1887
Volume 9, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2210-2116
  • E-ISSN: 2210-2124
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The languages of central Flores are all but devoid of affixation, despite that this is hardly typical of the Austronesian languages of their family, including closely related languages elsewhere on the island and nearby ones. A traditional approach to these central Flores languages’ typology is to ascribe their analyticity to grammar-internal drift, under which the disappearance of this affixal battery was due merely to fortuitous matters of stress, analogy, reanalysis, etc. Here I argue that a great deal of evidence suggests that these languages actually underwent heavy second-language acquisition by adults at some point in the relatively recent past, most likely by male invaders from a different island. The evidence includes phenomena familiar from recent developments in creolization theory, as well as a cross-linguistic approach to analyticity and its causes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jhl.16021.mcw
2019-10-29
2020-04-08
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Arka, I Wayan
    2006 Personal Communication.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2007 Creole Genesis and Extreme Analyticity in Flores Languages. Paper presented at theEast Nusantara conference, August 6–8, 2007, Kupang Indonesia.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 2011A Rongga-English Dictionary with English-Rongga Wordlist. Jakarta: Penerbit Universitas Atma Jaya.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 2016Bahasa Rongga: Deskripsi, Tipologi, dan Teori. Jakarta: Penerbit Universitas Atma Jaya.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Arndt, Paul
    1933Grammatik der Ngad’a Sprache. Bandoeng: A. C. Nix. (=Verhandelingen: Koninklijk Bataviaasche Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen dl. 72 stuk 3)
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baird, Louise
    2002 A Grammar of Kéo: A Language of East Nusantara. Australian National UniversityPhD dissertation.
  7. Bauer, Winifred
    1993Maori. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203403723
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203403723 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bellwood, Peter
    1995 Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. InBellwood, Peter, James L. Fox & Darrell Tryon, eds., 96–111.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Blust, Robert
    2008 Is there a Bima-Sumba subgroup?Oceanic Linguistics47.1:45–113. 10.1353/ol.0.0006
    https://doi.org/10.1353/ol.0.0006 [Google Scholar]
  10. Booij, Geert
    1993 Against Split Morphology. Yearbook of Morphology 1993ed. byGeert Booij & Jaap van Marle, 27–49. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 10.1007/978‑94‑017‑3712‑8_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3712-8_2 [Google Scholar]
  11. Comrie, Bernard
    1992 Before Complexity. The Evolution of Human Languages: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Evolution of Human Languages, Held August, 1989 in Santa Fe, New Mexicoed. byJohn A. Hawkins & Murray Gell-Mann, 193–211 (=Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity 11). Redwood City, CA: Addison-Wesley.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Crowley, Terry
    2000 Simplicity, Complexity, Emblematicity and Grammatical Change. Processes of Language Contact: Studies from Australia and the South Pacificed. byJeff Siegel, 175–193. Quebec: AGMV Marquis.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dahl, Östen
    2004The Growth and Maintenance of Linguistic Complexity. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.71
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.71 [Google Scholar]
  14. de Dardel, Robert & Jakob Wüest
    1993 Les systèmes casuels du protoroman: Les deux cycles de simplification. Vox Romanica52.25–65.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Donohue, Mark
    1999A Grammar of Tukang Besi. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110805543
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110805543 [Google Scholar]
  16. 2009 Flores Languages. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the Worlded. byKeith Brown & Sarah Ogilvie, 420–421. Oxford: Elsevier.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Donohue, Mark & Tim Denham
    . To appear. Becoming Austronesian: Mechanisms of Language Dispersal across Southern Island Southeast Asia. Austronesian Undressed: How and Why Languages Become Isolating ed. by David Gil & Antoinette Schapper. Berlin: DeGruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Erb, Maribeth
    1999The Manggarais. Singapore: Times Editions.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Forth, Gregory
    1998Beneath the Volcano. Leiden: KITLV.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 2008Images of the Wildman in Southeast Asia. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203886243
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203886243 [Google Scholar]
  21. Fox, James J. & Charles E. Grimes
    1995 Roti. InDarrell T. Tryon, ed., 611–622.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Fricke, Hanna
    2013 Topics in the Grammar of Hewa. Leiden UniversityMaster’s thesis.
  23. Gasser, Emily
    2014 Subgrouping in Nusa Tenggara: The Case of Bima-Sumba. Measured Language: Quantitative Studies of Acquisition, Assessment, and Variationed. byJeffrey Connor-Linton & Luke Wander Amoroso, 63–78. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Good, Jeff
    2012 How to Become a “Kwa” noun. Morphology22.293–335. 10.1007/s11525‑011‑9197‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11525-011-9197-2 [Google Scholar]
  25. Goyette, Stéphane
    2000 From Latin to Early Romance: A Case of Partial Creolization?Language Change and Language Contact in Pidgins and Creolesed. byJohn H. McWhorter, 103–131. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.21.05goy
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.21.05goy [Google Scholar]
  26. Grijns, Cornelis D.
    1991Jakarta Malay: A Multidimensional Approach to Spatial Variation. Leiden: KITLV Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hakulinen, Lauri
    1961The Structure and Development of the Finnish Language. The Hague: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Hansson, Inga-Lill
    2003 Akha. InRandy LaPolla & Graham Thurgood, eds., 236–251.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Harris, Alice C. & Lyle Campbell
    1995Historical Syntax in Cross-linguistic Perspective. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620553
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620553 [Google Scholar]
  30. Haspelmath, Martin, Matthew Dryer, David Gil & Bernard Comrie
    eds. 2005World Atlas of Language Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Heine, Bernd
    1979 Some Linguistic Characteristics of African-based Pidgins. Readings in Creole Studiesed. byIan F. Hancock, 89–99. Ghent: E. Story-Scientia. 10.1075/ssls.2.06hei
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ssls.2.06hei [Google Scholar]
  32. Himmelmann, Nikolaus P.
    2005 The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar: Typological Characteristics. The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascared. byAlexander Adelaar & Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, 110–181. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Hodge, Carleton
    1970 The Linguistic Cycle. Language Sciences13.1–7. [Reprinted inAfroasiatic Linguistics, Semitics, and Egyptology: Selected Writings of Carleton T. Hodgeed. byScott Noegel & Alan S. Kaye, 1–17. Bethesda, MD: CDL Press 2004.]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Hull, Geoffrey
    1998 The Basic Lexical Affinities of Timor’s Austronesian Languages: A Preliminary Investigation. Studies in the Languages and Cultures of East Timor1.97–174.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 1999Standard Tetum-English Dictionary. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 2001 A morphological overview of the Timoric Sprachbund. Studies in Languages and Cultures of East Timor4.98–205.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Kautzsch, Alexander & Edgar W. Schneider
    2000 Differential Creolization: Some Evidence from Earlier African American Vernacular English in South Carolina. Degrees of Restructuring in Creole Languagesed. byIngrid Neumann-Holzschuh & Edgar W. Schneider, 247–274. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Keesing, Roger M.
    1985Kwaio Grammar. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kihm, Alain
    2003 Inflectional Categories in Creole Languages. Phonology and Morphology of Creole Languagesed. byIngo Plag, 333–363. Tübingen: Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783110929560.333
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110929560.333 [Google Scholar]
  40. Klamer, Marian
    1998A Grammar of Kambera. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110805536
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110805536 [Google Scholar]
  41. 2002 Typical Features of Austronesian Languages in Central/Eastern Indonesia. Oceanic Linguistics41.363–383. 10.1353/ol.2002.0007
    https://doi.org/10.1353/ol.2002.0007 [Google Scholar]
  42. 2012 Papuan-Austronesian Language Contact: Alorese from an Areal Perspective. Melanesian Languages on the Edge of Asia: Challenges for the 21st Centuryed. byNicholas Evans and Marian Klamer, 72–108. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Kusters, Wouter
    2003Linguistic Complexity: The Influence of Social Change on Verbal Inflection. Utrecht: Landelijke Onderzoekschool Taalwetenschap.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Lansing, J. S., M. P. Cox, S. S. Downey
    2007 Coevolution of Languages and Genes on the Island of Sumba, Eastern Indonesia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences105.11645–11650. 10.1073/pnas.0710158105
    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0710158105 [Google Scholar]
  45. LaPolla, Randy & Graham Thurgood
    eds. 2003The Sino-Tibetan Languages. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Lewis, E. D. & Charles E. Grimes
    1995 Sika. InDarrell T. Tryon, ed., 601–609.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Luís, Ana R.
    2009 The Loss and Survival of Inflectional Morphology: Contextual vs. Inherent Inflection in Creoles. Romance Linguistics 2009, ed. bySonia Colina, Antxon Olarrea & Ana Carvalho, 323–336. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Matisoff, James A.
    2003 Lahu. InRandy LaPolla & Graham Thurgood, eds., 208–235.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Matras, Yaron
    2009Language Contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511809873
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511809873 [Google Scholar]
  50. McDonnell, Bradley J.
    2006 Possessive Structures in Ende: A Language of Eastern Indonesia. Paper presented atTenth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, January 2006. Puerto Princesa City, Philippines.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. McWhorter, John H.
    2002 What happened to English?Diachronica19.217–272. 10.1075/dia.19.2.02wha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.19.2.02wha [Google Scholar]
  52. 2007Language Interrupted: Signs of Non-native Acquisition in Standard Language Grammars. New York: Oxford. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309805.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309805.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  53. 2011b Affixless in Austronesian. Linguistic Simplicity and Complexity: Why do Languages Undress?ed. byJohn H. McWhorter, 223–260. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 2012 Case Closed? Testing the Feature Pool Hypothesis. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages27.171–182. 10.1075/jpcl.27.1.07mcw
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.27.1.07mcw [Google Scholar]
  55. 2013 It Isn’t Over: Why it Matters Whether there is a Such Thing as a Creole. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages28.409–223. 10.1075/jpcl.28.2.05mcw
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.28.2.05mcw [Google Scholar]
  56. Mona, Stefano,
    2009 Genetic Admixture History of Eastern Indonesia as Revealed by Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA analysis. Molecular Biology and Evolution26.1865–1877. 10.1093/molbev/msp097
    https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msp097 [Google Scholar]
  57. Mufwene, Salikoko S.
    2001The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511612862
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612862 [Google Scholar]
  58. Mühlhäusler, Peter
    1997Pidgin and Creole Linguistics (expanded and revised edition). London: University of Westminster.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Mukarovsky, Hans Günter
    1977A Study of Western Nigritic (Vol. I). Vienna: Institut für Ägyptologie und Afrikanistik der Universität Wien.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Nichols, Johanna
    1992 “Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time”. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226580593.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226580593.001.0001
  61. Nishiyama, Kunio & Herman Kelen
    2007 “A Grammar of Lamaholot, Eastern Indonesia: The Morphology and Syntax of the Lewoingu Dialect”. Munich: Lincom.
  62. Pienemann, Manfred
    1998Language Processing and Second Language Development: Processability Theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.15
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.15 [Google Scholar]
  63. Plag, Ingo
    2008 Creoles as Interlanguages: Inflectional Morphology. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages23.114–135. 10.1075/jpcl.23.1.06pla
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.23.1.06pla [Google Scholar]
  64. Poppe, Nicholas
    1965Introduction to Altaic Linguistics. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Prentice, D. J.
    1987 Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian). InBernard Comrie, ed., 913–935.
  66. Reid, Nicholas
    2003 Phrasal Verb to Synthetic Verb: Recorded Morphosyntactic Change in Ngan’gityemerri. Studies in Comparative Non-Pama Nyunganed. byNicholas Evans, 95–123. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Reintjes, Chris H. & Alain Kihm
    2013 L’égyptien ancien: 6000 ans d’histoire. Dossier pour la science80: 90–96.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Roberts, Sarah J. & Joan Bresnan
    2008 Retained Inflectional Morphology in Pidgins: A Typological Study. Linguistic Typology12.269–302. 10.1515/LITY.2008.039
    https://doi.org/10.1515/LITY.2008.039 [Google Scholar]
  69. Rosen, Joan M.
    1983 Rembong and Wangka: A Brief Comparison of Two Dialects. Miscellaneous Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia, Part VIIed. byJohn W. M. Verhaar, 50–68. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri NUSA & Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Schachter, Paul
    1987 Tagalog. InBernard Comrie, ed., 936–958.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Steinhauer, Hein
    1993 Notes on Verbs in Dawanese (Timor). Topics in Descriptive Austronesian Linguisticsed. byGer P. Reesink, 130–158. Leiden: Vakgroep Talen en Culturen van Zuidoost-Azië en Oceanië.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Tchekhoff, C.
    1979 From Ergative to Accusative in Tongan: An Example of Synchronic Dynamics. Ergativity: Towards a Theory of Grammatical Relationsed. byFrans Plank, ed., 407–480. London: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Thomason, Sarah Grey & Terence Kaufman
    1988Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Thomaz, Luis Felípe
    2002Babel Loro Sa’e: O problema linguístico de Timor-Leste. Lisboa: Instituto Camões.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Thurgood, Graham
    1999From Ancient Cham to Modern Dialects: 2000 Years of Language Contact and Change. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Thurston, William R.
    1987Processes of Change in the Languages of Northwestern New Britain. Canberra: Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Trudgill, Peter
    2011Sociolinguistic Typology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Tryon, Darrell T.
    ed. 1995Comparative Austronesian Dictionary, Part I, Fascicle I. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110884012
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110884012 [Google Scholar]
  79. Van Bekkum, W.
    1944 Warloka-Todo-Pongkor: Een Brok Geschiedenis van Manggarai (West-Flores). Cultureel Indië6.144–152.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Van den Berg, René
    1989A Grammar of the Muna Language. Foris: Dordrecht-Holland.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Van Engelenhoven, Aone
    2003 Language Endangerment in Indonesia. Language Death and Language Maintenance: Theoretical, Practical and Descriptive Approachesed. byMark Janse & Sijmen Tol, 49–80. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.240.05eng
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.240.05eng [Google Scholar]
  82. 2004Leti: a Language of Southwest Maluku. Leiden: KITLV Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Verheijen, J. A. J. & Charles E. Grimes
    1995 Manggarai. InDarrell T. Tryon, ed., 585–592.
  84. Wouk, Fay
    2000 Voice in the Languages of Nusa Tenggara Barat. The History and Typology of Western Austronesian Voice Systemsed. byFay Wouk & Malcolm Ross, 285–309. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Wray, Alison & George W. Grace
    2007 The Consequences of Talking to Strangers: Evolutionary Corollaries of Socio-cultural Influences on Linguistics Form. Lingua117.543–578. 10.1016/j.lingua.2005.05.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2005.05.005 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jhl.16021.mcw
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jhl.16021.mcw
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error