1887
Volume 3, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2666-8882
  • E-ISSN: 2666-8890
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

English-medium instruction (EMI) typically requires disciplinary instructors to deliver content in a language other than their students’ and their own first language. While this practice is growing alongside related approaches (e.g., content and language integrated learning) EMI is distinct in that the primary objective is teaching the disciplinary content, with English merely playing an instrumental role. This has implications for how lecturers view their role in EMI classrooms and how this is enacted through their teaching and marking practices. The present study examines instructors’ beliefs about EMI instruction in a context where EMI has long been adopted but only minimally researched: Lebanon. Sixty-three instructors from two Lebanese universities were surveyed about their experiences teaching EMI, their views about the role of language, and their marking practices. Eight instructors were further interviewed to elaborate on these responses. Findings reveal that the majority of the surveyed instructors recognise that teaching English is at least part of their role as content instructors whereas the interviewed instructors distanced themselves from this dual-focused responsibility, despite reporting several examples of teaching English alongside the content. These findings highlight the ambiguity around instructors’ role(s) in EMI classrooms and raises the need for greater definition and clarity to ensure that EMI’s full potential is reached.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jemi.22024.abo
2023-11-01
2024-06-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aguilar, M.
    (2017) Engineering lecturers’ views on CLIL and EMI. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 20(6), 722–735. 10.1080/13670050.2015.1073664
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2015.1073664 [Google Scholar]
  2. Airey, J.
    (2012) “I don’t teach language”: The linguistic attitudes of physics lecturers in Sweden. AILA Review, 251, 64–79. 10.1075/aila.25.05air
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aila.25.05air [Google Scholar]
  3. (2020) The content lecturer and English-medium instruction (EMI): Epilogue to the special issue on EMI in higher education. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 23(3), 340–345. 10.1080/13670050.2020.1732290
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2020.1732290 [Google Scholar]
  4. Aizawa, I., & McKinley, J.
    (2020) EMI challenges in Japan’s internationalization of higher education. InH. Bowles & A. C. Murphy (Eds.), English-medium instruction and the internationalization of universities (pp.27–48). Palgrave MacMillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑47860‑5_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-47860-5_2 [Google Scholar]
  5. Alshenqeeti, H.
    (2014) Interviewing as a data collection method: A critical review. English Linguistics Research, 3(1), 39–45. 10.5430/elr.v3n1p39
    https://doi.org/10.5430/elr.v3n1p39 [Google Scholar]
  6. Annous, S. A., Nicolas, M., & Townsend, M. A.
    (2017) Territorial borders and the teaching of writing in English: Lessons from research at the University of Balamand. InL. Arnold, A. Nebel & L. Ronesi (Eds.), Emerging writing research from the Middle East-North Africa region (pp.85–114). WAC Clearinghouse and University Press of Colorado. 10.37514/INT‑B.2017.0896.2.04
    https://doi.org/10.37514/INT-B.2017.0896.2.04 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bacha, B., & Bahous, R.
    (2008) Contrasting views of business students’ writing needs in an EFL environment. English for Specific Purposes, 271, 74–93. 10.1016/j.esp.2007.05.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2007.05.001 [Google Scholar]
  8. Baker, W., & Hüttner, J.
    (2017) English and more: A multisite study of roles and conceptualisations of language in English medium multilingual universities from Europe to Asia. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 38(6), 501–516. 10.1080/01434632.2016.1207183
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2016.1207183 [Google Scholar]
  9. (2019) “We are not the language police”: Comparing multilingual EMI programmes in Europe and Asia. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 29(1), 78–94. 10.1111/ijal.12246
    https://doi.org/10.1111/ijal.12246 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bakkar, B.
    (2021) Challenges in teaching literature in EMI to EFL speaking students at university level: Instructors’ perceptions. Journal of E-Learning Research, 1(3), 24–43. 10.33422/jelr.v1i3.138
    https://doi.org/10.33422/jelr.v1i3.138 [Google Scholar]
  11. Block, D., & Moncada-Comas, B.
    (2022) EMI in higher education and the ELT gaze: STEM lecturers’ self-positioning as NOT English language teachers. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 25(2), 410–417. 10.1080/13670050.2019.1689917
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2019.1689917 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bowles, H., & Murphy, A.
    (2020) EMI and the internationalisation of universities: An overview. InH. Bowles & A. Murphy (Eds.), English-medium instruction and the internationalisation of universities (pp.1–26). Palgrave MacMillan10.1007/978‑3‑030‑47860‑5_1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-47860-5_1 [Google Scholar]
  13. Briggs, J., Dearden, J. & Macaro, E.
    (2018) English medium instruction: comparing teacher beliefs in secondary and tertiary education. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8(3), 673–696. 10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.3.7
    https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.3.7 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bukve, T.
    (2018) Students’ perspectives on English medium instruction: A survey-based study at a Norwegian university. Nordic Journal of English Studies, 17(2), 215–242. 10.35360/njes.439
    https://doi.org/10.35360/njes.439 [Google Scholar]
  15. Corrales, K., Paba Rey, L., & Santiagao Escamilla, N.
    (2016) Is EMI enough? Perceptions from university professors and students. Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 9(2), 318–344. 10.5294/laclil.2016.9.2.4
    https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2016.9.2.4 [Google Scholar]
  16. Dang, T., Bonar, G., & Yao, J.
    (2021) Professional learning for educators teaching in English-medium-instruction in higher education: A systematic review. Teaching in Higher Education, 10.1080/13562517.2020.1863350
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2020.1863350 [Google Scholar]
  17. Dearden, J.
    (2014) English as a medium of instruction: A growing global phenomenon. British Council.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dearden, J., & Macaro, E.
    (2016) Higher education teachers’ attitudes towards English medium instruction: A three-country comparison. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(3), 455–486. 10.14746/sllt.2016.6.3.5
    https://doi.org/10.14746/sllt.2016.6.3.5 [Google Scholar]
  19. Doiz, A., Lasagabaster, D., & Sierra, J. M.
    (2012) English-medium instruction at universities: Global challenges. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847698162
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847698162 [Google Scholar]
  20. Esseili, F.
    (2017) A sociolinguistic profile of English in Lebanon. World Englishes, 36(4), 684–704. 10.1111/weng.12262
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12262 [Google Scholar]
  21. Fang, G., & Liu, Y.
    (2020) Using all English is not always meaningful: Stakeholders’ perspectives on the use of and attitudes towards translanguaging at a Chinese university. Lingua, 2471, 1–18. 10.1016/j.lingua.2020.102959
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2020.102959 [Google Scholar]
  22. Farrell, T.
    (2020) Professional development through reflective practice for English-medium instruction teachers. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 23(3), 277–286. 10.1080/13670050.2019.1612840
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2019.1612840 [Google Scholar]
  23. Fenton-Smith, B., Stillwell, C., & Dupuy, R.
    (2017) Professional development for EMI: Exploring Taiwanese lecturers’ needs. InB. Fenton-Smith (Eds.), English medium instruction in higher education in Asia-Pacific (pp.194–217). Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑51976‑0_11
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51976-0_11 [Google Scholar]
  24. Galloway, N., Numajiri, T., & Rees, N.
    (2020) The internationalisation or Englishisation of higher education in East Asia. Higher Education, 801, 395–414. 10.1007/s10734‑019‑00486‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-019-00486-1 [Google Scholar]
  25. Galloway, N., & Ruegg, R.
    (2022) English-medium instruction lecturer support needs in Japan and China. System, 105(6), 1–11. 10.1016/j.system.2022.102728
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2022.102728 [Google Scholar]
  26. Gotti, M.
    (2015) Code-switching and plurilingualism in English-medium education for academic and professional purposes. Language Learning in Higher Education, 5(1), 83–103. 10.1515/cercles‑2015‑0005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cercles-2015-0005 [Google Scholar]
  27. Groblinger, K.
    (2017) What are the benefits and challenges of EMI in (international) study programs at UAS in Austria?Paper presented atForschungsforum Der Österreichischen Fachhochschulen: Research, Innovation, Value. University of Applied Sciences, April 2017. Austria: Forschungsforum der Österreichischen Fachhochschulen.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Guarda, M., & Helm, F.
    (2017) A survey of lecturers’ needs and feedback on EMI training. InK. Ackerely, M. Guarda & F. Helm (Eds.), Sharing perspectives on English-medium instruction (pp.167–194). Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Huang, Y.
    (2019) English-medium instruction in law and the humanities in higher education: The role of teacher identity. Higher Education Research & Development, 38(6), 1183–1196. 10.1080/07294360.2019.1621269
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2019.1621269 [Google Scholar]
  30. Iliovits, M., Harding, L., & Pill, J.
    (2022) Language use in an English-medium instruction university in Lebanon: Implications for the validity of international and local English tests for admissions. Journal of English-Medium Instruction, 1(2), 153–179. 10.1075/jemi.21009.ili
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jemi.21009.ili [Google Scholar]
  31. Jiang, L., Zhang, L., & May, S.
    (2019) Implementing English-medium instruction in China: Teachers’ practices and perceptions, and students’ learning motivation and needs. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(2), 107–119. 10.1080/13670050.2016.1231166
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2016.1231166 [Google Scholar]
  32. Kamasak, R., & Sahan, K.
    (2023) Academic success in English medium courses: Exploring students’ opinions, language proficiency and L2 use. RELC Journal. Advance online publication. 1–16. 10.1177/00336882231167611
    https://doi.org/10.1177/00336882231167611 [Google Scholar]
  33. Kao, Y-T., & Tsou, W.
    (2017) EMI course assessment: A survey study of the issues. InW. Tsou & S-M. Kao (Eds.), English as a medium of instruction in higher education: Implementation and classroom practices in Taiwan (pp.183–205). Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑10‑4645‑2_11
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4645-2_11 [Google Scholar]
  34. Lasagabaster, D.
    (2018) Fostering team teaching: Mapping out a research agenda for English-medium instruction at university level. Language Teaching, 51(3), 400–416. 10.1017/S0261444818000113
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444818000113 [Google Scholar]
  35. Li, N., & Wu, J.
    (2018) Exploring assessment for learning practices in the EMI classroom in the context of Taiwanese higher education. Language Education and Assessment, 1(1), 28–44. 10.29140/lea.v1n1.46
    https://doi.org/10.29140/lea.v1n1.46 [Google Scholar]
  36. Macaro, E.
    (2015) English medium instruction: Time to start asking some difficult questions. Modern English Teacher, 24(2), 4–8.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Macaro, E., & Aizawa, I.
    (2022) Who owns English medium instruction?Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1–14. 10.1080/01434632.2022.2136187
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2022.2136187 [Google Scholar]
  38. Mancho-Barés, G., & Aguilar-Pérez, M.
    (2016) Problematizing on language learning issues in EMI: opinions of science and technology EMI lecturers. InR. Breeze (Ed.), CLIL and science: New directions in content and language integrated learning in science and technology (pp.110–113). Pamplona: Servico de publicaciones Universidad de Navarra.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. (2020) EMI lecturers’ practices in correcting English: Resources for language teaching?Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 8(2), 257–284. 10.1075/jicb.19011.man
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.19011.man [Google Scholar]
  40. Margić, B. D., & Vodopija-Krstanović, I.
    (2018) Language development for English-medium instruction: Teachers’ perceptions, reflections and learning. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 351, 31–41. 10.1016/j.jeap.2018.06.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2018.06.005 [Google Scholar]
  41. Moncada-Comas, B., & Block, D.
    (2021) CLIL-ised EMI in practice: Issues arising. The Language Learning Journal, 49(6), 686–698. 10.1080/09571736.2019.1660704
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2019.1660704 [Google Scholar]
  42. O’Dowd, R.
    (2018) The training and accreditation of teachers for English medium instruction: An overview of practice in European universities. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21(5), 553–563. 10.1080/13670050.2018.1491945
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1491945 [Google Scholar]
  43. Orduna-Nocito, E., & Sánchez-García, D.
    (2021) Aligning higher education language policies with lecturers’ views on EMI practices: A comparative study of ten European universities. System, 1041, 102692. 10.1016/j.system.2021.102692
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2021.102692 [Google Scholar]
  44. Pecorari, D., & Malmström, H.
    (2018) At the crossroads of TESOL and English medium instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 52(3), 497–515. www.jstor.org/stable/44987078. 10.1002/tesq.470
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.470 [Google Scholar]
  45. Pun, J., & Curle, S.
    (2021) Research methods in English medium instruction. Routledge. 10.4324/9781003025115
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003025115 [Google Scholar]
  46. Quacquarelli Symonds
    Quacquarelli Symonds (2021) QS Top Universities. https://www.topuniversities.comAccessed10 Jan 2023.
  47. Richards, J., & Pun, J.
    (2022) Teacher strategies in implementing English medium instruction. English Language Teaching Journal, 76(2), 227–237. 10.1093/elt/ccab081
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccab081 [Google Scholar]
  48. Richards, J., & Rodgers, T.
    (2001) Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667305
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667305 [Google Scholar]
  49. Rose, H., Curle, S., Aizawa, I., & Thompson, G.
    (2019) What drives success in English medium taught courses? The interplay between language proficiency, academic skills, and motivation. Studies in Higher Education, 451, 1–14. 10.1080/03075079.2019.1614115
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2019.1614115 [Google Scholar]
  50. Sahan, K., Galloway, N., & McKinley, J.
    (2022) “English-only” English medium instruction: Mixed views in Thai and Vietnamese higher education. Language Teaching Research. 10.1177/13621688211072632
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13621688211072632 [Google Scholar]
  51. Shaaban, K.
    (2013) Disparity between ideals and reality in curriculum construction: The case of the Lebanese English language curriculum. Creative Education, 4(12), 28–34. 10.4236/ce.2013.412A2005
    https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2013.412A2005 [Google Scholar]
  52. Tatzl, D.
    (2011) English-medium masters’ programmes at an Austrian university of applied sciences: Attitudes, experiences and challenges. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 10(4), 252–270. 10.1016/j.jeap.2011.08.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2011.08.003 [Google Scholar]
  53. Tuomainen, S.
    (2022) University lecturers’ perceptions of the role of English in their teaching. Journal of Applied Language Studies, 16(1), 91–112. 10.47862/apples.107857
    https://doi.org/10.47862/apples.107857 [Google Scholar]
  54. Ulla, M., Bucol, J., & Na Ayuthaya, P.
    (2022) English language curriculum reform strategies: The impact of EMI on students’ language proficiency. Ampersand, 91, 1–9. 10.1016/j.amper.2022.100101
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amper.2022.100101 [Google Scholar]
  55. Xie, W., & Curle, S.
    (2022) Success in English medium instruction in China: Significant indicators and implications. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 25(2), 585–597. 10.1080/13670050.2019.1703898
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2019.1703898 [Google Scholar]
  56. Yuksel, D., Curle, S., & Mehmet, A.
    (2021) A longitudinal study at an EMI university in Turkey: The interplay between English language improvement and academic success. Applied Linguistics Review, 14(3), 1–31. 10.1515/applirev‑2020‑0097
    https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2020-0097 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jemi.22024.abo
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jemi.22024.abo
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error