1887
image of The Change in the grammatical category of the copula in North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic (NENA), which is a subgroup of dialects of vernacular Neo-Aramaic, exhibits considerable internal diversity. In this paper, I describe the diversity that exists in the form of the copula in this subgroup. The paradigms of the copula in the various dialects exhibit different degrees of convergence with verbal inflection. There is an areal progression in verbalization from the western periphery to the eastern periphery. The incipient verbalization of the copula can be correlated with semantic properties of the subject and the clause that would be expected typologically to be most compatible with verbal predicates. Close correlations, however, can be identified with the distribution of pronominal and verbal inflections of copulas in the languages with which the NENA dialects have been in contact in the region. It is likely, therefore, that the realization of the internal potential verbalization of the NENA copula was induced by language contact.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jhl.21019.kha
2022-04-08
2022-05-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Bybee, Joan L.
    1985 Morphology: A Study of the Relation between Meaning and Form. Typological Studies in Language 9. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.9
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.9 [Google Scholar]
  2. 2010Language Usage and Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511750526
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511750526 [Google Scholar]
  3. 2015Language Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139096768
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139096768 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bybee, Joan L. & Mary A. Brewer
    1980 Explanation in Morphophonemics: Changes in Provençal and Spanish Preterite Forms. Lingua52.201–242. 10.1016/0024‑3841(80)90035‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(80)90035-2 [Google Scholar]
  5. Chvany, Catherine V.
    1985 Backgrounded Perfective and Plot Line Imperfectives: Toward a Theory of Grounding in Text. The Scope of Slavic Aspected. byMichael S. Flier & Alan Timberlake, 247–273. Columbus, OH: Slavica.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chyet, Michael L.
    1995 Neo-Aramaic and Kurdish: An Interdisciplinary Consideration of Their Influence on Each Other. Israel Oriental Studies15.219–249.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Coghill, Eleanor
    2010 Ditransitive Constructions in the Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Telkepe. Studies in Ditransitive Constructions: A Comparative Handbooked. byAndreĭ Lʹvovich Malʹchukov, Martin Haspelmath & Bernard Comrie, 221–242. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110220377.221
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110220377.221 [Google Scholar]
  8. Croft, William
    1991Syntactic Categories and Grammatical Relations. Chicago-London: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 2001Radical Construction Grammar. Syntactic Theory in a Typological Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299554.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299554.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  10. Dixon, Robert M. W.
    1979 Ergativity. Language Studies55:1.59–138. 10.2307/412519
    https://doi.org/10.2307/412519 [Google Scholar]
  11. Elšík, Viktor & Yaron Matras
    2006 Markedness and Language Change: The Romani Sample. Empirical Approaches to Language Typology32. Berlin-New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fillmore, Charles J.
    1982 Towards a Descriptive Framework for Spatial Deixis. Speech, Place, and Actioned. byRobert J. Jarvell & Wolfgang Klein, 31–59. Chichester: John Wiley.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gentner, Dedre
    1982 Why Nouns are Learned before Verbs: Linguistic Relativity versus Natural Partitioning. Language Development. Vol. 2. Language, Thought and Cultureed. byStan Kuczaj, 301–334. Hillsdale N.J.: Lawrence Eribaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Givon, Talmy
    1979On Understanding Grammar. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 1984Syntax. A Functional-Typological Introduction. Vol.1. Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins.10.1075/z.syn1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.syn1 [Google Scholar]
  16. 1990Syntax. A Functional-Typological Introduction. Vol.2. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/z.syn2
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.syn2 [Google Scholar]
  17. Goldenberg, Gideon
    1983 On Syriac Sentence Structure. Arameans, Aramaic and the Aramaic Literary Traditioned. byMichael Sokoloff, 97–140. Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Häberl, Charles
    2009 The Neo-Mandaic Dialect of Khorramshahr. Semitica Viva45. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Haig, Geoffrey
    2018 The Iranian Languages of Northern Iraq. The Languages and Linguistics of Western Asia: An Areal Perspectiveed. byGeoffrey Haig & Geoffrey Khan, 267–304. The World of Linguistics 6. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110421682‑009
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110421682-009 [Google Scholar]
  20. Haig, Geoffrey & Geoffrey Khan
    2018 Introduction. The Languages and Linguistics of Western Asia: An Areal Perspectiveed. byGeoffrey Haig & Geoffrey Khan, 1–30. The World of Linguistics 6. Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110421682‑001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110421682-001 [Google Scholar]
  21. Haspelmath, Martin
    2004 Explaining the Ditransitive Person-Role Constraint: A Usage-Based Approach. Constructions2. https://doi.org/nbn:de:0009-4-359
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 2005 Argument Marking in Ditransitive Alignment Types. Linguistic Discovery3:1. 10.1349/PS1.1537‑0852.A.280
    https://doi.org/10.1349/PS1.1537-0852.A.280 [Google Scholar]
  23. Israel, Michael
    2004 The Pragmatics of Polarity. The Handbook of Pragmaticsed. byLaurence R. Horn & Gregory Ward, 701–723. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Janse, Mark
    2009 Watkins’ Law and the Development of Agglutinative Inflections in Asia Minor Greek. Journal of Greek Linguistics9.93–109. 10.1163/156658409X12500896405961
    https://doi.org/10.1163/156658409X12500896405961 [Google Scholar]
  25. Jastrow, Otto
    1978Die mesopotamisch-arabischen Qəltu-Dialekte. Vol.1. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 1985Laut- und Formenlehre des neuaramäischen Dialekts von Mīdin im Ṭūr ʻAbdīn. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 1988Der neuaramäische dialekt von Hertevin (Provinz Siirt). Semitica Viva 3. Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 1990Der arabische Dialekt der Juden von ʿAqra und Arbīl. Semitica Viva 5. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 1994Der neuaramäische Dialekt von Mlaḥsô. Semitica Viva 14. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 2015 Language Contact as Reflected in the Consonant System of Ṭuroyo. Semitic Languages in Contacted. byAaron M. Butts. Leiden-Boston: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Khan, Geoffrey
    1999A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic: The Dialect of the Jews of Arbel. Boston, MA: Brill. 10.1163/9789004305045
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004305045 [Google Scholar]
  32. 2001 Quelques aspects de l’expression d’“être” en Néo-Araméen. Langues de diaspora. Langues en contacted. byAnaïd Donabédian, 139–148. Faits de langues revue de linguistique 18. Paris: Ophrys.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 2002The Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Qaraqosh. Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics 36. Boston, MA: Brill. 10.1163/9789004348585
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004348585 [Google Scholar]
  34. 2007 The North Eastern Neo-Aramaic Dialects. Journal of Semitic Studies52.1–20. 10.1093/jss/fgl034
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jss/fgl034 [Google Scholar]
  35. 2008aThe Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Urmi. Gorgias Neo-Aramaic Studies. Piscataway: Gorgias. 10.1163/ej.9789004167650.i‑2198
    https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004167650.i-2198 [Google Scholar]
  36. 2008bThe Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Barwar. 3vols.Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/ej.9789004167650.i‑2198
    https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004167650.i-2198 [Google Scholar]
  37. 2009The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Sanandaj. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 2011 North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic. The Semitic Languages: An International Handbooked. byStefan Weninger, Geoffrey Khan, Michael Streck & Janet Watson, 708–24. Berlin-Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110251586.708
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110251586.708 [Google Scholar]
  39. 2012 Remarks on the Historical Development of the Copula in Neo-Aramaic. Dialectology of The Semitic Languages Proceedings of the IV Meeting on Comparative Semitics Zaragoza 11/6–9/2010ed. byFederico Corriente, Gregorio del Olmo Lete, Ángeles Vicente & Juan-Pablo Vita, 25–31. Sabadell: AUSA.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 2018 Remarks on the Syntax and Historical Development of the Copula in North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic Dialects. Aramaic Studies16.234–69. 10.1163/17455227‑01602010
    https://doi.org/10.1163/17455227-01602010 [Google Scholar]
  41. 2020 Contact and Change in Neo-Aramaic Dialects. Historical Linguistics 2017ed. byBridget Drinka, 391–411. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.350.18kha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.350.18kha [Google Scholar]
  42. Khan, Geoffrey & Masoud Mohammadiran
    . Forthcoming. Language Contact in Sanandaj.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Koch, Harold
    1995 The Creation of Morphological Zeroes. Yearbook of Morphology 1994ed. byGeert Booij & Jaap van Marle, 31–71. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 10.1007/978‑94‑017‑3714‑2_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3714-2_2 [Google Scholar]
  44. Korn, Agnes
    2011 Pronouns as Verbs, Verbs as Pronouns: Demonstratives and the Copula in Iranian. Topics in Iranian Linguisticsed. byAgnes Korn, Geoffrey Haig, Simin Karimi & Pollet Samvelian, 53–70. Beiträge zur Iranistik 34. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag. 10.29091/9783752005325
    https://doi.org/10.29091/9783752005325 [Google Scholar]
  45. MacKenzie, David N.
    1956 Bāj̆alānī. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies18.418–35. 10.1017/S0041977X00087930
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X00087930 [Google Scholar]
  46. 1961 The Origins of Kurdish. Transactions of the Philological Society, 68–86. 10.1111/j.1467‑968X.1961.tb00987.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-968X.1961.tb00987.x [Google Scholar]
  47. Mahmoudveysi, Parvin, and Denise Bailey
    2018 Hawrāmī of Western Iran. The Languages and Linguistics of Western Asia: An Areal Perspectiveed. byGeoffrey Haig & Geoffrey Khan, 533–568. The World of Linguistics 6. Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110421682‑016
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110421682-016 [Google Scholar]
  48. Mahmoudveysi, Parvin, Denise Bailey, Ludwig Paul, & Geoffrey Haig
    2012The Gorani Language of Gawraǰū, a Village of West Iran: Texts, Grammar, and Lexicon. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Matras, Yaron, & Jeanette Sakel
    2007 Investigating the Mechanisms of Pattern Replication in Language Convergence. Studies in Language31:4.829–65. 10.1075/sl.31.4.05mat
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.31.4.05mat [Google Scholar]
  50. Mayerthaler, Willi
    1987 System-Independent Morphological Naturalness. Leitmotifs in Natural Morphologyed. byWolfgang Dressler, Willi Mayerthaler, Oswald Panagl & Wolfgang U. Wurzel, 25–58. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.10.13may
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.10.13may [Google Scholar]
  51. Mutzafi, Hezy
    2008 Trans-Zab Jewish Neo-Aramaic. Bulletin of SOAS71:3.409–31. 10.1017/S0041977X08000815
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X08000815 [Google Scholar]
  52. Nöldeke, Theodor
    1868Grammatik der neusyrischen Sprache am Urmia-See und in Kurdistan. Leipzig: T.O. Weigel.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 1904Compendious Syriac Grammar. London: Williams & Norgate.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Paul, Ludwig
    1998Zazaki: Grammatik und Versuch einer Dialektologie. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Procházka, Stephan
    2018a The Arabic Dialects of Eastern Anatolia. The Languages and Linguistics of Western Asia: An Areal Perspectiveed. byGeoffrey Haig & Geoffrey Khan, 159–189. The World of Linguistics 6. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110421682‑005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110421682-005 [Google Scholar]
  56. 2018b The Arabic Dialects of Northern Iraq. The Languages and Linguistics of Western Asia: An Areal Perspectiveed. byGeoffrey Haig & Geoffrey Khan, 243–266. The World of Linguistics 6. Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110421682‑008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110421682-008 [Google Scholar]
  57. Pustet, Regina
    2003Copulas: Universals in the Categorization of the Lexicon. Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199258505.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199258505.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  58. Ritter, Helmut
    1990Ṭūrōyō: die Volkssprache der syrischen Christen des Ṭūr ʿAbdīn. C: Grammatik. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Silverstein, Michael
    1976 Hierarchy of Features and Ergativity. Grammatical Categories in Australian Languagesed. byRobert M. W. Dixon, 112–171. Linguistic Series 22. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Stein, Dieter
    1989 Markedness and Linguistic Change. Markedness in Synchrony and Diachronyed. byOlga M. Tomić, 67–89. Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110862010.67
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110862010.67 [Google Scholar]
  61. Stilo, Donald L.
    2018 The Caspian Region and South Azerbaijan: Caspian and Tatic. The Languages and Linguistics of Western Asia: An Areal Perspectiveed. byGeoffrey Haig & Geoffrey Khan, 659–824. The World of Linguistics 6. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110421682‑019
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110421682-019 [Google Scholar]
  62. Thackston, Wheeler M.
    2006aKurmanji Kurdish. A Reference Grammar with Selected Readings. Renas Media. www.fas.harvard.edu/~iranian/Kurmanji/index.html
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 2006bSorani Kurdish: A Reference Grammar with Selected Readings. internal-pdf://Sorani-Grammar-2192906496/Sorani-Grammar.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Watkins, Calvert
    1962Indo-European Origins of the Celtic Verb. 1. The Sigmatic Aorist. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jhl.21019.kha
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jhl.21019.kha
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: copula ; Semitic ; Kurdish ; Gorani ; language contact ; Neo-Aramaic ; Iranian
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error