Draper, J. B., and Hicks, J. H.
    (2000) Where we’ve been: What we’ve learned. InJ. B. Webb, and L. Miller. Teaching Heritage Language Learners: Voices from the Classroom, 15–35, Yonkers, New York: American Council on the Teaching Foreign Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Fishman, J. A.
    (2001) 300-plus years of heritage language education in the United States. InJ. K. Peyton; D. A. Ranard; and S. McGinnis (eds.) Heritage languages in America: Preserving a national resource, 81–89, Washington DC-McHenry IL: Center for Applied Linguistics & Delta Systems.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Fogle, L. and King, K.
    (2013) Child Agency and Language Policy in Transnational Families. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 19 (1):1–26. 10.5070/L4190005288
    https://doi.org/10.5070/L4190005288 [Google Scholar]
  20. Fukuda, M.
    (2017) Language use in the context of double minority: the case of Japanese–Catalan/Spanish families in Catalonia, International Journal of Multilingualism, 14(4), 401–418. 10.1080/14790718.2017.1296450
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2017.1296450 [Google Scholar]
  21. (2018) La transmissió lingüística en un context de doble minoria: Politica lingüística familiar de les families de l’Escola Complementària de Llengua Japonesa a Barcelona, InA. Bastardas i Boada, Boix-Fuster, E.; Torrens Guerrini, R. M.(eds) El Català, Llengua Mitjana d’Europa. Multilingüisme, globalització i sostenibilitat lingüística (p.209–232), Barcelona: Octaedro.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gottlieb, N.
    (2005) Language and Society in Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511614248
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614248 [Google Scholar]
  23. Guardado, M.
    (2017) ‘Heritage language development in interlingual families’, InP. P. Trifonas & T. Anavossitas (eds), Handbook of research and practice in heritage language education (p.1–17), Philadelphia/Heidelberg: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hanai, R.
    (2012) ‘Kannichi kokusai kekkon katei no nihongo keisho yoin: zaikan nihonjin haha wo chushin to shite’, Japan journal of multilingualism and multiculturalism, 18(1), 39–55.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (2016) Language Choice in Japanese-Korean Families: Focusing on the Korean Language Heritage of Korean Mothers. The Japanese Journal of Language in Society19(1): 207–214.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Hinton, L.
    (1999) Involuntary Language Loss among Immigrants: Asian-American Linguistic Autobiographies. ERIC Digest. Retrieved on30 March 2015fromfiles.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED436982.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Jeon, M.
    (2008) Korean Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Ideology. Heritage Language Journal, 6(2):54–71. 10.46538/hlj.6.2.4
    https://doi.org/10.46538/hlj.6.2.4 [Google Scholar]
  28. Johnstone, B.
    (2000) Qualitaive methods in Sociolinguistics, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kamoto, I.
    (2006) Arukamoshirenai toki wo motomete. Kanada montoriôru zaijū kokusai kekkonno kēsusutadi. Gendaishakaikenkyū, 9:93–119.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kasuya, H.
    (1998) Determinants of Language Choice in Bilingual Children: The Role of Input. The International Journal of Bilingualism, 2, 3:327–346. 10.1177/136700699800200304
    https://doi.org/10.1177/136700699800200304 [Google Scholar]
  31. Kataoka, H. and Shibata, S.
    (2011) Japanese Language Proficiency and Home Language Use among Children of International Marriages: Breaking Free from Common Assumptions, On-lineJHL Journal, 4. Retrieved on27 April 2014fromwww.aatj.org/resources/sig/heritage/ejournal/vol4.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kelleher, A.
    (2010) What is a heritage language?Heritage Briefs, Center for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved on5 April 2014fromwww.cal.org/heritage/pdfs/briefs/What-is-a-Heritage-Language.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  33. King, K. A; Fogle, L., and Logan-Terry, A.
    (2008) Family Language Policy, Language and Linguistic Compass2(5):907–922. 10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2008.00076.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2008.00076.x [Google Scholar]
  34. King, K. A.; and Fogle
    (2006) Bilingual Parenting as Good Parenting: Parents’ Perspectives on Family Language Policy for Additive Bilingualism, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9(6), 695–712. 10.2167/beb362.0
    https://doi.org/10.2167/beb362.0 [Google Scholar]
  35. King, K. A., and Logan-Terry, A.
    (2008) Additive bilingualism through family language policy: Ideologies, strategies and interactional outcomes. Calidoscópio, 6(1):5–19.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lanza, E.
    (2007) Multilingualism and the Family. InLi Wei and P. Auer (eds.) Handbook of Multilingualism and Multilingual Communication, 45–67, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Lee, J. S., and Shin, S. J.
    (2008) Korean Heritage Language Education in the United States: The Current State, Opportunities, and Possibilities. Heritage Language Journal6(2):1–20. Retrieved on15 November 2012fromwww.heritagelanguages.org/
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Lyon, J.
    (1996) Becoming Bilingual. Language Acquisition in a Bilingual Community. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Minami, M.
    (2011) Telling stories in two languages: Multiple approaches to understanding English-Japanese bilingual children’s narratives. Charlotte, N. C.:Information Age Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Moroni, A.
    (2015) Ideologies lingüístiques a l’Associação de Pais de Brasileirinhos na Catalunha (APBC), Paper presented atthe 15th International Colloquium of the North American Catalan Society, Barcelona
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Muranaka, M.
    (2008) Furansuzaijū nikkē kokusaikazokuno nihonjinhahaoya to kokusaiji wa nihongokeishō o donoyōni imizuketeiruka. Master’s thesis, Tokyo: Ochanomizu University.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Nakajima, K.
    ([1998] 2008) Bairingaru kyōiku no hōhō. Jūnisai madeni oyato kyōshiga dekiru koto. Tokyo: Alc.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Ochs, E.
    (1998) Culture and Language Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Okita, T.
    (2002) Invisible work, bilingualism, language choice and childrearing in intermarried families. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.12
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.12 [Google Scholar]
  45. Oriyama, K.
    (2016) ‘Community of practice and family language policy: maintaining heritage language Japanese in Sydney-ten years later’, International Multilingual Research Journal, 10(4), 289–307. 10.1080/19313152.2016.1198977
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2016.1198977 [Google Scholar]
  46. Palviainen, Å, and Boyd, S.
    (2013) Unity in Discourse, Diversity in Practice: The One Person One Language Policy in Bilingual Families, InM. Schwartz; A. Verschik (eds.) Successful Family Language Policy (p.223–248), Dordrecht: Springer. 10.1007/978‑94‑007‑7753‑8_10
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7753-8_10 [Google Scholar]
  47. Park, S. M. and Sarkar, M.
    (2007) Parents’ Attitudes Toward Language Maintenance for Their Children and Their Efforts to Help Their Children Maintain the Heritage Language: A Case Study of Canadian Immigrants, Language, Culture and Curriculum, 20 (3):223–235. 10.2167/lcc337.0
    https://doi.org/10.2167/lcc337.0 [Google Scholar]
  48. Pauwel, A.
    (2005) Maintaining the community language in Australia: Challenges and roles for families. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 8 (2): 124–131. 10.1080/13670050508668601
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050508668601 [Google Scholar]
  49. Piller, I.
    (2001) Private language planning: The best of both worlds?Estudios de Sociolingüística2(1): 61–80.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. (2002) Bilingual Couples Talk. Discursive Construction of Hybridity. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.25
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.25 [Google Scholar]
  51. Rodríguez-García, D.; Lubbers, M. J.; Solana, M.
    (2015) ‘Contesting the Nexus Between Intermarriage and Integration: Findings from a Multidimensional Study in Spain’, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 662, 223–245. 10.1177/0002716215598136
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716215598136 [Google Scholar]
  52. Rodríguez-García, D.; Solana-Solana, M.; Ortiz-Guitart, A.
    (2018) ‘Linguistic Cultural Capital among Descendants of Mixed Couples in Catalonia, Spain: Realities and Inequalities’, Journal of Intercultural Studies, 39(4), 429–450. 10.1080/07256868.2018.1487388
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07256868.2018.1487388 [Google Scholar]
  53. Schüpbach, D.
    (2009) Language transmission revisited: family type, linguistic environment and language attitudes. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 12(1):15–30. 10.1080/13670050802149499
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050802149499 [Google Scholar]
  54. Schwartz, M.
    (2010) Family language policy: core issues on an emerging field. Applied Linguistics Review, 1:171–192. 10.1515/9783110222654.171
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110222654.171 [Google Scholar]
  55. Seloni, L.; Sarfati, Y.
    (2013) ‘(Trans)national language ideologies and family language practice: a life history inquiey of Judeo-Spanish in Turkey’, Language Policy, 12(7), 7–26. 10.1007/s10993‑012‑9262‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-012-9262-7 [Google Scholar]
  56. Soler, J.; Zabrodskaja, A.
    (2017) ‘New spaces of new speaker profiles: Exploring language ideologies in transnational multilingual families’, Language in Society, 46, 547–566. 10.1017/S0047404517000367
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404517000367 [Google Scholar]
  57. Spolsky, B.
    (2004) Language Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Suzuki, K.
    (2004) Issues in research on cultural identity formation in intercultural children, The Bulletin of Saitama Gakuen University, 4:15–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Takeuchi, M.
    (2006) The Japanese Language Development of Children through ‘One Parent-One Language’ Approach in Melbourne. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 27(4):319–331. 10.2167/jmmd441.1
    https://doi.org/10.2167/jmmd441.1 [Google Scholar]
  60. Torrens, M. R.
    (2012) Transmissió lingüística intergeneracional i pautes d’ús a les famílies mixtes català-italià de Catalunya. Un estudi equilibrat de forma i contingut. InE. Boix-Fuster and M. R. Torrens (eds.) Les llengües al sofa. El plurilingüisme familiar als països de llengua catalana, 181–226, Lleida: Pagès Editors.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Tuominen, A.
    (1999) Who decides the home language? A look at multilingual families. International Journal of Sociology of Language, 140:59–76. 10.1515/ijsl.1999.140.59
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.1999.140.59 [Google Scholar]
  62. Vila i Moreno, F. X. and Galindo Solé, M.
    (2013) “Sobre la història i l’extensió de la norma de convergència lingüística a Catalunya.” InF. X. Vila i Moreno (ed) Posar-hi la base : usos i aprenentatges lingüístics en el domini català, 31–45, Xarxa CRUSCAT 8, Barcelona: Institut d’Estudis Catalans.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Yamamoto, M.
    (1995) Bilingualism in international families. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 16(1–2):63–85. 10.1080/01434632.1995.9994593
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1995.9994593 [Google Scholar]
  64. (2001) Language Use in Interlingual Families. A Japanese-English Sociolinguistic Study. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853595417
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853595417 [Google Scholar]
  65. (2005) What makes who choose what languages to whom?: Language use in Japanese-Filipino Interlingual families in Japan. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 8(6):588–606. 10.1080/13670050508669070
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050508669070 [Google Scholar]
  66. (2008) Language use in interlingual families: Do different languages make a difference?International Journal of Sociology of Language, 189:133–148. 10.1515/IJSL.2008.006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/IJSL.2008.006 [Google Scholar]
  67. Youniss, J. and Ketterlinus, R. D.
    (1987) Communication and connectedness in mother- and father-adolescent relationships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence16(3): 265–280. 10.1007/BF02139094
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02139094 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Catalan; family language policy; heritage language; Japanese; language transmission
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error