1887
Restructuring Chinese Speech Communities
  • ISSN 0957-6851
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9838
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

This paper reports the results of direct observations of language use in two shopping areas in Shanghai, Nanjing East Road and Xujiahui. The data reported in this paper were collected in 2007. In Nanjing East Road, four traditional stores provided a base line for the use of Shanghainese. That base line (60 percent) was compared to a hierarchy of department stores in Xujiahui. The results showed that the store that best matched the base-line data attracted customers representing upper-working class / lower middle class customers. The remaining two stores attracted middle class and upper class customers. In the latter setting, it was found that a certain segment of the customers switched from Shanghainese to Putonghua for the business transaction, an effect we associated with the presence of young urban professionals of all backgrounds. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of speech community theory, and network density, which allows predictions of changes taking place within the dominant language of the Shanghainese speech community.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/japc.26.1.05van
2016-06-09
2019-10-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Blom, J. and Gumperz, J.J
    (1972) Social Meaning in Linguistic Structures: Code Switching in Northern Norway. In: J.J. Gumperz and D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in Sociolinguistics. New York Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Brosnahan, L.F
    (1963) Some historical cases of language imposition. In, John F. Spencer (Ed.), Language in Africa (pp. 7–24). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chan, W.K.K
    (1999) Selling goods and promoting a new commercial culture: the four department stores on Nanjing Road, 1917–1937. In Cochran, S . (Ed), Inventing Nanjing Road: Commercial Culture in Shanghai, 1900–1945, Cornell University, East Asia Program, Ithaca, NY, pp. 19–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chao, Yuen Ren
    (1976) My linguistic autobiography. In Anwar S. Dil (Ed.), Aspects of Chinese Sociolinguistics: Essays by Yuen Ren Chao (pp.1–20). Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chao, Linda and Myers, Ramon H
    (1998) China’s Consumer Revolution: the 1990s and beyond. Journal of Contemporary China7(18): 351–368. doi: 10.1080/10670569808724319
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10670569808724319 [Google Scholar]
  6. Chen, Ping
    (1999) Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139164375
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139164375 [Google Scholar]
  7. Cheng, C.C
    (1997) Measuring Relationship among Dialects: DOC and Related Resources, Computational Linguistics & Chinese Language Processing2(1), 41–72.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chu, Xiaoquan
    (2001) Linguistic diversity in Shanghai. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 11 (1): 17–24. doi: 10.1075/japc.11.1.04xia
    https://doi.org/10.1075/japc.11.1.04xia [Google Scholar]
  9. Clark, H.H
    (1996) Using Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511620539
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620539 [Google Scholar]
  10. Cochran, S
    (1999) Commercial culture in Shanghai, 1900–1945: imported or invented? Cut short or sustained?In, Cochran, S . (Ed), Inventing Nanjing Road: Commercial Culture in Shanghai, 1900–1945, Cornell University, East Asia Program, Ithaca, NY, pp. 3–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cooper, Robert L
    (1980) Sociolinguistic Surveys: The State of the Art. Applied Linguistics1/2, 113–128. doi: 10.1093/applin/I.2.113
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/I.2.113 [Google Scholar]
  12. Cooper, Robert L. and Susan Carpenter
    (1976) Language in the market. In, M.L. Bender et al. (Eds), Language in Ethiopia (pp. 244–255). London: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. De Swaan, Abram
    (2010) Chinese in the World Language System. In, M.E. van den Berg and Daming Xu (Eds.), Industrialization and the Restructuring of Speech Communities in China and Europe (pp. 35–62). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dong, Stella
    (2001) Shanghai: The Rise and Fall of a Decadent City1842–1949. New York: HarperCollins.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fishman, Joshua A
    (1972) Sociolinguistics: a brief introduction. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gamble, J
    (2003) Shanghai in Transition: Changing Perspectives and Social Contours of a Chinese Metropolis, Routledge Curzon, London.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Giles, H. and Johnson, P
    (1987) Ethnolinguistic identity theory: a social psychological approach to language maintenance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 68: 256–269.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Goodman, Bryna
    (1995) Native place, city, and nation: Regional networks and identities in Shanghai, 1853–1937. Berkeley and Los Angle: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gumperz, John J
    (1965) The Speech Community. Encyclopedia of the social Sciences9(3): 382–386. (Reprinted in P.P. Giglioli (Ed.), Language and Social Context. Harmondworth: Penguin, 1972.)
    [Google Scholar]
  20. (2002) Recent Developments in Interactional Sociolinguistics. Paper presented at the 1 st International Conference of Chinese Sociolinguistics, Beijing Language and Culture University, Peking, September 7-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gumperz, John J. and Hymes, D
    (Eds.) (1972) Directions in Sociolinguistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Guo, Xi
    (2004) Zhongguo Shehui Yuyanxue (Chinese Sociolinguistics). Hangzhou: Zhejiang University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Herman, S
    (1961) Explorations in the social psychology of language choice. Human Relations, 14: 149–164. doi: 10.1177/001872676101400205
    https://doi.org/10.1177/001872676101400205 [Google Scholar]
  24. Honig, Emily
    (1992) Migrant Culture in Shanghai: In search of a Subei identity. In, Shanghai Sojourners, Frederic Wakeman & Wen-hsin Yeh (Eds.), 239–265. Berkeley: University of California.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Jiang, Bingbing
    (2006) ‘An Investigation on Shanghai Youngster’s Use of Chinese’ The Journal of Chinese Socioinguistics1: 47–58.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. JiT
    (2008) Journeys in Time. China Central Television.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Johnson, L.C
    (1995) Shanghai: From Market Town to Treaty Port, 1074–1858, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kerswill, Paul
    (1995) Dialects converging: rural speech in urban Norway. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kerswill, Paul and Williams, Ann
    (2005) New Towns and Koineisation: linguistic and social correlates. Linguistics43(5): 1023–1048. doi: 10.1515/ling.2005.43.5.1023
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2005.43.5.1023 [Google Scholar]
  30. Labov, W
    (1972) Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lu, Hanchao
    (1999) Beyond the Neon Lights: Everyday Shanghai in the Early Twentieth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Nield, Robert
    (2010) The China Coast: Trade and the First Treaty Ports. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Qian, Nairong
    (1991) The Changes in the Shanghai Dialect. In William S.Y. Wang (Ed.), Languages and Dialects of China, (pp. 377-427). Journal of Chinese Linguistics, Monograph Series 3.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. (2005) Shanghai yuyan fazhanshi (History of the Shanghai Language). Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe (Shanghai People’s Press).
    [Google Scholar]
  35. (2010) The Spread of Shanghainese to Nanqiao Fengxian District. In, M.E. van den Berg and Daming Xu (Eds.), Industrialization and the Restructuring of Speech Communities in China and Europe (pp. 35–62). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Shanghai
    (1935/2008) All about Shanghai and environs: The 1934-35 Standard Guide Book. Shanghai: The University Press. | Hong Kong: Earnshaw Books, with a new foreword by Peter Hibbard, 2008, 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. SSY
    (2011) Shanghai Tongji Nianjian (Shanghai Statistical Yearbook for the year 2011). Beijing: China Statistics Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Tang, Chaoju and Van Heuven, Vincent J
    (2010) Predicting Mutual Intelligibility in Chinese Dialects from Subjective and Objective Linguistic Similarity. In, M.E. van den Berg and Daming Xu (Eds.), Industrialization and the Restructuring of Speech Communities in China and Europe (pp. 91–119). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Tayfel, H. and Turner, J.C
    (1986) The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behaviour. In S. Worchel and W.G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp.7–24). Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Trudgill, P
    (1974) The Social differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. (1986) Dialects in contact. New York: Basil Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. (2000) Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Tsou, B.K. , Chin, A.C. , and Mok, K
    (2010) Accelerated Urbanization, Triglossia and Language Shift: A Case Study of Sanya of Hainan Province. In, M.E. van den Berg and Daming Xu (Eds.), Industrialization and the Restructuring of Speech Communities in China and Europe (pp. 269–282). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Turgaud, G. , LaPolla, R.J
    (2003) The Sino-Tibetan Languages. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Van den Berg, M.E
    (1986) Language Planning and language Use in Taiwan: social identity, language accommodation, and language choice behaviour. International Journal of the Sociology of Language59, 97–116.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. (2005).Vitality, Identity, and Language Spread: the Case of Shanghainese. Journal of Chinese Sociolinguistics5/2, 225–235.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. (2010) Socio-economic Stratification in the Guangzhou Speech Community: Language Behaviour in Shopping Areas of Yuexiu and Tianhe Districts. In, M.E. van den Berg and Daming Xu (Eds.), Industrialization and the Restructuring of Speech Communities in China and Europe (pp. 236–268). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Warra, Carrie
    (1999) Invention, Industry, Art: The Commercialization of Culture in Republican Art Magazines. In Cochran, S . (Ed), Inventing Nanjing Road: Commercial Culture in Shanghai, 1900–1945, Cornell University, East Asia Program, Ithaca, NY, pp. 61–90.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Wu, W
    (1999) City profile: Shanghai. Cities: The International Journal for Urban Policy and Planning16 (3), 207–216.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Xu, Daming
    (2010) The Development of the Baotou Speech Community: A Quantitative Study of Nasal Variation in Mandarin Chinese. In, M.E. van den Berg and Daming Xu (Eds.), Industrialization and the Restructuring of Speech Communities in China and Europe (pp. 120–140). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Xue, Caide
    (2010) A Study of the Language Behaviour of Shanghai Residents. In, M.E. van den Berg and Daming Xu (Eds.), Industrialization and the Restructuring of Speech Communities in China and Europe (pp. 164–183). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Yeh, Wen-hsin
    (2008) Shanghai Splendor: A Cultural History, 1843–1949. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. You, Rujie
    (2010) Language competition in Shanghai. In, M.E. van den Berg and Daming Xu (Eds.), Industrialization and the Restructuring of Speech Communities in China and Europe (pp. 141–163). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Zhan, Bohui
    (1993) “Putonghua ‘Nanxia’ yu Yue fangyan ‘Beishang’” (‘Southbound’ Putonghua and ‘Northbound’ Cantonese). Xueshu Yanjiu4, 67–72.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/japc.26.1.05van
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error