1887
Volume 11, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2210-2116
  • E-ISSN: 2210-2124
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This article provides evidence for the so far neglected existence of two clitic pronouns, and 與, in Archaic Chinese (10th c. – 3rd c. BC) in immediately verb-adjacent position: ‘-V’. While only encodes the comitative/associative, encodes all kinds of (argument and adjunct) roles, depending on the semantics of the verb involved. We argue that the clitic pronouns and can neither be analysed as left behind after extraction of their complement (as, e.g., in English) nor as , i.e., PPs with an null pronoun as complement (as, e.g., in French). This ties in with the general ban against prepositions lacking an overt complement, observed throughout the history of Chinese.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jhl.19024.dja
2021-04-16
2021-10-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aldridge, Edith
    2010 Clause-internal wh-movement in Archaic Chinese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics19:1.1–36. 10.1007/s10831‑009‑9054‑z
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10831-009-9054-z [Google Scholar]
  2. 2012a Focus and Archaic Chinese Word Order. Proceedings of the 22nd North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-22) and the 18th International Conference on Chinese Linguistics (IACL-18), vol.2, ed. by Lauren Eby Clemens & Chi-Ming Louis Liu , 84–101. Available at: https://naccl.osu.edu/proceedings/naccl-22_iacl-18
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 2012b PPs and Applicatives in Late Archaic Chinese. Studies in Chinese Linguistics33:3.139–163.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Authier, J.-Marc
    2016 French Orphan Prepositions Revisited. Probus28:2.231–270. 10.1515/probus‑2014‑0011
    https://doi.org/10.1515/probus-2014-0011 [Google Scholar]
  5. Baxter, William H. & Laurent Sagart
    2014Old Chinese: A New Reconstruction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945375.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945375.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  6. Belletti, Adriana
    2004 Aspects of the Low IP Area. The Structure of IP and CP. The Cartography of Syntactic Structures, vol.2, ed. by Luigi Rizzi , 16–51. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cinque, Guglielmo
    1999Adverbs and Functional Heads: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Djamouri, Redouane
    2001 Système de pronoms démonstratifs en chinois archaïque. Collected Essays in Ancient Chinese Grammared. by Redouane Djamouri , 161–176. Paris: EHESS [Collection des Cahiers de Linguistique – Asie Orientale].
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 2009 从甲骨、金文中看“以”语法化的过程Cong jiagu jinwen zhong kan ‘yi’ yufahua guocheng. [The Grammaticalization of in Oracle and Bronze Inscriptions]. Zhongguo Yuwen1.3–9.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Djamouri, Redouane & Waltraud Paul
    1997 Les syntagmes prépositionnels en yu et zai en chinois archaïque. Cahiers de Linguistique – Asie Orientale26:2.221–248. 10.3406/clao.1997.1515
    https://doi.org/10.3406/clao.1997.1515 [Google Scholar]
  11. 2009 Verb-to-Preposition Reanalysis in Chinese. Historical Syntax and Linguistic Theoryed. by Paola Crisma & Giuseppe Longobardi , 194–211. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199560547.003.0012
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199560547.003.0012 [Google Scholar]
  12. Djamouri, Redouane , Barbara Meisterernst & Waltraud Paul
    2009 Particles in Classical Chinese: Complementizers and Topic Markers. Paper presented at the29th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Radboud University, Nijmegen, 10–14 August 2009.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Djamouri, Redouane , Waltraud Paul & John Whitman
    2013a Syntactic Change in Chinese and the Argument – Adjunct Asymmetry. Breaking Down the Barriers: Interdisciplinary Studies in Chinese Linguistics and Beyonded. by Guangshun Cao , Hilary Chappell , Redouane Djamouri & Thekla Wiebusch , 577–594. Taipei: Academia Sinica [Language and Linguistics monograph series].
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 2013b Postpositions vs. Prepositions in Mandarin Chinese: The Articulation of Disharmony. Theoretical Approaches to Disharmonic Word Ordered. by Theresa Biberauer & Michelle Sheehan , 74–105. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199684359.003.0003
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199684359.003.0003 [Google Scholar]
  15. Gabelentz, Georg , von der
    1881Chinesische Grammatik: Mit Ausschluss des niederen Stiles und der heutigen Umgangssprache. Mit drei Schrifttafeln. Leipzig: T.O. Weigel.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Guo, Rui
    2009 现代汉语和古代汉语中的介词悬空和介词删除Xiàndài hànyǔ hé gǔdài hànyǔ zhōng de jiècí xuánkōng hé jiècí shānchú [Preposition stranding and deletion in Mandarin and Classical Chinese]. Zhōngguó yǔyánxué [Chinese Linguistics] 2.23–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Harbsmeier, Christoph
    2019 The Authenticity and Nature of the Analects of Confucius. Review article of Jean Levi (2018), Les deux arbres de la voie Vol. 2: Les Entretiens de Confucius. Journal of Chinese Studies68.171–233.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Ho, Dah-an
    2016 Such errors could have been avoided – Review of Old Chinese: A New Reconstruction by William H. Baxter, Laurent Sagart. Journal of Chinese Linguistics44:1.175–230. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24774965
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Huang, C.-T. James
    1982 Logical Relations in Chinese and the Theory of Grammar. Doctoral dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kulikov, Leonid
    2012 Vedic Preverbs as Markers of Valency-Changing Derivations Transitivity and Objecthood in Indo-European (Evidence from Old Indo-Aryan). Studies in Language36:4.721–746. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/781d/be014b311dc646f708b45bfe3c4349082cac.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Law, Paul
    2006 Preposition Stranding. The Blackwell Companion to Syntax, vol.3, ed. by Martin Everaert & Henk van Riemsdijk , 631–684. 10.1002/9780470996591.ch5110.1002/9780470996591.ch51
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470996591.ch51 [Google Scholar]
  22. Legge, James D. D.
    1865The Chinese Classics, Vol. III. The Shoo King, or The Book of Historical Documents. Hongkong: At the author’s. London: Trübner & Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Levi, Jean
    2018Les deux arbres de la voie. Vol. 2: Les Entretiens de Confucius. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Longobardi, Giuseppe
    2001 Formal Syntax, Diachronic Minimalism, and Etymology: The History of French chez. Linguistic Inquiry32:2.275–302. 10.1162/0024389015200177110.1162/00243890152001771
    https://doi.org/10.1162/00243890152001771 [Google Scholar]
  25. Ma, Jianzhong
    1898马氏文通Ma shi wen tong [Grammatical Principles of Written Chinese]. Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Meisterernst, Barbara
    2010 Object Preposing in Classical and Pre-Medieval Chinese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics19:1.75–102. RetrievedFebruary 21, 2021, fromwww.jstor.org/stable/40607863. 10.1007/s10831‑010‑9056‑x
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10831-010-9056-x [Google Scholar]
  27. Peyraube, Alain
    1997 On Word Order in Archaic Chinese. Cahiers de Linguistique – Asie Orientale26:2.3–20. https://www.persee.fr/doc/clao_0153-3320_1997_num_26_1_1502. 10.3406/clao.1997.1502
    https://doi.org/10.3406/clao.1997.1502 [Google Scholar]
  28. Pinchon, Jacqueline
    1972Les pronoms adverbiaux en et y : problèmes généraux de la représentation pronominale. Geneva: Droz. (Relevant passages extracted from: https://cnrtl.fr/etymologie/en; https://cnrtl.fr/etymologie/y; Centre national de ressources textuelles et lexicales, accessedDecember 2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Postal, Paul
    1970 On Coreferential Complement Subject Deletion. Linguistic Inquiry1:4.439–500.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Radford, Andrew
    1997Syntactic Theory and the Structure of English. A Minimalist Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139166706
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139166706 [Google Scholar]
  31. Ruwet, Nicolas
    1990En et y: deux clitiques pronominaux antilogophoriques. Langages97.51–81. Available at: www.persee.fr/doc/lgge_0458-726x_1990_num_25_97_1574. 10.3406/lgge.1990.1574
    https://doi.org/10.3406/lgge.1990.1574 [Google Scholar]
  32. Thesaurus Linguae Sericae
    Thesaurus Linguae Sericae. An Historical and Comparative Encyclopaedia of Chinese Conceptual Schemes General Editor: Christoph Harbsmeier 何莫邪 ; Associate Editor: Jiang Shaoyu 蔣紹愚 . Available at: tls.uni-hd.de/home_en.lasso
  33. Schuessler, Alex
    2007ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Schuessler, Axel
    2015 New Old Chinese. Diachronica, 32:4.571–598. 10.1075/dia.32.4.04sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.32.4.04sch [Google Scholar]
  35. Wang, Li 王力
    1979古代汉语常识Gudai hanyu changshi [Common Knowledge of Ancient Chinese]. Beijing: Renmin jiaoyu chubanshe.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Whitman, John
    2001 Relabelling. Diachronic Syntax. Models and Mechanismsed. by Pintzuk, Susan , George Tsoulas & Anthony Warner , 220–238. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Yang, Shuda 杨树达
    1928词诠Ci quan [Explanation of grammatical words]. Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan (reed. 1965, Beijing: Zhonghua shuju).
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Zribi-Hertz, Anne
    1984 Prépositions orphelines et pronoms nuls. Recherches linguistiques12.46–91.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Aldridge, Edith
    2012a Focus and Archaic Chinese Word Order. Proceedings of the 22nd North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-22) and the 18th International Conference on Chinese Linguistics (IACL-18), vol.2, ed. by Lauren Eby Clemens & Chi-Ming Louis Liu , 84–101. Available at: https://naccl.osu.edu/proceedings/naccl-22_iacl-18
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 2012b PPs and Applicatives in Late Archaic Chinese. Studies in Chinese Linguistics33:3.139–163.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Belletti, Adriana
    2004 Aspects of the Low IP Area. The Structure of IP and CP. The Cartography of Syntactic Structuresvol.2, ed. by Luigi Rizzi , 16–51. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Djamouri, Redouane , Barbara Meisterernst & Waltraud Paul
    2009 Particles in Classical Chinese: Complementizers and Topic Markers. Paper presented at the29th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Radboud University, Nijmegen, 10–14 August 2009.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Djamouri, Redouane , Waltraud Paul & John Whitman
    2013a Postpositions vs. Prepositions in Mandarin Chinese: The Articulation of Disharmony. Theoretical Approaches to Disharmonic Word Ordered. by Theresa Biberauer & Michelle Sheehan , 74–105. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199684359.003.0003
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199684359.003.0003 [Google Scholar]
  44. Ma, Jianzhong
    1898 Ma shi wen tong [Grammatical Principles of Written Chinese]. Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan.
  45. Paul, Waltraud & John Whitman
    2010 Applicative Structure and Mandarin Ditransitives. Argument Structure and Syntactic Relations from a Cross-Linguistic Perspectiveed. by Maia Duguine , Susana Huidobro & Nerea Madariaga , 261–282. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/la.158.15pau
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.158.15pau [Google Scholar]
  46. Pereltsvaig, Asya
    2004 Topic and Focus as Linear Notions: Evidence from Italian and Russian. Lingua114:3.325–344. 10.1016/S0024‑3841(03)00029‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3841(03)00029-9 [Google Scholar]
  47. Pylkkänen, Liina
    2002Introducing Arguments. Doctoral dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jhl.19024.dja
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error