Volume 12, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2210-2116
  • E-ISSN: 2210-2124
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



While many studies have employed variationist methods to examine longitudinal changes in the English intensifier system, to date, no variationist studies have tackled the intensifier system of Old English. By providing a critical view of this system at an earlier stage in the history of the English language, the present study adds to the long tradition of scholarship on intensifiers while providing new insight into their diachronic development. Despite its antiquity, several parallels can be drawn with the intensifier system at later stages in the language. Both internal and external factors are found to constrain this system, with predicative adjectives favoring intensification over attributive adjectives, prose texts having higher intensification rates than verse texts, Latin-based texts having higher intensification rates than vernacular texts, and the rate of intensification increasing over time. The quantitative analysis of the Old English system also increases the time depth necessary for a more detailed reflection on the diachronic recycling, replacement, and renewal of intensifiers. Language contact and borrowing are also postulated as driving forces of innovation and replacement in earlier stages of the English language.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Alcorn, Rhona
    2011 Pronouns, Prepositions and Probabilities: A Multivariate Study of Old English Word Order. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Athanasiadou, Angeliki
    2007 On the Subjectivity of Intensifiers. Language Sciences29:4.554–564. 10.1016/j.langsci.2007.01.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2007.01.009 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bäcklund, Ulf
    1973The Collocation of Adverbs of Degree in English. Uppsala: Uppsala University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Barnfield, Kate & Isabelle Buchstaller
    2010 Intensifiers on Tyneside: Longitudinal Developments and New Trends. English World-World31:3.252–287. 10.1075/eww.31.3.02bar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.31.3.02bar [Google Scholar]
  5. Bauer, Laurie & Winifred Bauer
    2002 Adjective Boosters in the English of Young New Zealanders. Journal of English Linguistics30:3.244–257. 10.1177/0075424202030003002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424202030003002 [Google Scholar]
  6. Biber, Douglas & Susan Conrad
    2009Register, Genre, and Style. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511814358
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511814358 [Google Scholar]
  7. Biber, Douglas, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad, Edward Finegan & Randolf Quirk
    1999Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English (Vol.2). London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Biber, Douglas
    1988Variation across Speech and Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511621024
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511621024 [Google Scholar]
  9. 2012 Register as a Predictor of Linguistic Variation. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory8.9–37. 10.1515/cllt‑2012‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt-2012-0002 [Google Scholar]
  10. Biscetti, Stefania
    2008 The Diachronic Development of the Intensifier Bloody. English Historical Linguistics 2006, Volume II: Lexical and Semantic Changeed. byM. Gotti, M. Dossena & R. Dury, 117–138. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.296.06bis
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.296.06bis [Google Scholar]
  11. Blanco-Suárez, Zeltia
    2014 Oh he is olde dogge at expounding deade sure at a Catechisme: Some Considerations on the History of the Intensifying Adverb dead in English. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia46:1.117–136. 10.1080/03740463.2014.956399
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03740463.2014.956399 [Google Scholar]
  12. Blockley, Mary
    2001Aspects of Old English Poetic Syntax: Where Clauses Begin. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bolinger, Dwight
    1972Degree Words. The Hague: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110877786
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110877786 [Google Scholar]
  14. Borst, Eugene
    1902Die Gradadverbien im Englischen (Anglistische Forschung 10). Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bosworth-Toller Anglo Saxon Dictionary
    Bosworth-Toller Anglo Saxon Dictionary. (online). URL: https//Bosworth.ff.cuni.cz
  16. Bousquette, Joshua & Joseph Salmons
    2017 Germanic. The Indo-European Languagesed. byM. Kapović, 387–420. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Breban, Tine & Kristin Davidse
    2016 The History of very: The Directionality of Functional Shift and (Inter)subjectification. English Language and Linguistics20:2.221–249. 10.1017/S1360674315000428
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674315000428 [Google Scholar]
  18. Brinton, Laurel J. & Leslie K. Arnovick
    2006The English Language: A Linguistic History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Brinton, Laurel J. & Elizabeth C. Traugott
    2005Lexicalization and Language Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511615962
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615962 [Google Scholar]
  20. Brown, LeAnn & Sali A. Tagliamonte
    2012 A Really Interesting Story: The Influence of Narrative in Linguistic Change. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics18:2. https://repository.upenn.edu/pwpl/vol18/iss2/2
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Buchstaller, Isabelle & Elizabeth E. Traugott
    2006 The lady was al demonyak: Historical Aspects of Adverb all. English Language & Linguistics10:2.345–370. 10.1017/S136067430600195X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S136067430600195X [Google Scholar]
  22. Bulgin, James, Nicole Elford, Lindsay Harding, Bridget Henley, Suzanne Power & Crystal Walters
    2008 So very really variable: Social Patterning of Intensifier use by Newfoundlanders Online. Linguistica Atlantica29.101–115.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Carli, Linda
    1990 Gender, Language, and Influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology59. 941–951. 10.1037/0022‑3514.59.5.941
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.5.941 [Google Scholar]
  24. Cichosz, Anna, Jerzy Gaszewski & Piotr Pęzik
    2016Element Order of Old English and Old High German Translations. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/nss.28
    https://doi.org/10.1075/nss.28 [Google Scholar]
  25. Cichosz, Anna
    2017 Inversion after Clause-Initial Adverbs in Old English: The Special Status of þa, þonne, nu, and swa. Journal of English Linguistics45:4.308–337. 10.1177/0075424217733026
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424217733026 [Google Scholar]
  26. Claridge, Claudia, Ewa Jonsson & Merja Kytö
    2019 Entirely Innocent: A Historical Sociopragmatic Analysis of Maximizers in the Old Bailey Corpus. English Language & Linguistics24:4.1–20. 10.1017/S1360674319000388
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674319000388 [Google Scholar]
  27. Crystal, David
    1995The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. D’Arcy, Alexandra
    2015 Stability, Stasis and Change. Diachronica32:4.449–493. 10.1075/dia.32.4.01dar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.32.4.01dar [Google Scholar]
  29. De Cuypere, Ludovic
    2015 A Multivariate Analysis of the Old English ACC+ DAT Double Object Alternation. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory11:2.225–254. 10.1515/cllt‑2014‑0011
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt-2014-0011 [Google Scholar]
  30. Dixon, Robert M. W.
    1977 Where have all the Adjectives Gone?Studies in Language1.19–80. 10.1075/sl.1.1.04dix
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.1.1.04dix [Google Scholar]
  31. 2005A Semantic Approach to English Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Ericson, Eston. E.
    1932The Use of swa in Old English. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Fettig, Adolf
    1934 Die Gradadverbien im Mittelenglischen. Anglistische Forschungen, vol.79. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Fuchs, Robert
    2017 Do Women (Still) Use more Intensifiers than Men? Recent Changes in the Sociolinguistics of Intensifiers in British English. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics22:3.345–374. 10.1075/ijcl.22.3.03fuc
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.22.3.03fuc [Google Scholar]
  35. Gries, Stefan
    2015 The Most Under-Used Statistical Method in Corpus Linguistics: Multilevel (and Mixed-Effects) Models. Corpora10:1.95–125. 10.3366/cor.2015.0068
    https://doi.org/10.3366/cor.2015.0068 [Google Scholar]
  36. Haspelmath, Martin
    2009 Lexical Borrowing: Concepts and Issues. Loanwords in the World’s Languages: A Comparative Handbooked. byM. Haspelmath & U. Tadmor, 35–54. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110218442.35
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110218442.35 [Google Scholar]
  37. Hickey, Raymond
    (ed.) 2004Legacies of Colonial English: Studies in Transported Dialects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 2002 Ebb and Flow: A Cautionary Tale of Language Change. Sounds, Words, Texts, Change: Selected Papers from the Eleventh International Conference on English Historical Linguistics (11 ICEHL), ed. byT. Fanego, B. Méndez-Naya & E. Seoane. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.224.09hic
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.224.09hic [Google Scholar]
  39. Hoffmann, Sebastian
    2009 Lexical Change. English Language. Description, Variation and Contexted. byJonathan Culpeper, Francis Katamba, Paul Kerswill, Ruth Wodak & Tony McEnery, 286–300. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑1‑137‑07789‑9_15
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-07789-9_15 [Google Scholar]
  40. Hopper, Paul J.
    1991 On Some Principles of Grammaticization. Approaches to Grammaticalization, Volume 1: Focus on Theoretical and Methodological Issues, ed. byElizabeth Closs Traugott & Bernd Heine, 17–35. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.19.1.04hop
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.19.1.04hop [Google Scholar]
  41. Ingersoll, Sheila. M.
    1978Intensive and Restrictive Modification in Old English (Vol.124). Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Ito, Rika & Sali A. Tagliamonte
    2003 Well Weird, Right Dodgy, Very Strange, Really Cool: Layering and Recycling in English Intensifiers. Language in Society32:2.257–279. 10.1017/S0047404503322055
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404503322055 [Google Scholar]
  43. Janda, Richard D. & Brian D. Joseph
    2003 On Language, Change, and Language Change; Or, of History, Linguistics, and Historical Linguistics. Handbook of Historical Linguisticsed. byBrian D. Joseph and Richard D. Janda, 3–180. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756393.ch
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756393.ch [Google Scholar]
  44. Jespersen, Otto
    1917Negation in English and Other Languages. London: Allen & Unwin.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Johnson, Daniel E.
    2009 Getting off the GoldVarb Standard: Introducing Rbrul for Mixed-Effects Variable Rule Analysis. Language and Linguistics Compass3:1.359–383. 10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2008.00108.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2008.00108.x [Google Scholar]
  46. van Kemenade, Ans
    1987Syntactic Case and Morphological Case in the History of English. Dordrecht: Foris. 10.1515/9783110882308
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110882308 [Google Scholar]
  47. 2002 Word Order in Old English Prose and Poetry: The Position of Finite Verbs and Adverbs. Studies in the History of the English Language: A Millennial Perspectiveed. byDonka Minkova & Robert P. Stockwell, 355–372. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110197143.3.355
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197143.3.355 [Google Scholar]
  48. Kirchner, Gustav
    1955Gradadverbien: Restriktiva und Verwandtes im heutigen Englisch. Halle: Niemeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Klein, Henry
    1998Adverbs of Degree in Dutch and Related Languages. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/la.21
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.21 [Google Scholar]
  50. Kranich, Svenja, Viktor Becher & Steffan Höder
    2011 A Tentative Typology of Translation-Induced Language Change. Multilingual Discourse Production: Diachronic and Synchronic Perspectivesed. byS. Kranich, V. Becher, S. Höder & J. House, 11–44. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hsm.12.02kra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hsm.12.02kra [Google Scholar]
  51. Kühner, Getrud
    1934Die Intensiv-Adverbien des Frühneuenglischen. Heidelberg: König & Lieb.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Kytö, Merja
    (ed.) 1996Manual to the Diachronic Part of the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts. Coding Conventions and List of Source Texts. (3rd edn.). Helsinki: University of Helsinki.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Labov, William
    1966The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 1969 Contraction, Deletion, and Inherent Variability of the English Copula. Language45:4.715–762. 10.2307/412333
    https://doi.org/10.2307/412333 [Google Scholar]
  55. 1972Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 1994Principles of Linguistic Change: Internal Factors. Vol. 1: Internal Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Lehmann, Winfred P.
    1992Historical Linguistics: An Introduction (3rd edn.). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Lenker, Ursula
    2008 Booster Prefixes in Old English – An Alternative View of the Roots of ME forsooth. English Language & Linguistics12:2.245–265. 10.1017/S136067430800261X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S136067430800261X [Google Scholar]
  59. Lorenz, Gunter
    2002 Really Worthwhile or not Really Significant? A Corpus-Based Approach to the Delexicalisation and Grammaticalisation of Intensifiers in Modern English. New Reflections on Grammaticalizationed. byI. Wischer & G. Diewald, 143–161. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.49.11lor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.49.11lor [Google Scholar]
  60. Macaulay, Ronald
    2006 Pure Grammaticalization: The Development of a Teenage Intensifier. Language Variation and Change18:3.267–283. 10.1017/S0954394506060133
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394506060133 [Google Scholar]
  61. Mair, Christian
    2004 Corpus Linguistics and Grammaticalization Theory. Statistics, Frequency and Beyond. Corpus Approaches to Grammaticalization in Englished. byIn H. Linquist & C. Mair, 121–150. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.13.07mai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.13.07mai [Google Scholar]
  62. Marsden, Richard
    2015The Cambridge Old English Reader. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781107295209
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107295209 [Google Scholar]
  63. Méndez-Naya, Belén
    2003 On Intensifiers and Grammaticalization: The Case of swiþe. English Studies84:4.372–391. 10.1076/enst.84.4.372.17388
    https://doi.org/10.1076/enst.84.4.372.17388 [Google Scholar]
  64. (ed.) 2008 Special Issue on English Intensifiers. English Language and Linguistics12:2.213–219. 10.1017/S1360674308002591
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002591 [Google Scholar]
  65. 2018 Synthetic Intensification Devices in Old English. [Paper within theworkshop Degree Phenomena in the History of English], chaired byMerja Kytö (University of Uppsala) andClaudia Claridge (University of Augsburg).
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 2021 Synthetic Intensification Devices in Old English. Journal of English Linguistics14:2.208–227. 10.1177/0075424221993850
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424221993850 [Google Scholar]
  67. 2019 The Intensifier System of the Ormulum and the Interplay of Micro-level and Macro-level Contexts in Linguistic Change. Grammar–Discourse–Context: Grammar and Usage in Language Variation and Changeed. byK. Bech & R. Möhlig-Falke, 93–124. Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110682564‑004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110682564-004 [Google Scholar]
  68. Méndez-Naya, Belén & Päivi Pahta
    2010 Intensifiers in Competition: The Picture from Early English Medical Writing. Early Modern English Medical Texts: Corpus Description and Studiesed. byIrma Taavitsainen & Päivi Pahta, 191–214. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.160.08men
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.160.08men [Google Scholar]
  69. Mitchell, Bruce
    1976 The Expression of Extent and Degree in Old English. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen77:1.25–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 1985Old English Syntax: Concord, the Parts of Speech, and the Sentence (Vol.2). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198119357.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198119357.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  71. Möhlig-Falke, Ruth
    2015 Using the Dictionary of Old English Corpus for Linguistic Analyses: A Basic Classification of the Textual Sources. Neuphilologische Mitteilugen116:2.395–420.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Morris, Richard
    1880 The Blickling Homilies of the Tenth Century: From the Marquis of Lothian’s Unique M.S. AD 971. Accessible at https://archive.org/details/blicklinghomili00morrgoog/page/n141/mode/2up.
  73. Most, Sheila M.
    1969 Intensive and Restrictive Modification in a Select Corpus of Old English Poetry and Prose. Doctoral Dissertation, Northwestern University.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Mustanoja, Tauno
    1960A Middle English Syntax. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Nevalainen, Terttu
    1997 The Process of Adverb Derivation in Late Middle and Early Modern English. The Process of Adverb Derivation in Late and Modern Englished. byMatti Rissanen, Merja Kytö & Kirsi Helkkonen, 145–189. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Núñez-Pertejo, Paloma & Ignacio Palacios-Martínez
    2018 Intensifiers in MLE: New Trends and Developments. Nordic Journal of English Studies17:2.115–155. 10.35360/njes.436
    https://doi.org/10.35360/njes.436 [Google Scholar]
  77. OED: Oxford English Dictionary
    OED: Oxford English Dictionary. Online 2nd edition 1989 <oed.com.
  78. Pahta, Päivi
    2006 This is Very Important: A Corpus Study of Amplifiers in Medical Writing. Advances in Medical Discourse Analysis: Oral and Written Contexts, ed. byMaurizo Gotti & F. Salager-Meyer, 357–382. Bern: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Paradis, Carita
    2008 Configurations, Construals and Change: Expressions of Degree. English Language and Linguistics12:2.317–343. 10.1017/S1360674308002645
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002645 [Google Scholar]
  80. Partington, Alan
    1993 Corpus Evidence of Language Change: The Case of Intensifiers. Text and Technology. In Honour of John Sinclaired. byMona Baker, Gill Francis & Elena-Bonelli, 177–192). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.64.12par
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.64.12par [Google Scholar]
  81. Peltola, Niilo
    1969 Contributions to the Study of Intensives. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen70:1.33–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 1971 Observations on Intensification in Old English Poetry. Neuphilologsiche Mitteilungen72:4.649–690.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Peters, Hans
    1993Die englischen Gradadverbien der Kategorie Booster. Narr: Tübingen.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 1994 Degree Adverbs in Early Modern English. Studies in Early Modern Englished. byDieter Kastovsky, 269–288. Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110879599.269
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110879599.269 [Google Scholar]
  85. Pintzuk, Susan & Ann Taylor
    2006 The Loss of OV Order in the History of English. InAns van Kemenade & Bettelou Los (eds.), The Handbook of the History of English, 249–278. 10.1002/9780470757048.ch11
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470757048.ch11 [Google Scholar]
  86. Pintzuk, Susan
    1995 Variation and Change in Old English Clause Structure. Language Variation and Change7:2.229–260. 10.1017/S0954394500001009
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500001009 [Google Scholar]
  87. 1999Phrase Structures in Competition: Variation and Change in Old English Clause Structure. New York: Garland.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Poplack, Shana & Sali A. Tagliamonte
    1998 There’s No Tense like the Present: Verbal -s Inflection in Early Black English. Language Variation and Change1:1.47–84. 10.1017/S0954394500000119
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000119 [Google Scholar]
  89. Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech & Jan Svartvik
    1985A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London & New York: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. R Core Team
    R Core Team 2013R – A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna. Accessible at www.R-project.org.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Rickford, John, Thomas Wasow, Arnold Zwicky & Isabelle Buchstaller
    2007 Intensive and Quotative all; Something Old, Something New. American Speech82:1.3–31. 10.1215/00031283‑2007‑001
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-2007-001 [Google Scholar]
  92. Rissanen, Matti, Merja Kytö, Leena Kahlas-Tarkka, Matti Kilpiö, Saara Nevanlinna, Irma Taavitsainen, Terttu Nevalainen & Helena Raumolin-Brunberg
    1991Helsinki Corpus of English Texts: Diachronic and Dialectal (Helsinki).
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Rissanen, Matti
    2006 Latin Influence on an Old English Idiom: “To wit”. Inside Old English: Essays in Honour of Bruce Mitchelled. byJ. Walmsley, 222–241. Oxford: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470776360.ch11
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470776360.ch11 [Google Scholar]
  94. Sauer, Hans & Gary Waxenberger
    2012 Old English: Dialects. English Historical Linguistics 1 [=Handbücher zur Sprachwissenschaft 34.1], ed. byAlexander Bergs & Laurel Brinton, 340–351. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Schweinberger, Martin
    2020 Analyzing Change in the American English Amplifier System in the Fiction Genre. Corpora and the Changing Society: Studies in the Evolution of Englished. byP. Rautionaho, A. Nurmi & J. Klemola, 223–250. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.96.09sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.96.09sch [Google Scholar]
  96. Stenström, Anna-Brita
    1999 He was Really Gormless – She’s Bloody Crap: Girls, Boys and Intensifiers. Out of Corpora: Studies in Honour of Stig Johanssoned. byHide Hasselgaard & Signe Okesfjell, 69–78. Amsterdam & Atlanta: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Stoffel, Cornelis
    1901Intensives and Downtoners. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Stratton, James M.
    2018 The Use of the Adjective Intensifier well in British English: A Case Study of The Inbetweeners. English Studies99:8. 793–816. 10.1080/0013838X.2018.1519150
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0013838X.2018.1519150 [Google Scholar]
  99. 2020a ‘That’s proper cool’. The Emerging Intensifier proper in British English. English Today1–8. 10.1017/S0266078420000036
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078420000036 [Google Scholar]
  100. 2020b A Diachronic Analysis of the Adjective Intensifier well from Early Modern English to Present Day English. Canadian Journal of Linguistics65:2.216–245. 10.1017/cnj.2020.6
    https://doi.org/10.1017/cnj.2020.6 [Google Scholar]
  101. 2020c Corpora and Diachronic Analysis of English. The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Approaches to Discourse Analysised. byEric Friginal & Jack A. Hardy, 202–218. London & New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780429259982‑13
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429259982-13 [Google Scholar]
  102. 2020d Adjective Intensifiers in German. Journal of Germanic Linguistics32:2.183–215. 10.1017/S1470542719000163
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1470542719000163 [Google Scholar]
  103. Swales, John & Amy Burk
    2003 “It’s really fascinating work”: Differences in Evaluative Adjectives across Academic Registers. Corpus Analysis: Language Structure and Language Useed byP. Leistyna & C. F. Meyer, 1–18. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1163/9789004334410_002
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004334410_002 [Google Scholar]
  104. Tagliamonte, S. A.
    2012Variationist Sociolinguistics: Change, Observation, Interpretation. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Tagliamonte, Sali A. & Derek Denis
    2014 Expanding the Transmission/Diffusion Dichotomy: Evidence from Canada. Language90:1.90–136. 10.1353/lan.2014.0016
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2014.0016 [Google Scholar]
  106. Tagliamonte, Sali A. & Chris Roberts
    2005 So Weird; So Cool; So Innovative: The Use of Intensifiers in the Television Series Friends. American Speech80:3.280–300. 10.1215/00031283‑80‑3‑280
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-80-3-280 [Google Scholar]
  107. Tagliamonte, Sali A.
    2016 So Sick or So Cool? The Language of Youth on the Internet. Language in Society45:1.1–32. 10.1017/S0047404515000780
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404515000780 [Google Scholar]
  108. 2008 So Different and Pretty Cool! Recycling Intensifiers in Canadian English. English Language and Linguistics (=Special issue of English Language and Linguistics, Intensifiers, ed. byBelén Méndez-Naya) 12:2.361–394. 10.1017/S1360674308002669
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002669 [Google Scholar]
  109. Taylor, Ann & Susan Pintzuk
    2015 Verb Order, Object Position, and Information Status in Old English. Syntax over Time: Lexical, Morphological, and Information-Structural Interactionsed. byT. Biberauer & G. Walkden, 318–335. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199687923.003.0019
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199687923.003.0019 [Google Scholar]
  110. Taylor, Ann
    2008 Contact Effects of Translation: Distinguishing Two Kinds of Influence in Old English. Language Variation and Change20:2.341–365. 10.1017/S0954394508000100
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394508000100 [Google Scholar]
  111. Thomason, Sarah G. & Terrence Kaufman
    1988Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 10.1525/9780520912793
    https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520912793 [Google Scholar]
  112. Trudgill, Peter
    1990Dialects in Contact. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  113. 2010Investigations in Sociohistorical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511760501
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511760501 [Google Scholar]
  114. Wagner, Susanne
    2019 Why very good in India might be pretty good in North America: Amplifier-Adjective 2-grams in Global Englishes. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics24.4, 445–489. 10.1075/ijcl.17063.wag
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.17063.wag [Google Scholar]
  115. Wright, Joseph
    1899A Primer of the Gothic Language. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Zimmermann, Richard
    2012 Rule Independence and Rule Conditioning: Grammar Competition in Old English Relative Clauses. Proceedings of ConSOLEXX, 315, 332.
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Zwicky, Arnold
    2005 Just between Dr. Language and I. Language Log post, 7August 2005 <https://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/002386.html.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error