1887
Volume 2, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2590-0994
  • E-ISSN: 2590-1001
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This paper examines the context of scholarly knowledge production and dissemination in Brazil by comparing the publishing practices in both Portuguese and in English of Brazilian scholars who hold a research grant, across eight fields of knowledge. Data consists of 1,874 Curricula Vitae and the analysis focused on the language, number, and genres of publications over a three-year period (2014 to 2016). The study revealed a clear contrast regarding the more frequent use of English by researchers in the ‘harder’ sciences and the preference for Portuguese by those in the ‘softer’ sciences. The results also suggested an interconnection in which scholars who published the most tended to adopt English. Multiple factors involved in the genre and language choices made by academics were analysed, such as characteristics of the work produced by each disciplinary community, the audience of the research, the type of language used, and the need to obtain research funding. This investigation can potentially inform policies and investments in Brazilian higher education and research to provide continued support specific to the needs of different disciplinary communities, as well as foster the inclusion of multilingual scholars who do not have English as their first language in the global arena of knowledge production and dissemination.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jerpp.20012.bau
2021-08-02
2021-09-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Adams, J., & Gurney, K.
    (2014) Evidence for excellence: Has the signal overtaken the substance?Retrieved on3 June 2021fromhttps://www.digital-science.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Digital-Research-Report-Evidence-for-Excellence.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ammon, U.
    (1998) Ist Deutsch noch internationale Wissenschaftssprache? Englisch auch für die Hochschullehre in den deutschsprachigen Ländern. De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110802689
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110802689 [Google Scholar]
  3. (2006) Language planning for international scientific communication: An overview of questions and political solutions. Current Issues in Language Planning, 7(1), 1–30. doi:  10.2167/cilp088.0
    https://doi.org/10.2167/cilp088.0 [Google Scholar]
  4. (2010) The hegemony of English. InWorld Social Science Report. Knowledge divides (pp.154–156). UNESCO Publishing. Retrieved on3 June 2021fromwww.unesco.org/shs/wssr
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bennett, K.
    (2014) Introduction: The political and economic infrastructure of academic practice: The ‘semiperiphery’ as a category for social and linguistic analysis. InK. Bennet (Ed.), The semiperiphery of academic writing (pp.1–12). Palgrave Macmillan. doi:  10.1057/9781137351197_1
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137351197_1 [Google Scholar]
  6. BCCM4. 4th Brazilian Conference on Composite Materials
    BCCM4. 4th Brazilian Conference on Composite Materials (2020, May10). Retrieved on3 June 2021frombccm4.com.br/2018/
  7. Benfield, J. R., & Feak, C. B.
    (2006) How authors can cope with the burden of English as an international language. CHEST Journal, 129, 1728–1730. doi:  10.1378/chest.129.6.1728
    https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.129.6.1728 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bordons, M., & Gomez, I.
    (2004) Towards a single language in science? A Spanish view. Serials, 17(2), 189–195. doi:  10.1629/17189
    https://doi.org/10.1629/17189 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bourdieu, P.
    (1982) Ce que parler veut dire. Fayard.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. (1984) Capital et marché linguistiques. Linguistische Berichte, 90, 3–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. (1986) The forms of capital. InJ. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp.241–258). Greenwood Press. doi:  10.1007/0‑387‑36424‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-36424-2 [Google Scholar]
  12. (1988) Homo academicus. University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. (1991) Language and symbolic power. Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bourdieu, P., de Swaan, A., Hagège, C., Fumaroli, M., & Wallerstein, I.
    (2001) Quelles langues pour une Europe démocratique?Raison politiques, 2, 41–64. 10.3917/rai.002.0041
    https://doi.org/10.3917/rai.002.0041 [Google Scholar]
  15. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry
    Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry (2020, May10). Retrieved on3 June 2021fromwww.bjp.org.br
  16. Burgess, S., Gea-Valor, M., Moreno, A. L., & Rey-Rocha, J.
    (2014) Affordances and constraints on research publication. A comparative study of the language choices of Spanish historians and psychologists. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 14, 72–83. doi:  10.1016/j.jeap.2014.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2014.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  17. Canagarajah, A. S.
    (1999) Resisting linguistic imperialism in English teaching. Oxford University Press. doi:  10.1017/S0047404502274059
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404502274059 [Google Scholar]
  18. (2002) A geopolitics of academic writing. University of Pittsburgh Press. doi:  10.2307/j.ctt5hjn6c
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt5hjn6c [Google Scholar]
  19. Cargill, M., & Burgess, S.
    (2008) Introduction to the special issue: English for research and publication purposes. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 7(2), 75–76. doi:  10.1016/j.jeap.2008.02.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2008.02.006 [Google Scholar]
  20. Carli, A., & Calaresu, E.
    (2003) Le lingue della comunicazione scientifica. La producione e la diffusione del sapere specialistico in Italia. InA. Valentini, P. Molinelli, P. Cuzzolin & G. Bernini (Eds.), Ecologia linguistica (pp.27–74). Bulzoni.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)
    Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) (2017) Chamada CNPq Nº 12/2017 – Bolsas de Produtividade em Pesquisa – PQ. Retrieved on3 June 2021fromwww.uff.br/?q=chamada-cnpq-no-122017-bolsas-de-produtividade-em-pesquisa-pq
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Corcoran, J. N.
    (2015) English as the international language of science: A case study of Mexican scientists’ writing for publication (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of Toronto. Retrieved on3 June 2021fromhdl.handle.net/1807/70842
  23. (2019) Addressing the “Bias Gap”: A research-driven argument for critical support of plurilingual scientists’ research writing. Written Communication, 36(4), 538–577. doi:  10.1177/0741088319861648
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0741088319861648 [Google Scholar]
  24. Corcoran, J. N., & Englander, K.
    (2016) A proposal for critical-pragmatic pedagogical approaches to English for research publication purposes. Publications, 4(6), 1–10. doi:  10.3390/publications4010006
    https://doi.org/10.3390/publications4010006 [Google Scholar]
  25. Corcoran, J. N., Englander, K., & Muresan, L.
    (2019a) Pedagogies and policies for publishing research in English: Local initiatives supporting international scholars. Routledge. doi:  10.4324/9781315151229
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315151229 [Google Scholar]
  26. (2019b) Diverse global perspectives on scholarly writing for publication. InJ. Corcoran, K. Englander, & L. Muresan (Eds.), Pedagogies and policies on publishing research in English: Local initiatives supporting international scholars (pp.1–16). Routledge. doi:  10.4324/9781315151229‑1
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315151229-1 [Google Scholar]
  27. Curry, M. J., & Lillis, T. M.
    (2004) Multilingual scholars and the imperative to publish in English: Negotiating interests, demands, and rewards. TESOL Quarterly, 38, 663–688. doi:  10.2307/3588284
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588284 [Google Scholar]
  28. (2010) Academic research networks: Accessing resources for English-medium publishing. English for Specific Purposes, 29, 281–295. doi:  10.1016/j.esp.2010.06.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2010.06.002 [Google Scholar]
  29. De Swaan, A.
    (2001) English in the social sciences. InU. Ammon (Ed.), The dominance of English as a language of science (pp.71–83). Mouton de Gruyter. doi:  10.1515/9783110869484.71
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110869484.71 [Google Scholar]
  30. Englander, K.
    (2014) Writing and publishing science research papers in English: A global perspective. Springer. doi:  10.1007/978‑94‑007‑7714‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7714-9 [Google Scholar]
  31. Ferguson, G., Perez-Llantada, C., & Plo, R.
    (2011) English as an international language of scientific publication: A study of attitudes. World Englishes, 30(1), 41–59. doi:  10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2010.01656.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2010.01656.x [Google Scholar]
  32. Flowerdew, J.
    (1999) Writing for scholarly publication in English: The case of Hong Kong. Journal of Second Language Writing, 8(2), 123–145. doi:  10.1016/S1060‑3743(99)80125‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80125-8 [Google Scholar]
  33. (2001) Attitudes of journal editors to non-native speaker contributions. TESOL Quarterly, 35(1), 121–150. doi:  10.2307/3587862
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587862 [Google Scholar]
  34. (2007) The non-Anglophone scholar on the periphery of scholarly publication. AILA Review, 20, 14–27. doi:  10.1075/aila.20.04flo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aila.20.04flo [Google Scholar]
  35. (2008) Scholarly writers who use English as an additional language: What can Goffman’s ‘‘stigma’’ tell us?Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 7, 77–86. doi:  10.1016/j.jeap.2008.03.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2008.03.002 [Google Scholar]
  36. (2013) English for research publication purposes. InB. Paltridge & S. Starfield (Eds.), The handbook of English for specific purposes (pp.301–322). Wiley-Blackwell. doi:  10.1002/9781118339855.ch16
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118339855.ch16 [Google Scholar]
  37. Garfield, E.
    (June10 1996) What is the primordial reference for the phrase ‘publish or perish’?The Scientist, 10(12). Retrieved on3 June 2021fromhttps://www.the-scientist.com/commentary/what-is-the-primordial-reference-for-the-phrase-publish-or-perish-57976
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Gibbs, W. W.
    (1995) Lost science in the third world. Scientific American, 273(2), 76–83. doi:  10.1038/scientificamerican0895‑92
    https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0895-92 [Google Scholar]
  39. Hamel, R. E.
    (2007) The dominance of English in the international scientific periodical literature. AILA Review, 20, 53–71. doi:  10.1075/aila.20.06ham
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aila.20.06ham [Google Scholar]
  40. Hanauer, D. I., & Englander, K.
    (2011) Scientific writing in a second language. Parlor Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Hardwood, N., & Hadley, G.
    (2004) Demystifying institutional practices: Critical pragmatism and the teaching of academic writing. English for Specific Purposes23, 355–377. doi:  10.1016/j.esp.2003.08.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2003.08.001 [Google Scholar]
  42. Helmenstine, A. M.
    (2018, June22). What is the difference between hard science and soft science?Retrieved on3 June 2021fromhttps://www.thoughtco.com/hard-vs-soft-science-3975989
  43. Herculano, R. D., & Norberto, A. M. Q.
    (2012) Análise da produtividade científica dos docentes da Universidade Estadual Paulista, campus Marília/SP. Perspectivas em Ciência da Informação, 17(2), 57–70. doi:  10.1590/S1413‑99362012000200005
    https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-99362012000200005 [Google Scholar]
  44. Hirano, E.; Monteiro, K.
    (2020) A periphery inside a semi-periphery: The uneven participation of Brazilian scholars in the international community. English for Specific Purposes, 58, 15-29. 10.1016/j.esp.2019.11.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2019.11.001 [Google Scholar]
  45. HIV/HEP in the Americas
    HIV/HEP in the Americas (2020 May10). Retrieved on3 June 2021fromhivhepamericas.org/call-for-abstracts/
  46. Hyland, K.
    (2015) Academic publishing: Issues and challenges in the construction of knowledge. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Journal of Applied Oral Science
    Journal of Applied Oral Science (2020, May10). Retrieved on3 June 2021fromwww.revistas.usp.br/jaos
  48. Kirkpatrick, A.
    (2010) The Routledge handbook of world Englishes. Routledge. doi:  10.4324/9780203849323
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203849323 [Google Scholar]
  49. Kuteeva, M., & Airey, J.
    (2014) Disciplinary differences in the use of English in higher education: Reflections on recent language policy developments. Higher Education, 67, 533–549. doi:  10.1007/s10734‑013‑9660‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-013-9660-6 [Google Scholar]
  50. Kuteeva, M., & Mauranen, A.
    (2014) Writing for publication in multilingual contexts: An introduction to the special issue. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 13, 1–4. doi:  10.1016/j.jeap.2013.11.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2013.11.002 [Google Scholar]
  51. Lillis, T. M., & Curry, M. J.
    (2006a) Professional academic writing by multilingual scholars: Interactions with literacy brokers in the production of English-medium texts. Written Communication, 23(1), 3–35. doi:  10.1177/0741088305283754
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0741088305283754 [Google Scholar]
  52. (2006b) Reframing notions of competence in scholarly writing: From individual to networked activity. Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses, 53, 63–78.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. (2010a) Academic writing in a global context: The politics and practices of publishing in English. Routledge. Retrieved on3 June 2021fromwww.jstor.org/stable/41576040
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Lillis, T. M., & Curry, M. J.
    (2010b) Academic research networks: Accessing resources for English-medium publishing. English for Specific Purposes, 29, 281–295. 10.1016/j.esp.2010.06.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2010.06.002 [Google Scholar]
  55. Lillis, T. M., & Curry, M. J.
    (2016) Academic writing for publication in a multilingual world. InR. M. Manchón & P. K. Matsuda (Eds.), Handbook of second and foreign language writing (pp.201–222). De Gruyter. doi:  10.1515/9781614511335‑012
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614511335-012 [Google Scholar]
  56. Linn, A.
    (2016) Historical context. InA. Linn. (Ed.), Investigating English in Europe: Contexts and agendas (pp.3–18). De Gruyter. doi:  10.1515/9781614518952
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614518952 [Google Scholar]
  57. López-Navarro, I., Moreno, A. I., Quintanilla, M. Á., & Rey-Rocha, J.
    (2015) Why do I publish research articles in English instead of my own language? Differences in Spanish researchers’ motivations across scientific domains. Scientometrics, 103(3), 939–976. doi:  10.1007/s11192‑015‑1570‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-015-1570-1 [Google Scholar]
  58. Lysandrou, P., & Lysandrou, Y.
    (2003) Global English and proregression: Understanding English language spread in the contemporary era. Economy and Society, 32(2), 207–233. doi:  10.1080/0308514032000073400
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0308514032000073400 [Google Scholar]
  59. Mabe, M., & Mulligan, A.
    (2011) What journal authors want: Ten years of results from Elsevier’s author feedback programme. New Review of Information Networking, 16, 71–89. doi:  10.1080/13614576.2011.574495
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13614576.2011.574495 [Google Scholar]
  60. Mare, M., & Wabe, M.
    (2015) The STM Report: An overview of scientific and scholarly journal publishing. Netherlands: International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Martinez, R., & Graf, K.
    (2016) Thesis supervisors as literacy brokers in Brazil. Publications, 4(3), 26. doi:  10.3390/publications4030026
    https://doi.org/10.3390/publications4030026 [Google Scholar]
  62. McGrath, L.
    (2014) Self-mentions in anthropology and history research articles: Variation between and within disciplines. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 21, 86–98. doi:  10.1016/j.jeap.2015.11.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2015.11.004 [Google Scholar]
  63. Meneghini, R., & Packer, A. L.
    (2007) Is there science beyond English?EMBO reports, 8(2), 112–116. doi:  10.1038/sj.embor.7400906
    https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.embor.7400906 [Google Scholar]
  64. Motta-Roth, D., Pretto, A., Scherer, A., Schmidt, A. P., & Selbach, H.
    (2016) Letramento acadêmicos em comunidades de prática: Culturas disciplinares. Letras, 26(52), 111–134. doi:  10.5902/2176148525326
    https://doi.org/10.5902/2176148525326 [Google Scholar]
  65. Nygaard, L. P., & Bellanova, R.
    (2018) Lost in quantification: Scholars and the politics of bibliometrics. InM. J. Curry & T. M. Lillis (Eds.), Global academic publishing: Policies, perspectives and pedagogies (pp.23–36). Multilingual Matters. doi:  10.21832/9781783099245‑007
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783099245-007 [Google Scholar]
  66. Packer, A. L.
    (May10 2016) The adoption of English among SciELO Brazil journals has been increasing. SciELO in Perspective. Retrieved on3 June 2021fromhttps://blog.scielo.org/en/2016/05/10/the-adoption-of-english-among-scielo-brazil-journals-has-been-increasing/#.W_ifbi2ZNBw
    [Google Scholar]
  67. (2019) The SciELO publication model as an open access public policy. SciELO in Perspective. Retrieved on3 June 2021fromhttps://blog.scielo.org/en/2019
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Packer, A. L., Cop, N., Luccisano, A., Ramalho, A., & Spinak, E.
    (2014) SciELO – 15 years of open access: An analytic study of open access and scholarly communication. UNESCO. doi:  10.7476/9789230012373
    https://doi.org/10.7476/9789230012373 [Google Scholar]
  69. Pennycook, A.
    (1994) The cultural politics of English as an international language. Longman. doi:  10.4324/9781315225593
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315225593 [Google Scholar]
  70. (2003) Beyond homogeny and heterogeny: English as a global and worldly language. InC. Mair (Ed.), The politics of English as a world language: New horizons in postcolonial cultural studies (pp.3–17). Rodopi. doi:  10.1007/s10993‑005‑5962‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-005-5962-6 [Google Scholar]
  71. Perez-Llantada, C., Plo, R., & Ferguson, G. R.
    (2011) ‘‘You don’t say what you know, only what you can’’: The perceptions and practices of senior Spanish academics regarding research dissemination in English. English for Specific Purposes, 30(1), 18–30. doi:  10.1016/j.esp.2010.05.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2010.05.001 [Google Scholar]
  72. Petersen, M., & Shaw, P.
    (2002) Language and disciplinary differences in a biliterate context. World Englishes, 21(3), 357–374. doi:  10.1111/1467‑971X.00255
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00255 [Google Scholar]
  73. Phillipson, R.
    (1992) Linguistic imperialism. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. (1997) Realities and myths of linguistic imperialism. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 18(3), 238–248. doi:  10.1080/01434639708666317
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434639708666317 [Google Scholar]
  75. (2003) English-only Europe? Challenging language policy. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. (2008) Lingua franca or lingua frankensteinia? English in European integration and globalisation. World Englishes, 27(2), 250–267. doi:  10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2008.00555.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2008.00555.x [Google Scholar]
  77. (2013) Linguistic imperialism continued. Routledge. doi:  10.4324/9780203857175
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203857175 [Google Scholar]
  78. (2015) The business of English, global panacea or pandemic? Myths and realities of ‘Global’ English. Presented at9th GEM&L International Workshop on Management & Language, Helsinki. Retrieved on3 June 2021fromhttps://www.cbs.dk/files/cbs.dk/robert_philippson_the_business_of_english_global_panacea_or_pandemic_0.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Pigliucci, M.
    (January29 2009) Strong inference and the distinction between soft and hard science (Part II). Retrieved on3 June 2021fromhttps://www.science20.com/rationally_speaking/strong_inference_and_distinction_between_soft_and_hard_science_part_ii
  80. Salager-Meyer, F.
    (2014) Writing and publishing in peripheral scholarly journals: How to enhance the global influence of multilingual scholars. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 13, 78–82. doi:  10.1016/j.jeap.2013.11.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2013.11.003 [Google Scholar]
  81. Sarmento, S., Abreu-e-Lima, D. M., & Moraes, W. B.
    (2016) Do Inglês sem fronteiras ao idiomas sem fronteiras. A construção de uma política linguística para a internacionalização. Editora UFMG.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Scimago Lab
    Scimago Lab (2020a, May5). Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. Retrieved from on3 June 2021fromhttps://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=28675&tip=sid&clean=0
  83. Scimago Lab
    Scimago Lab (2020b) Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi: Ciencias Humanas. Retrieved from on3 June 2021fromhttps://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=19900193545&tip=sid&clean=0
  84. Scimago Journal & Country Rank
    Scimago Journal & Country Rank (2020) Scimago Journal & Country Rank. Retrieved on3 June 2021fromhttps://www.scimagojr.com/countryrank.php
  85. Skudlik, S.
    (1991) The status of German as a language of science and the importance of the English language for German-speaking scientists. InU. Ammon & M. Hellinger (Eds.), Status changes of languages (pp.391–407). De Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Skutnabb-Kangas, T.
    (1988) Multilingualism and the education of minority children. InT. Skutnabb-Kangas & J. Cummins (Eds.). Minority education: From shame to struggle (pp.9-44). Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Solovova, O., Santos, J. V., & Verissimo, J.
    (2018) Publish in English or perish in Portuguese: Struggles and constraints on the semiperiphery. Publications, 6(25), 1–14. 10.3390/publications6020025
    https://doi.org/10.3390/publications6020025 [Google Scholar]
  88. Storer, N. W.
    (1967) The hard sciences and the soft: Some sociological observations. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 55(1), 75–84.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Swales, J. M.
    (1990) Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Swales, J.
    (2004) Research genres: Explorations and applications. Klett. doi:  10.1017/CBO9781139524827
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524827 [Google Scholar]
  91. Tsunoda, M.
    (1983) Les langues internationales dans les publications scientifiques et techniques. Sophia Linguistica, 144-155.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Waltham, M.
    (2010) Humanities and social science journals: A pilot study of eight US associations. Learned Publishing, 23(2), 136–143. 10.1087/20100209
    https://doi.org/10.1087/20100209 [Google Scholar]
  93. Ware, M., & Mabe, M.
    (2015) The STM report: An overview of scientific and scholarly journal publishing. International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers. Retrieved on3 June 2021fromhttps://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1008&context=scholcom
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Wilson, L.
    (1942) The Academic man: A study in the sociology of a profession. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Wood, A.
    (2001) International scientific English: The languages of research scientists around the world. InJ. Flowerdew & M. Peacock. (Eds.), Research perspectives on English for academic purposes (pp.71–83). Cambridge University Press. doi:  10.1017/CBO9781139524766.008
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524766.008 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jerpp.20012.bau
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jerpp.20012.bau
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error