Volume 8, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2210-2116
  • E-ISSN: 2210-2124
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


Subject marking in the Western Tukanoan language Ecuadorian Siona is part of a complex system of portmanteau morphology that also marks tense and clause type. This system shows a remarkable number of regularities that hint that it might be possible to tease apart these functions. Synchronically, it is problematic to posit distinct markers for each of the three relevant linguistic categories, but diachronically, it is likely that these categories were expressed by distinct markers. This article reconstructs the pathway of the formal merger of these three linguistic categories, comparing the expression of Ecuadorian Siona’s system to the expression of these categories in other Tukanoan languages.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.
    2004Evidentiality. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Barnes, Janet
    1984 The Evidentials in the Tuyuca Verb. International Journal of American Linguistics50:3.255–271.10.1086/465835
    https://doi.org/10.1086/465835 [Google Scholar]
  3. 1999 Tucano. The Amazonian Languagesed. by Robert M. W. Dixon & Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald , 207–226. Cambridge: Cambridge Univesity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Barnes, Janet & Terrell Malone
    2000 El Tuyuca. In María Stella González de Pérez & María Luisa Rodríguez de Montes , eds., 437–452.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bhattacharya, Tanmoy & Thangjam Hindustani Devi
    2004Why Cleft?Paper presented atSALA XXIII, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, October 2003.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bickel, Balthasar
    1999 Nominalization and Focus Constructions in Some Kiranti Languages. Topics in Nepalese Linguisticsed. by Yogendra P. Yadava & Warren G. Glover , 271–296. Kathmandu: Royal Nepal Academy.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bruil, Martine
    2014Clause-Typing and Evidentiality in Ecuadorian Siona. Leiden UniversityPhD dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 2015 When Evidentials are Not Evidentials: The Case of the Ecuadorian Siona Reportative. Linguistic Typology19:3.385–423.10.1515/lingty‑2015‑0012
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingty-2015-0012 [Google Scholar]
  9. 2016Differential Argument Marking in Ecuadorian Siona. Paper presented atLanguage Documentation and Linguistic Theory 5, SOAS, London, December 2–4, 2016.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. . To appear. The Rise of the Nominalizations: The Case of the Grammaticalization of Clause Types in Ecuadorian Siona. Nominalization in the Languages of the Americas ed. by Roberto D. Zariquiey Biondi , Masayoshi Shibatani & David W. Fleck . Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. . In preparation. Documentation of Ecuadorian Siona. London: ELAR.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cerrón-Palomino, Rodolfo
    2000Lingüística aimara. Cuzco: Centro “Bartolomé de Las Casas”.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Chacón, Thiago Costa
    2009Lexical and Viewpoint Aspect in Kubeo. Paper presented atthe Conference on Indigenous Languages of Latin America IV, University of Texas, Austin, August 29–31, 2009.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 2012The Phonology and Morphology of Kubeo: The Documentation, Theory, and Description of an Amazonian Language. University of Hawai‘i, ManoaPhD dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 2014 A Revised Proposal of Proto-Tukanoan Consonants and Tukanoan Family Classification. International Journal of American Linguistics80:3.275–322.10.1086/676393
    https://doi.org/10.1086/676393 [Google Scholar]
  16. Chacón, Thiago Costa & Lev D. Michael
    . This issue. The Evolution of Subject-Verb Agreement in Eastern Tukanoan. The Journal of Historical Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cook, Dorothy M. & Linda Criswell
    1993El idioma Koreguaje (Tucano Occidental). Santafé de Bogotá: Asociación Instituto Lingüístico de Verano.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Farmer, Stephanie J.
    2015Establishing Reference in Máíhɨ̃ki. University of California, BerkeleyPhD dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Farmer, Stephanie J. & Lev D. Michael
    . To appear. Máíhɨ̃̀kì Tone in Comparative Tukanoan Perspective. International Journal of American Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Franchetto, Bruna & Elsa Gomez-Imbert
    2003 Review of the book The Amazonian Languages ed. by R. M. W. Dixon & Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald . International Journal of American Linguistics69:2.232–238.10.1086/379686
    https://doi.org/10.1086/379686 [Google Scholar]
  21. Givón, Talmy
    2001Syntax: An Introduction, Vol. 2. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gomez-Imbert, Elsa
    1997Morphologie et phonologie Barasana: Approche non-linéaire. Université de Paris8PhD dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 2004 Fonología de dos idiomas tukano del Piraparaná: barasana y tatuyo. Amerindia29–30.43–80.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 2007 Tukanoan Nominal Classification: The Tatuyo System. Language Endangerment and Endangered Languages: Linguistic and Anthropological studiesed. by W. Leo Wetzels , 402–428. Leiden: Publications of the Research School of Asian, African, and Amerindian Studies (CNWS).
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 2011 La famille tukano. Dictionnaire des languesed. by Emilio Bonvini , Joëlle Busuttil & Alain Peyraube , 1454–1460. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gomez-Imbert, Elsa & Stephen Hugh-Jones
    2000 Introducción al estudio de las lenguas del Piraparaná (Vaupés). In María Stella González de Pérez & María Luisa Rodríguez de Montes , eds., 321–356.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. González de Pérez, María Stella & María Luisa Rodríguez de Montes
    eds. 2000Lenguas indígenas de Colombia: una visión descriptiva. Santafé de Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Harris, Martin
    1978The Evolution of French Syntax: A Comparative Approach. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Haspelmath, Martin
    1993A Grammar of Lezgian. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.10.1515/9783110884210
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110884210 [Google Scholar]
  30. Idiatov, Dmitry & Johan van der Auwera
    2004 Nominalization as a Question Formation Strategy in Tucanoan. Santa Barbara Papers in Linguistics15.9–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 2008 From Nominalizations to Questions: Evidence from Tucanoan. Jezikoslovlje9:1/2.35–51.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Jacobson, William H.
    1986 The Heterogeneity of Evidentials in Makah. Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemologyed. by Walace L. Chafe & Johanna Nichols , 3–28. Norwood: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Johnson, Orville E. & Stephen H. Levinsohn
    1990Gramatica Secoya. Quito: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Jones, Wendell H. & Pamela Simmons Jones
    1991Barasano Syntax. (= Studies in the Languages of Colombia, 2.) Dallas: The Summer Institute of Linguistics & The University of Texas at Arlington.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kinch, Rodney A. & Pamala G. Kinch
    2000 El Yurutí. In María Stella González de Pérez & María Luisa Rodríguez de Montes , eds., 469–488.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Malone, Terrell
    1988 The Origin and Development of Tuyuca Evidentials. International Journal of American Linguistics54:2.119–140.10.1086/466079
    https://doi.org/10.1086/466079 [Google Scholar]
  37. Metzger, Ronald G.
    2000Mar yaye mena carapana, Yaya yaye mena español, Mac r ca T ti, carapana-español, diccionario de 1000 palabras. Santafé de Bogotá: Editorial Buena Semilla.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Michael, Lev D.
    2012Máíjìkì Finite Verbal Inflectional Paradigms. Unpublished manuscript.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Overall, Simon E.
    2011Clause-Chaining and Nominalisations in Aguaruna (Jivaroan). Paper presented atSLE, Universidad de la Rioja, Logroño.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 2014 Clause Chaining, Switch Reference and Nominalisations in Aguaruna (Jivaroan). Information Structure and Reference Tracking in Complex Sentencesed. by Rik van Gijn , Jeremy Hammond , Dejan Matić , Saskia van Putten & Ana Vilacy Galucio , 309–340. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.10.1075/tsl.105.11ove
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.105.11ove [Google Scholar]
  41. Ramirez, Henri
    1997A Fala Tukano dos Ye’pâ-Masa, Tomo 1: Gramática. Manaus: Inspetoria Salesiana Missionária da Amazônia, CEDEM.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Rose, Sharon , Farrell Ackerman , George Gibbard , Peter Jenks , Laura Kertz & Hannah Rohde
    2014 In-Situ and Ex-Situ Wh-Question Constructions in Moro. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics35:1.91–125.10.1515/jall‑2014‑0003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jall-2014-0003 [Google Scholar]
  43. Schwarz, Anne
    2011Speaker Confidence and Speculation: The Epistemic Dichotomy in the Verb Inflection in Secoya. Paper presented atthe “Friday Afternoon Lectures”, Leiden University.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Skilton, Amalia H.
    2016Is Máíhɨ̃ki the only Tukanoan Language Without Grammaticalized Evidentiality?Paper presented atAmazónicas 6, Leticia/Tabatinga, May 2016.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Smothermon, Jeffrey R. , Josephine H. Smothermon & Paul Stephen Frank
    1995Bosquejo del Macuna. Santafé de Bogotá: Editorial Alberto Lleras Camargo.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Stenzel, Kristine
    2008 Kotiria ‘Differential Object Marking’ in a Cross-linguistic Perspective. Amerindia32.153–181.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 2013A Reference Grammar of Kotiria (Wanano). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Valenzuela, Pilar M.
    2003 Evidentiality in Shipibo-Konibo, with a Comparative Overview of the Category in Panoan. Studies in Evidentialityed. by Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald & Robert M. W. Dixon , 33–61. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.10.1075/tsl.54.05val
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.54.05val [Google Scholar]
  49. Velie, Daniel
    1975Bosquejo de la fonología y gramática de la lengua orejón. Lima: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Waltz, Nathan E. & Alva Wheeler
    1972 Proto-Tucanoan. Comparative Studies in Amerindian Languagesed. by Esther Matteson , 19–49. The Hague: Mouton.10.1515/9783110815009.119
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110815009.119 [Google Scholar]
  51. Welch, Betty & Birdie West
    2000 El Tucano. In María Stella González de Pérez & María Luisa Rodríguez de Montes , eds., 419–436.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Wheeler, Alva
    1987Gantëya Bain, el pueble siona del río Putumayo, Colombia, Tomo I. Lomalinda: Editorial Townsend.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): clause-typing; Ecuadorian Siona; portmanteau morphology; tense; Tukanoan languages
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error