Volume 1, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2666-8882
  • E-ISSN: 2666-8890
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This article presents English-medium instruction (EMI) in higher education (HE) from a language policy and planning (LPP) perspective. Based on a review of EMI policy research in diverse higher education contexts, we address several key contemporary policy tensions in EMI such as English native-speakerism, English monolingualism, and language education with attention to corpus, status and acquisition planning as well as the role of individual policy actors. In light of this review, we argue for an orientation to policymaking for EMI-HE institutions that acknowledges the value of individuals as policy arbiters and aligns institutional goals with “on the ground” needs and practices. We also point to areas of future research that would benefit all EMI stakeholders, in particular critical engagement with the nature of language competence in EMI settings and the enhanced development of evidence-based EMI learning outcomes. Finally, we propose an ecological framework for EMI-HE policy development that could be employed as a heuristic to guide universities in designing concrete EMI policies for their local contexts. As an extension, we also offer an inventory of reflective questions to guide key university stakeholders in effectively engaging in EMI policy processes.

This work is currently available as a sample.

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Airey, J.
    (2012) I don’t teach language: The linguistic attitudes of physics lecturers in Sweden. AILA Review, 25, 64–79. 10.1075/aila.25.05air
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aila.25.05air [Google Scholar]
  2. Airey, J., Lauridsen, K. M., Räsänen, A., Salö, L., & Schwach, V.
    (2017) The expansion of English-medium instruction in the Nordic countries: Can top-down university language policies encourage bottom-up disciplinary literacy goals?Higher Education, 73(4), 561–576. 10.1007/s10734‑015‑9950‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-015-9950-2 [Google Scholar]
  3. Al-Bataineh, A.
    (2020) Language policy in higher education in the United Arab Emirates: Proficiency, choices and the future of Arabic. Language Policy, 1–22. doi:  10.1007/s10993‑020‑09548‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-020-09548-y [Google Scholar]
  4. Ali, N. L.
    (2013) A changing paradigm in language planning: English-medium instruction policy at the tertiary level in Malaysia. Current Issues in Language Planning, 14(1), 73–92. 10.1080/14664208.2013.775543
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2013.775543 [Google Scholar]
  5. Altbach, P. G., & Knight, J.
    (2007) The internationalization of higher education: Motivations and realities. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3–4), 290–305. 10.1177/1028315307303542
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315307303542 [Google Scholar]
  6. Ammon, U.
    (2004) German as an international language of the sciences–recent past and present. InA. Gardt & B. Hüppauf (Eds.), Globalization and the future of German (pp.157–172). Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110197297.157
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197297.157 [Google Scholar]
  7. Baker, W., & Hüttner, J.
    (2019) “We are not the language police”: Comparing multilingual EMI programmes in Europe and Asia. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 29(1), 78–94. 10.1111/ijal.12246
    https://doi.org/10.1111/ijal.12246 [Google Scholar]
  8. Barakos, E., & Unger, J.
    (Eds.) (2016) Discursive approaches to language policy. Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/978‑1‑137‑53134‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-53134-6 [Google Scholar]
  9. Barnard, R., & McLellan, J.
    (2013) Codeswitching in university English-medium classes: Asian perspectives. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783090914
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783090914 [Google Scholar]
  10. Belhiah, H., & Elhami, M.
    (2015) English as a medium of instruction in the Gulf: When students and teachers speak. Language Policy, 14(1), 3–23. 10.1007/s10993‑014‑9336‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-014-9336-9 [Google Scholar]
  11. Björkman, B.
    (2013) English as an academic lingua franca: An investigation of form and communicative effectiveness. Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110279542
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110279542 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bolton, K., Botha, W., & Bacon-Shone, J.
    (2017) English-medium instruction in Singapore higher education: Policy, realities and challenges. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 38(10), 913–930. 10.1080/01434632.2017.1304396
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2017.1304396 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bolton, K., & Kuteeva, M.
    (2012) English as an academic language at a Swedish university: parallel language use and the ‘threat’of English. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 33(5), 429–447. 10.1080/01434632.2012.670241
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2012.670241 [Google Scholar]
  14. Canagarajah, S.
    (2005) Reclaiming the local in language policy and practice. Routledge. 10.4324/9781410611840
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410611840 [Google Scholar]
  15. (2018a) English as a spatial resource and the claimed competence of Chinese STEM professionals. World Englishes, 37, 34–50. 10.1111/weng.12301
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12301 [Google Scholar]
  16. (2018b) Materializing ‘competence’: Perspectives from international STEM scholars. The Modern Language Journal, 102(2), 268–291. 10.1111/modl.12464
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12464 [Google Scholar]
  17. Coleman, J. A.
    (2006) English-medium teaching in European higher education. Language Teaching, 39(01), 1–14. 10.1017/S026144480600320X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144480600320X [Google Scholar]
  18. Cooper, R. L.
    (1989) Language planning and social change. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Corson, D.
    (1999) Language policy in schools: A resource for teachers and administrators. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Dafouz, E., & Smit, U.
    (2016) Towards a dynamic conceptual framework for English-medium education in multilingual university settings. Applied Linguistics, 37(3), 397–415. 10.1093/applin/amu034
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amu034 [Google Scholar]
  21. De Costa, P. I., Green-Eneix, C. A., & Li, W.
    (2020) Problematizing EMI language policy in a transnational world. English Today, 1–8. 10.1017/S026607842000005X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S026607842000005X [Google Scholar]
  22. Dimova, S.
    (2020) English language requirements for enrolment in EMI programs in higher education: A European case. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 47, 100896. 10.1016/j.jeap.2020.100896
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2020.100896 [Google Scholar]
  23. Doiz, A., Lasagabaster, D., & Sierra, J.
    (2013) Globalisation, internationalisation, multilingualism and linguistic strains in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 38(9), 1407–1421. 10.1080/03075079.2011.642349
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2011.642349 [Google Scholar]
  24. Doiz, A., Lasagabaster, D., & Sierra, J. M.
    (2014) Language friction and multilingual policies in higher education: the stakeholders’ view. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 35(4), 345–360. 10.1080/01434632.2013.874433
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2013.874433 [Google Scholar]
  25. Ebad, R.
    (2014) The role and impact of English as a language and a medium of instruction in Saudi higher education institutions: Students-instructors perspective. Studies in English Language Teaching, 2(2), 140. 10.22158/selt.v2n2p140
    https://doi.org/10.22158/selt.v2n2p140 [Google Scholar]
  26. Erdocia, I.
    (2019) Medium of instruction ideologies: accommodation of multilingualism in the bilingual regime of Navarre. Current Issues in Language Planning, 20(3), 284–308. 10.1080/14664208.2018.1503457
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2018.1503457 [Google Scholar]
  27. Fenton-Smith, B., Humphreys, P., & Walkinshaw, I.
    (Eds.) (2017) English medium instruction in higher education in Asia-Pacific. Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑51976‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51976-0 [Google Scholar]
  28. Galloway, N., & Rose, H.
    (2021) English medium instruction and the English language practitioner. ELT Journal, 1–9. 10.1093/elt/ccaa063
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccaa063 [Google Scholar]
  29. Gu, M., & Lee, J. C.-K.
    (2019) “They lost internationalization in pursuit of internationalization”: Students’ language practices and identity construction in a cross-disciplinary EMI program in a university in China. Higher Education, 78, 389–405. doi:  10.1007/s10734‑018‑0342‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-018-0342-2 [Google Scholar]
  30. Guimarães, F. F., & Kremer, M. M.
    (2020) Adopting English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in Brazil and Flanders (Belgium): A comparative study. Ilha do Desterro, 73, 217–246. 10.5007/2175‑8026.2020v73n1p217
    https://doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2020v73n1p217 [Google Scholar]
  31. Gundermann, S.
    (2014) English-Medium Instruction: Modelling the role of the native speaker in a lingua franca context. Albert-Ludwigs-Universität.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Haarmann, H.
    (1990) Language planning in the light of a general theory of language: A methodological framework. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 86, 103–26. 10.1515/ijsl.1990.86.103
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.1990.86.103 [Google Scholar]
  33. Haberland, H., & Mortensen, J.
    (2012) Language variety, language hierarchy and language choice in the international university. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 2012(216), 1–6. 10.1515/ijsl‑2012‑0036
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl-2012-0036 [Google Scholar]
  34. Hadley, G.
    (2014) English for academic purposes in neoliberal universities: A critical grounded theory. Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Hamid, M. O., Nguyen, H. T. M., & Baldauf, R. B. J.
    (2013) Medium of instruction in Asia: Context, processes and outcomes. Current Issues in Language Planning, 14(1), 1–15. 10.1080/14664208.2013.792130
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2013.792130 [Google Scholar]
  36. He, P., Lai, H., & Lin, A. M.
    (2016) Translanguaging in a multimodal mathematics presentation. InC. M. Mazak & K. S. Carroll (Eds.), Translanguaging in higher education: Beyond monolingual ideologies (pp.91–120). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783096657‑008
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783096657-008 [Google Scholar]
  37. Hornberger, N. H.
    (2002) Multilingual language policies and the continua of biliteracy: An ecological approach. Language Policy, 1(1), 27–51. 10.1023/A:1014548611951
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014548611951 [Google Scholar]
  38. Hu, G., Li, L., & Lei, J.
    (2014) English-medium instruction at a Chinese University: Rhetoric and reality. Language Policy, 13(1), 21–40. 10.1007/s10993‑013‑9298‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-013-9298-3 [Google Scholar]
  39. Hult, F. M.
    (2013) Ecology and multilingual education. InC. Chapelle (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied linguistics (Vol.3, pp.1835–1840). Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. (2015) Making policy connections across scales using nexus analysis. InF. M. Hult & D. C. Johnson (Eds.), Research methods in language policy and planning: A practical guide (pp.217–231). Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. (2017a) Discursive approaches to policy. InS. E. F. Wortham, D. Kim & S. May (Eds.), Discourse and education (pp.111–121). Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑02243‑7_22
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02243-7_22 [Google Scholar]
  42. (2017b) More than a lingua franca: Functions of English in a globalised educational language policy. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 30(3), 265–282. 10.1080/07908318.2017.1321008
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2017.1321008 [Google Scholar]
  43. (2018a) Engaging pre-service English teachers with language policy. ELT Journal, 72(3), 249–259. 10.1093/elt/ccx072
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccx072 [Google Scholar]
  44. (2018b) Foreign language education policy on the horizon. Foreign Language Annals, 51, 35–45. 10.1111/flan.12315
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12315 [Google Scholar]
  45. Hult, F. M., & King, K. A.
    (Eds.) (2011) Educational linguistics in practice: Applying the local globally and the global locally. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847693549
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847693549 [Google Scholar]
  46. Hult, F. M., & Källkvist, M.
    (2016) Global flows in local language planning: Articulating parallel language use in Swedish university policies. Current Issues in Language Planning, 17(1), 56–71. 10.1080/14664208.2016.1106395
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2016.1106395 [Google Scholar]
  47. Hultgren, A. K., Jensen, C., & Dimova, S.
    (2015) English-medium instruction in European higher education: From the north to the south. InS. Dimova, A. K. Hultgren & C. Jensen (Eds.), English-medium instruction in European higher education: Language and social life (pp.1–16). De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781614515272‑002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614515272-002 [Google Scholar]
  48. Hultgren, A. K., Owen, N., Shrestha, P., Kuteeva, M. & Mežek, Š.
    (2022) Assessment and English as a medium of instruction: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of English-Medium Instruction, 1(1), 106–124. 10.1075/jemi.21019.hul
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jemi.21019.hul [Google Scholar]
  49. Inbar-Lourie, O., & Donitsa-Schmidt, S.
    (2020) EMI Lecturers in international universities: Is a native/non-native English-speaking background relevant?International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 23(3), 301–313. 10.1080/13670050.2019.1652558
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2019.1652558 [Google Scholar]
  50. Jenkins, J.
    (2011) Accommodating (to) ELF in the international university. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(4), 926–936. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.05.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.05.011 [Google Scholar]
  51. (2015) Repositioning English and multilingualism in English as a Lingua Franca. Englishes in Practice, 2(3), 49–85. 10.1515/eip‑2015‑0003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/eip-2015-0003 [Google Scholar]
  52. Jenkins, J., & Mauranen, A.
    (2019) Linguistic diversity on the EMI campus: Insider accounts of the use of English and other languages in universities within Asia, Australasia, and Europe. Routledge. 10.4324/9780429020865
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429020865 [Google Scholar]
  53. Johnson, D. C.
    (2013) Language policy. Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137316202
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137316202 [Google Scholar]
  54. Johnson, R. K., Swain, M., & Long, M. H.
    (1997) Immersion education: International perspectives. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524667
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524667 [Google Scholar]
  55. Källkvist, M., & Hult, F. M.
    (2016) Discursive mechanisms and human agency in language policy formation: negotiating bilingualism and parallel language use at a Swedish university. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 19(1), 1–17. 10.1080/13670050.2014.956044
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2014.956044 [Google Scholar]
  56. (2020) Multilingualism as problem or resource? Negotiating space for languages other than Swedish and English in university language planning. InM. Kuteeva, K. Kaufhold, & N. Hynninen (Eds.), Language perceptions and practices in multilingual universities (pp.57–84). Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑38755‑6_3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38755-6_3 [Google Scholar]
  57. Kaplan, R. B., & Baldauf, R. B.
    (1997) Language planning from practice to theory. Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Kim, E. G.
    (2017) English medium instruction in Korean higher education: Challenges and future directions. InB. Fenton-Smith, P. Humphreys, & I. Walkinshaw (Eds.), English medium instruction in higher education in Asia-Pacific (pp.53–69). Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑51976‑0_4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51976-0_4 [Google Scholar]
  59. Kirkpatrick, A.
    (2014) The language (s) of HE: EMI and/or ELF and/or multilingualism?The Asian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 4–15.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Knoch, U., Rouhshad, A., Oon, S. P., & Storch, N.
    (2015) What happens to ESL students’ writing after three years of study at an English medium university?Journal of Second Language Writing, 28, 39–52. 10.1016/j.jslw.2015.02.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2015.02.005 [Google Scholar]
  61. Kuteeva, M.
    (2020) Revisiting the ‘E’ in EMI: students’ perceptions of standard English, lingua franca and translingual practices. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 23(3), 287–300. 10.1080/13670050.2019.1637395
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2019.1637395 [Google Scholar]
  62. Kuteeva, M., & Airey, J.
    (2014) Disciplinary differences in the use of English in higher education: Reflections on recent language policy developments. Higher education, 67(5), 533–549. 10.1007/s10734‑013‑9660‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-013-9660-6 [Google Scholar]
  63. Lasagabaster, D.
    (2015) Language policy and language choice at European Universities: Is there really a’choice’?European Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(2), 255. 10.1515/eujal‑2014‑0024
    https://doi.org/10.1515/eujal-2014-0024 [Google Scholar]
  64. Lei, J., & Hu, G.
    (2014) Is English-medium instruction effective in improving Chinese undergraduate students’ English competence?. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 52(2), 99–126. 10.1515/iral‑2014‑0005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2014-0005 [Google Scholar]
  65. Leung, C., Lewkowicz, J., & Jenkins, J.
    (2016) English for academic purposes: A need for remodelling. Englishes in Practice, 3(3), 55–73. 10.1515/eip‑2016‑0003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/eip-2016-0003 [Google Scholar]
  66. Lin, A. M.
    (2019) Theories of trans/languaging and trans-semiotizing: Implications for content-based education classrooms. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(1), 5–16. 10.1080/13670050.2018.1515175
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1515175 [Google Scholar]
  67. Macaro, E., Curle, S., Pun, J., An, J., & Dearden, J.
    (2018) A systematic review of English medium instruction in higher education. Language Teaching, 51(1), 36–76. 10.1017/S0261444817000350
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444817000350 [Google Scholar]
  68. Macaro, E., & Han, S.
    (2020) English medium instruction in China’s higher education: Teachers’ perspectives of competencies, certification and professional development. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 41(3), 219–231. 10.1080/01434632.2019.1611838
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2019.1611838 [Google Scholar]
  69. Martinez, R.
    (2016) English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in Brazilian higher education: Challenges and opportunities. InK. R. Finardi (Ed.), English in Brazil: Views, policies and programs (pp.191–228). Eduel.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Mauranen, A.
    (2012) Exploring ELF: Academic English shaped by non-native speakers. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. MOE
    MOE (2001) Guyu jiaqiang gaodeng xuexiao benke jiaoxue gongzuo tigao jiaoxue zhiliang de ruogan yijian [Guidelines for further improving undergraduate education]. MOE.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Mortensen, J.
    (2014) Language policy from below: Language choice in student project groups in a multilingual university setting. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 35(4), 425–442. 10.1080/01434632.2013.874438
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2013.874438 [Google Scholar]
  73. Mühlhäusler, P.
    (1996) Linguistic ecology: Language change and linguistic imperialism in the Pacific region. Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Ou, W. A., & Gu, M.
    (2020) Negotiating language use and norms in intercultural communication: Multilingual university students’ scaling practices in translocal space. Linguistics and Education, 57, 1–11. 10.1016/j.linged.2020.100818
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2020.100818 [Google Scholar]
  75. Ou, W. A., Gu, M. M., & Hult, F. M.
    (2020) Translanguaging for intercultural communication in international higher education: Transcending English as a Lingua Franca. International Journal of Multilingualism, 1–19. 10.1080/14790718.2020.1856113
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2020.1856113 [Google Scholar]
  76. (2021) Discursive ripple effects in language policy and practice: Multilingualism and English as an academic lingua franca in transnational higher education. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 44(2), 154–179. 10.1075/aral.20096.ou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aral.20096.ou [Google Scholar]
  77. Pecorari, D., Shaw, P., Malmström, H., & Irvine, A.
    (2011) English textbooks in parallel-language tertiary education. TESOL Quarterly, 45(2), 313–333. 10.5054/tq.2011.247709
    https://doi.org/10.5054/tq.2011.247709 [Google Scholar]
  78. Phan, L.-H., & Barnawi, O. Z.
    (2015) Where English, neoliberalism, desire and internationalization are alive and kicking: Higher education in Saudi Arabia today. Language and Education, 29(6), 545–565. 10.1080/09500782.2015.1059436
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2015.1059436 [Google Scholar]
  79. Phillipson, R.
    (1992) Linguistic imperialism. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. (2009) English in globalisation, a Lingua Franca or a Lingua Frankensteinia?TESOL Quarterly, 43(2), 335–339. 10.1002/j.1545‑7249.2009.tb00175.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1545-7249.2009.tb00175.x [Google Scholar]
  81. (2017) Myths and realities of ‘global’ English. Language Policy, 16(3), 313–331. 10.1007/s10993‑016‑9409‑z
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-016-9409-z [Google Scholar]
  82. Preisler, B., Klitgård, I., & Fabricius, A.
    (2011) Language and learning in the international university: From English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847694157
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847694157 [Google Scholar]
  83. Rincon-Mendoza, L., & Canagarajah, S.
    (2020) The strategic use of translingual resources in Inner Circle academic settings. World Englishes, 39(2), 286–299. 10.1111/weng.12461
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12461 [Google Scholar]
  84. Salomone, R.
    (2015) The rise of global English: Challenges for English-medium instruction and language rights. Language Problems and Language Planning, 39(3), 245–268. 10.1075/lplp.39.3.03sal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lplp.39.3.03sal [Google Scholar]
  85. Seidlhofer, B.
    (2005) English as a lingua franca. ELT Journal, 59(4), 339–341. 10.1093/elt/cci064
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/cci064 [Google Scholar]
  86. Söderlundh, H.
    (2012) Global policies and local norms: Sociolinguistic awareness and language choice at an international university. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 216, 87–109. 10.1515/ijsl‑2012‑0041
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl-2012-0041 [Google Scholar]
  87. Son, J.-B., Park, S.-S., & Park, M.
    (2017) Digital literacy of language learners in two different contexts. JALT CALL Journal, 13(2), 77–96. 10.29140/jaltcall.v13n2.213
    https://doi.org/10.29140/jaltcall.v13n2.213 [Google Scholar]
  88. Storch, N.
    (2009) The impact of studying in a second language (L2) medium university on the development of L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 18(2), 103–118. 10.1016/j.jslw.2009.02.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2009.02.003 [Google Scholar]
  89. Tollefson, J. W., & Tsui, A. B.
    (2004) Medium of instruction policies: Which agenda? Whose agenda?Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Tsui, A. B., & Tollefson, J. W.
    (Eds.) (2017) Language policy, culture, and identity in Asian contexts. Routledge. 10.4324/9781315092034
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315092034 [Google Scholar]
  91. van Splunder, F.
    (2016) Language ideologies regarding English-medium instruction in European higher education: Insights from Flanders and Finland. InE. Barakos & J. W. Unger (Eds.), Discursive approaches to language policy (pp.205–230). Springer. 10.1057/978‑1‑137‑53134‑6_9
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-53134-6_9 [Google Scholar]
  92. Wächter, B., & Maiworm, F.
    (2014) English-taught programmes in European higher education. Lemmens.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Yuan, R.
    (2020) Promoting EMI teacher development in EFL higher education contexts: A teacher educator’s reflections. RELC Journal, 51(2), 309–317. 10.1177/0033688219878886
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688219878886 [Google Scholar]
  94. Zhang, Z.
    (2018) English-medium instruction policies in China: internationalisation of higher education. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 39(6), 542–555. 10.1080/01434632.2017.1404070
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2017.1404070 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error