1887
image of Children as agents of language change
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This paper explores the operation of child language acquisition as a critical factor in some forms of language change. It proposes a sociohistorical model that incorporates the potential for young children to function as linguistic agents in certain environments, characterized by unpredictable variation in the input, lack of normative mechanisms, and the possibility for the emergence of peer networks among children. The model is then applied to explain a well-documented but poorly understood phonological change in the history of Latin American Spanish: the simplification of the system of sibilants in 16th-century Colonial Spanish. This change was nestled in ecological environments characterized by intense contact among L1 and L2 speakers of several varieties of Iberian and non-Iberian languages, as well as the rapid breakdown and reshaping of social networks. We argue that, in the absence of strong normative pressures, the advantages of certain options for early acquisition were crucial in the eventual creation and generalization of a new sociolinguistic norm. This study is methodologically innovative in that it combines not just archival evidence and sociohistorical information, but also present-day acquisitional data. The latter offers a piece often missing in sociohistorical accounts of language change.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jhl.21033.san
2022-09-21
2022-10-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aboh, Enoch Oladé
    2015The Emergence of Hybrid Grammars: Language Contact and Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139024167
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139024167 [Google Scholar]
  2. Aguirre Beltrán, Gonzalo
    1946La población negra de México, 1519–1810: Estudio etno-histórico. Mexico City: Ediciones Fuente Cultural.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aitchinson, Jean
    1991Language Change: Progress or Decay?Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Aitchison, Jean
    2003 Psycholinguistic Perspectives on Language Change. The Handbook of Historical Linguistics, ed. byJoseph Brian & Richard Janda, 736–743. Oxford: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756393.ch25
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756393.ch25 [Google Scholar]
  5. Andersen, Henning
    1973 Abductive and Deductive Change. Language49:4.765–793. 10.2307/412063
    https://doi.org/10.2307/412063 [Google Scholar]
  6. 1988 Center and Periphery: Adoption, Diffusion, and Spread. Historical Dialectologyed. byJacek Fisiak, 39–83. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110848137.39
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110848137.39 [Google Scholar]
  7. Auer, Anita, Catharina Peersman, Simon Pickl, Gijsbert Rutten & Rik Vosters
    2015 Historical Sociolinguistics: The Field and Its Future. Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics1.1–12. 10.1515/jhsl‑2015‑0001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jhsl-2015-0001 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bergs, Alexander
    2012 The Uniformitarian Principle and the Risk of Anachronisms. The Handbook of Historical Sociolinguisticsed. byJuan Manuel Hernández-Campoy & Juan Camilo Conde-Silvestre, 83–101. Oxford: Blackwell. 10.1002/9781118257227.ch5
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118257227.ch5 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bickerton, Derek
    1981Roots of Language. Ann Arbor: Karoma.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bloomfield, Leonard
    1927 Literate and Illiterate Speech. American Speech2.432–439. 10.2307/451863
    https://doi.org/10.2307/451863 [Google Scholar]
  11. Borucki, Ale, David Eltis & David Wheat
    2015 Atlantic History and the Slave Trade to Spanish America. The American Historical Review120.433–461. 10.1093/ahr/120.2.433
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ahr/120.2.433 [Google Scholar]
  12. Boyd-Βοwman, Peter
    1976 Patterns of Spanish Emigration to the Indies until 1600. The Hispanic American Historical Review56.580–604. 10.1215/00182168‑56.4.580
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00182168-56.4.580 [Google Scholar]
  13. Brain, Cecilia
    2010 Aprendizaje de lenguas indígenas por parte de españoles en Nueva España en los primeros cien años después de la conquista. Colonial Latin American Review19.279–300. 10.1080/10609164.2010.493686
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10609164.2010.493686 [Google Scholar]
  14. Britain, David
    1997 Dialect Contact, Focusing and Phonological Rule Complexity: The Koineisation of Fenland English. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics4.141–169.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Brown, Penelope & Suzanne Gaskins
    2014 Language Acquisition and Language Socialization. The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropologyed. byN. Enfield, Paul Kockelman & Jack Sidnell, 187–226. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139342872.010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139342872.010 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bukmaier, Véronique & Jonathan Harrington
    2016 The Articulatory and Acoustic Characteristics of Polish Sibilants and their Consequences for Diachronic Change. Journal of the International Phonetic Association46.311–329. 10.1017/S0025100316000062
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100316000062 [Google Scholar]
  17. Bukmaier, Véronique, Jonathan Harrington, Ulrick Reubold & Felicitas Kleber
    2014 Synchronic Variation in the Articulation and the Acoustics of the Polish Place Distinction in Sibilants and its Implications for Diachronic Change. In15th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (Interspeech 2014)ed. byH. Li & P. Ching, 203–207. Online: https://www.isca-speech.org/archive/interspeech_2014/i14_0203.html (last accessed15 May 2019). 10.21437/Interspeech.2014‑53
    https://doi.org/10.21437/Interspeech.2014-53 [Google Scholar]
  18. Bybee, Joan & Dan Slobin
    1982 Rules and Schemas in the Development and Use of the English Past Tense. Language58:2.265–289. 10.1353/lan.1982.0021
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1982.0021 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bybee, Joan
    1985Morphology: A Study of the Relation between Meaning and Form. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.9
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.9 [Google Scholar]
  20. 2010Language, Usage and Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511750526
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511750526 [Google Scholar]
  21. Campbell, Lyle
    1991 Los hispanismos y la historia fonética del español en América. El español en América: Actas del III Congreso Internacional del Español de Américaed. byCésar Hernández, Germán de Granda, Carmen Hoyos, Víctor Fernández, Deborah Dietrick & Yolanda Carballera, 171–179. Valladolid: Junta de Castilla y León.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Catalán, Diego
    1957 El çeçeo-zezeo al comenzar la expansión atlántica de Castilla. Boletim de Filologia16.306–334.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cataño, Lorena, Jessica Barlow & María Irene Moyna
    2009 A Retrospective Study of Phonetic Inventory Complexity in Acquisition of Spanish: Implications for Phonological Universals. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics23.446–472. 10.1080/02699200902839818
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02699200902839818 [Google Scholar]
  24. Cerrón Palomino, Álvaro
    2003Castellano andino: Aspectos sociolingüísticos, pedagógicos y gramaticales. Lima: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Chambers, J. K.
    1992 Dialect Acquisition. Language68:4.673–705. 10.1353/lan.1992.0060
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1992.0060 [Google Scholar]
  26. Clark, Eve
    2009First Language Acquisition. 2nd ed.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511806698
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511806698 [Google Scholar]
  27. Clark, Robin & Ian Roberts
    1993 A Computational Model of Language Learnability and Language Change. Linguistic Inquiry24.299–345.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Cock Hincapié, Olga
    1969El seseo en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, 1550–1650. Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Colantoni, Laura & Alexei Kochetov
    2011 An Articulatory Study of Sibilant Fricatives in Two Spanish Varieties. Selected Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Romance Phonologyed. byScott M. Alvord, 84–97. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Combrink, Johan
    1978 Afrikaans: Its Origin and Development. Language and Communication Studies in South Africaed. byLen Lanham & K. P. Prinsloo, 69–95. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Cournane, Ailís
    2017 In Defence of the Child Innovator. Micro-change and Macro-change in Diachronic Syntaxed. byÉric Mathieu & Robert Truswell, 10–24. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 2019 A Developmental View on Incrementation in Language Change. Theoretical Linguistics45.127–150. 10.1515/tl‑2019‑0010
    https://doi.org/10.1515/tl-2019-0010 [Google Scholar]
  33. Croft, William
    2000Explaining Language Change: An Evolutionary Approach. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Cukor-Avila, Patricia & Guy Bailey
    2011 The Interaction of Transmission and Diffusion in the Spread of Linguistic Forms. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 17:2.41–49.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. De Houwer, Annick
    2009Bilingual First Language Acquisition. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691507
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691507 [Google Scholar]
  36. DeGraff, Michel
    1999 Creolization, Language Change, and Language Acquisition: An Epilogue. Language Creation and Language Change. Creolization, Diachrony, and Developmented. byMichel DeGraff, 473–544. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 2009 Language Acquisition in Creolization and, Thus, Language Change: Some Cartesian-Uniformitarian Boundary Conditions. Language and Linguistics Compass3/4.888–971. 10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2009.00135.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2009.00135.x [Google Scholar]
  38. Dorian, Nancy
    1994 Varieties of Variation in a Very Small Place: Social Homogeneity, Prestige Norms, and Linguistic Variation. Language70:4.631–696. 10.2307/416324
    https://doi.org/10.2307/416324 [Google Scholar]
  39. Eckert, Penelope
    1988 Adolescent Social Structure and the Spread of Linguistic Change. Language in Society17.183–208. 10.1017/S0047404500012756
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500012756 [Google Scholar]
  40. 1999Linguistic Variation as Social Practice. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Escandón, Patricia
    2014 ‘Esta tierra es la mejor que calienta el sol’: La emigración española a América, siglos XVI–XVII. Historia comparada de las migraciones en las Américased. byPatricia Galeana de Valades, 19–31. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Escobar, Anna María & Kim Potowski
    2015El español de los Estados Unidos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781316091326
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316091326 [Google Scholar]
  43. Faingold, Eduardo
    1996Child Language, Creolization, and Historical Change: Spanish in Contact with Portuguese. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Filippi, Roberto, Dean D’Souza & Peter Bright
    2017 A Developmental Approach to Bilingual Research: The Effects of Multi-Language Experience from Early Infancy to Old Age. International Journal of Bilingualism23.1–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Fontanella de Weinberg, María Beatriz
    1992 Nuevas perspectivas en el estudio de la conformación del español americano. Hispanic Linguistics4:275–299.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Gangji, Nanzeen, Michelle Pascoe & Mantoa Smouse
    2015 Swahili Speech Development: Preliminary Normative Data from Typically Developing Pre-School Children in Tanzania. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders50:2.151–156. 10.1111/1460‑6984.12118
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12118 [Google Scholar]
  47. Gaskell, Gareth & Andrew Ellis
    2009 Word Learning and Lexical Development Across the Lifespan. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B364.3607–3615. 10.1098/rstb.2009.0213
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0213 [Google Scholar]
  48. Gass, Susan & Larry Selinker
    2015Second Language Acquisition: An Introductory Course. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Geeslin, Kimberly
    2014Sociolinguistics and Second Language Acquisition: Learning to Use Language in Context. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203117835
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203117835 [Google Scholar]
  50. Gleitman, Lila & Elissa Newport
    1995 The Invention of Language by Children: Environmental and Biological Influences on the Acquisition of Language. Language: An Invitation to Cognitive Science: Second Editioned. byLila Gleitman & Mark Liberman, 1–24. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 10.7551/mitpress/3964.003.0005
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/3964.003.0005 [Google Scholar]
  51. Goldin-Meadow, Susan, Diane Brentari, Marie Coppola, Laura Horton & Anne Senghas
    2015 Watching Language Grow in the Manual Modality: Nominals, Predicates, and Handshapes. Cognition136.381–395. 10.1016/j.cognition.2014.11.029
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2014.11.029 [Google Scholar]
  52. Goldin-Meadow, Susan & Carolyn Mylander
    1984 Gestural Communication in Deaf Children: The Effects and Non-Effects of Parental Input on Early Language Development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development49.1–121. 10.2307/1165838
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1165838 [Google Scholar]
  53. 1990 The Role of Parental Input in the Development of a Morphological System. Journal of Child Language17.527–563. 10.1017/S0305000900010874
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900010874 [Google Scholar]
  54. Goldin-Meadow, Susan, Carolyn Mylander & Amy Franklin
    2007 How Children Make Language out of Gesture: Morphological Structure in Gesture Systems Developed by American and Chinese Deaf Children. Cognitive Psychology55.87–135. 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2006.08.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2006.08.001 [Google Scholar]
  55. Granda, Germán de
    1994Español de América, español de África y hablas criollas hispánicas: cambios, contactos y contextos. Madrid: Gredos.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Guitarte, Guillermo
    1983Siete estudios sobre el español de América. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Hall, Erin & Ruth Maddeaux
    2020 /u/-Fronting and /æ/-Raising in Toronto Families. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics25:2, Article 7. Online: https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2066&context=pwpl (last accessed7 May 2021).
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Halle, Morris
    1962 Phonology in Generative Grammar. Word18:1–3.54–72. 10.1080/00437956.1962.11659765
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1962.11659765 [Google Scholar]
  59. Haugen, Einar
    1983 The Implementation of Corpus Planning: Theory and Practice. Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives31.269–290.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Hazen, Kirk
    2002 Identity and Language Variation in a Rural Community. Language78:2.240–257. 10.1353/lan.2002.0089
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2002.0089 [Google Scholar]
  61. Heath, Shirley Brice
    1989 Oral and Literate Traditions among Black Americans living in Poverty. American Psychologist44.367–373. 10.1037/0003‑066X.44.2.367
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.2.367 [Google Scholar]
  62. Hekking, Ewald & Dik Bakker
    2010 Tipología de los préstamos léxicos en el otomí queretano: una contribución para el estudio sistemático y comparativo de diversas lenguas representativas del mundo desde un enfoque interlingüístico. [email protected]3.27–47.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Hendricks, Alison Eisel, Karen Miller & Carrie N. Jackson
    2018 Regularizing Unpredictable Variation: Evidence from a Natural Language Setting. Language Learning and Development14:1.42–60. 10.1080/15475441.2017.1340842
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15475441.2017.1340842 [Google Scholar]
  64. Henrich, Joseph, Steven Heine & Ara Norenzayan
    2010 Most People are Not WEIRD. Nature466:7302.29. 10.1038/466029a
    https://doi.org/10.1038/466029a [Google Scholar]
  65. Hernández-Campoy, Juan M. & Camilo Conde-Silvestre
    2012 Introduction. The Handbook of Historical Linguisticsed. byJuan M. Hernández-Campoy & Camilo Conde-Silvestre, 1–8. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Hidalgo, Margarita
    2001 Sociolinguistic Stratification in New Spain. International Journal of the Sociology of Language149.55–78. 10.1515/ijsl.2001.023
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.2001.023 [Google Scholar]
  67. 2016Diversification of Mexican Spanish: A Tridimensional Study in New World Sociolinguistics. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9781501504532
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501504532 [Google Scholar]
  68. Hualde, José Ignacio
    2010 Neutralización de sibilantes vascas y seseo en castellano. Oihenart25:89–116.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Hudson Kam, Carla & Elissa L. Newport
    2005 Regularizing Unpredictable Variation: The Roles of Adult and Child Learners in Language Formation and Change. Language Learning and Development1(2).151–195. 10.1080/15475441.2005.9684215
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15475441.2005.9684215 [Google Scholar]
  70. 2009 Getting it Right by Getting it Wrong: When Learners Change Languages. Cognitive Psychology59:1.30–66. 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2009.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2009.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  71. Hudson Kam, Carla
    2015 The Impact of Conditioning Variables on the Acquisition of Variation in Adult and Child Learners. Language91:4.906–937. 10.1353/lan.2015.0051
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2015.0051 [Google Scholar]
  72. Johnson, Jacqueline & Elissa Newport
    1989 Critical Period Effects in Second Language Learning: The Influence of Maturational State on the Acquisition of English as a Second Language. Cognitive Psychology21.60–99. 10.1016/0010‑0285(89)90003‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(89)90003-0 [Google Scholar]
  73. Johnstone, Barbara
    2016 Enregisterment: How Linguistic Items Become Linked with Ways of Speaking. Language and Linguistics Compass10:11.632–643. 10.1111/lnc3.12210
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lnc3.12210 [Google Scholar]
  74. Karttunen, Frances & James Lockhart
    1976Nahuatl in the Middle Years: Language Contact Phenomena in Texts of the Colonial Period. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Kerswill, Paul & Ann Williams
    2000 Creating a New Town Koiné: Children and Language Change in Milton Keynes. Language in Society29:1.65–115. 10.1017/S0047404500001020
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500001020 [Google Scholar]
  76. 2005 New Towns and Koineization: Linguistic and Social Correlates. Linguistics43:5.1023–1048. 10.1515/ling.2005.43.5.1023
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2005.43.5.1023 [Google Scholar]
  77. Kerswill, Paul, Jenny Cheshire, Susan Fox & Eivind Torgersen
    2013 English as a Contact Language: The Role of Children and Adolescents. English as a Contact Language (Studies in English Language)ed. byDaniel Schreier & Marianne Hundt, 258–282. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511740060.015
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511740060.015 [Google Scholar]
  78. Kerswill, Paul
    1996 Children, Adolescents, and Language Change. Language Variation and Change8:2.177–202. 10.1017/S0954394500001137
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500001137 [Google Scholar]
  79. Kiparsky, Paul
    1968 Linguistic Universals and Language Change. Universals in Linguistic Theoryed. byEmmon Back & R. Harms, 170–202. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 2014 New Perspectives in Historical Linguistics. The Routledge Handbook of Historical Linguisticsed. byClaire Bowern, 64–102. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Kocab, Annemarie, Ann Senghas & Jesse Snedeker
    2016 The Emergence of Temporal Language in Nicaraguan Sign Language. Cognition156.147–163. 10.1016/j.cognition.2016.08.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2016.08.005 [Google Scholar]
  82. Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt
    1988 Immigrant Children’s Swedish – A New Variety?. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Language Development9:1–2.129–140. 10.1080/01434632.1988.9994324
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1988.9994324 [Google Scholar]
  83. Kroch, Anthony
    1989 Reflexes of Grammar in Patterns of Language Change. Language Variation and Change1.199–244. 10.1017/S0954394500000168
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000168 [Google Scholar]
  84. 2005 Modeling Language Change and Language Acquisition. InExpansion of an LSA Institute Forum Lecture. Online: https://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kroch/courses/lx650/650-19/lsa-forum.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Kroch, Anthony & Ann Taylor
    1997 Verb Movement in Old and Middle English: Dialect Variation and Language Contact. Parameters of Morphosyntactic Changeed. byAns Van Kemenade & Nigel Vincent, 297–325. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Labov, William
    1989 The Child as Linguistic Historian. Language Variation and Change1.85–97. 10.1017/S0954394500000120
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000120 [Google Scholar]
  87. 1994Principles of Linguistic Change. Volume 1: Internal Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 2001Principles of Linguistic Change. Volume 2: Social Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 2007 Transmission and Diffusion. Language83:2.344–387. 10.1353/lan.2007.0082
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0082 [Google Scholar]
  90. Ladefoged, Peter & Ian Maddieson
    1996The Sounds of the World’s Languages. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Lapesa, Rafael
    1981Ηistoria de la lengua española. Madrid: Gredos.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 1985 El andaluz y el español de América. Estudios de historia lingüística española, 267–282. Madrid: Paraninfo.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Larraza, Saioa, Arthur Samuel & Miren Lourdes Oñederra
    2017 Where do Dialectal Effects on Speech Processing Come From? Evidence from a Cross-Dialect Investigation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology70.92–108. 10.1080/17470218.2015.1124896
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2015.1124896 [Google Scholar]
  94. Larraza, Saioa
    2009 Acquisition of Phonology and Spanish-Basque Bilinguals’ Phonological Systems. Actes du colloque AcquisiLyon 09, Lyon, 3 et 4 décembre 2009. Online : ohll.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/Colloques/AcquisiLyon/pageweb/Fichier/Larraza.pdf (last accessed3 May 2017).
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Larsen-Freeman, Diane
    2007 Reflecting on the Cognitive-Social Debate in Second Language Acquisition. Modern Language Journal91.773–787. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2007.00668.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00668.x [Google Scholar]
  96. Leather, Jonathan & Jet van Dam
    2002 Towards an Ecology of Language Acquisition. Ecology of Language Acquisitioned. byJonathan Leather & Jet van Dam, 1–29. Dordrecht: Springer. 10.1007/978‑94‑017‑0341‑3_1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-0341-3_1 [Google Scholar]
  97. Li, Fangfang, Benjamin Munson, Jan Edwards, Kiyoko Yoneyama & Kathleen Hall
    2011 Language Specificity in the Perception of Voiceless Sibilant Fricatives in Japanese and English: Implications for Cross-Language Differences in Speech-Sound Development. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America129.999–1011. 10.1121/1.3518716
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3518716 [Google Scholar]
  98. Li, Fangfang
    2008 The Phonetic Development of Voiceless Sibilant Fricatives in English, Japanese and Mandarin Chinese. Unpublished PhD dissertation. The Ohio State University.
  99. Li, Xin Xin & Carol To
    2017 A Review of Phonological Development of Mandarin-Speaking Children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology26.1262–1278. 10.1044/2017_AJSLP‑16‑0061
    https://doi.org/10.1044/2017_AJSLP-16-0061 [Google Scholar]
  100. Lieven, Elena
    1994 Crosslinguistic and Crosscultural Aspects of Language Addressed to Children. Input and Interaction in Language Acquisitioned. byClaire Gallaway & Brian Richards, 56–73. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620690.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620690.005 [Google Scholar]
  101. Lightfoot, David
    1997 Catastrophic Change and Learning Theory. Lingua100:1–4.171–192. 10.1016/S0024‑3841(93)00030‑C
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3841(93)00030-C [Google Scholar]
  102. 1999The Development of Language: Acquisition, Change, and Evolution. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Lipski, John
    2005A History of Afro-Hispanic Language: Five Centuries, Five Continents. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511627811
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511627811 [Google Scholar]
  104. 2007 Afro-Yungueño Speech: The Long-Lost “Black Spanish”. Spanish in Context4.1–43. 10.1075/sic.4.1.02lip
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sic.4.1.02lip [Google Scholar]
  105. 2014 The Many Facets of Spanish Dialect Diversification in Latin America. Iberian Imperialism and Language Evolution in Latin Americaed. bySalikoko Mufwene, 38–75. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226125671.003.0002
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226125671.003.0002 [Google Scholar]
  106. Lloyd, Paul
    1993Del latín al español: I. Fonología y morfología históricas de la lengua española. Madrid: Gredos.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Łukaszewicz, Beata
    2007 Reduction in Syllable Onsets in the Acquisition of Polish: Deletion Coalescence, Metathesis, and Gemination. Journal of the Child Language34.52–82. 10.1017/S0305000906007707
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000906007707 [Google Scholar]
  108. 2019 Personal communication.
  109. Macleroy Obied, Vicky
    2009 How Do Siblings Shape the Language Environment in Bilingual Families?. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism12:6.705–720. 10.1080/13670050802699485
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050802699485 [Google Scholar]
  110. Maddieson, Ian
    1984Patterns of Sounds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511753459
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511753459 [Google Scholar]
  111. Marecka, Marta, Magdalena Wrembel, Agnieszka Otwinowska-Kasztelanic & Dariusz Zembrzuski
    2015 Phonological Development in the Home Language Among Early Polish-English Bilinguals. Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciencesed. bythe Scottish Consortium for ICPhS 2015. Glasgow: The University of Glasgow. Online: https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/icphs-proceedings/ICPhS2015/Papers/ICPHS0714.pdf (last accessed11 Jan.2016).
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Matsuda, Kenjiro
    1993 Dissecting Analogical Leveling Quantitatively: The Case of the Innovative Potential Suffix in Tokyo Japanese. Language Variation and Change5.1–34. 10.1017/S095439450000137X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S095439450000137X [Google Scholar]
  113. McGuire, Grant
    2007 English Listeners’ Perception of Polish Alveopalatal and Retroflex Voiceless Sibilants: A Pilot Study. UC Berkeley Phonology Lab Annual Report3.391–417. 10.5070/P79DM8C4RP
    https://doi.org/10.5070/P79DM8C4RP [Google Scholar]
  114. McLeod, Sharynne & Kathryn Crowe
    2018 Children’s Consonant Acquisition in 27 Languages: A Cross-Linguistic Review. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology27.1546–1571. 10.1044/2018_AJSLP‑17‑0100
    https://doi.org/10.1044/2018_AJSLP-17-0100 [Google Scholar]
  115. Mendoza-Denton, Norma
    2010 Individuals and Communities. The Sage Handbook of Sociolinguisticsed. byRuth Wodak, Barbara Johnstone & Paul Kerswill, 181–191. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Menéndez Pidal, Ramón
    1962 Sevilla frente a Madrid. Miscelánea Homenaje a André Martinet. Estructuralismo e historiaed. byDiego Catalán, 99–165. La Laguna: Universidad de La Laguna.
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Michelena, Luis
    1985Lengua e historia. Madrid: Paraninfo.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Miller, Karen & Cristina Schmitt
    2012 Variable Input and the Acquisition of Plural Morphology. Language Acquisition19:3.223–261. 10.1080/10489223.2012.685026
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10489223.2012.685026 [Google Scholar]
  119. Milroy, James
    1992Linguistic Variation and Change: On the Historical Sociolinguistics of English. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Milroy, Lesley & James Milroy
    1992 Social Network and Social Class: Towards an Integrated Sociolinguistic Model. Language in Society21:1.1–26. 10.1017/S0047404500015013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500015013 [Google Scholar]
  121. Mufwene, Salikoko
    2001The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511612862
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612862 [Google Scholar]
  122. 2008Language Evolution: Contact, Competition, and Change. London: Continuum. 10.5040/9781350934078
    https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350934078 [Google Scholar]
  123. Muxika-Loitzate, Oihane
    2017 Sibilant Merger in the Variety of Basque Spoken in Amorebieta-Etxano. Languages4.25–44. 10.3390/languages2040025
    https://doi.org/10.3390/languages2040025 [Google Scholar]
  124. Nardy, Aurélie
    2008 Acquisition des variables sociolinguistiques entre 2 et 6 ans: Facteurs sociologiques et influences des interactions au sein du réseau social. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Grenoble: Université Stendhal.
  125. Nardy, Aurélie, Jean-Pierre Chevrot & Stéphanie Barbu
    2013 The Acquisition of Sociolinguistic Variation: Looking Back and Thinking Ahead. Linguistics51:2.255–284. 10.1515/ling‑2013‑0011
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling-2013-0011 [Google Scholar]
  126. Nardy, Aurelie, Jean-Pierre Chevrot & Stéphanie Barbu
    2014 Sociolinguistic Convergence and Social Interactions within a Group of Preschoolers: A Longitudinal Study. Language Variation and Change28:3.273–301. 10.1017/S0954394514000131
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394514000131 [Google Scholar]
  127. Nevalainen, Terttu
    1999 Making the Best Use of ‘Bad’ Data: Evidence for Sociolinguistic Variation in Early Modern English. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen100.499–533.
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Nicoladis, Elena & Simona Montanari
    (eds.) 2016Bilingualism Across the Lifespan: Factors Moderating Language Proficiency. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110341249
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110341249 [Google Scholar]
  129. Nittrouer, Susan & D. H. Whalen
    1989 The Perceptual Effects of Child-Adult Differences in Fricative-Vowel Coarticulation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America86.1266–1276. 10.1121/1.398741
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.398741 [Google Scholar]
  130. O’Shannessy, Carmel
    2013 The Role of Multiple Sources in the Formation of an Innovative Auxiliary Category in Light Warlpiri, a New Australian Mixed Language. Language89:2.328–353. 10.1353/lan.2013.0025
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2013.0025 [Google Scholar]
  131. 2019 Why Do Children Lead Contact-Induced Language Change in Some Contexts but Not Others?Language Contact, Continuity and Change in the Genesis of Modern Hebrewed. byEdit Doron, Malka Rappaport Hovav, Yael Reshef & Moshe Taube, 321–335. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/la.256.12osh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.256.12osh [Google Scholar]
  132. Parodi, Claudia
    1995Orígenes del español americano. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    [Google Scholar]
  133. 2001 ‘Contacto de dialectos y lenguas en el Nuevo Mundo: La vernacularización del español de América.’ International Journal of the Sociology of Language149.33–53. 10.1515/ijsl.2001.022
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.2001.022 [Google Scholar]
  134. Penny, Ralph
    2002A History of the Spanish Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511992827
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511992827 [Google Scholar]
  135. 2004 ‘Evolución lingüística en la Baja Edad Media: Evoluciones en el plano fonético’. Historia de la Lengua Españolaed. byRafael Cano Aguilar, 825–857. Barcelona: Ariel.
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Perfors, Amy Francesca
    2012 Probability Matching vs. Over-Regularization in Language: Participant Behavior Depends on their Interpretation of the Task. Building Bridges Across Cognitive Sciences Around the World: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Sapporo, Japan, 1–4Aug. 2012, ed. byNaomi Miyake, David Peebles & Richard P. Cooper, 845–850. Red Hook, NY: Curran.
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Pirvulescu, Mihael, Ana-Teresa Pérez-Leroux, Yves Roberge, Nelleke Strik & Danielle Thomas
    2014 Bilingual Effects: Exploring Object Omission in Pronominal Languages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition17:3.495–510. 10.1017/S1366728913000631
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728913000631 [Google Scholar]
  138. Plans, Antonio Salvador
    2004 Los lenguajes “especiales” y de las minorías en el Siglo de Oro. Historia de la lengua españolaed. byRafael Cano-Aguilar, 771–798. Barcelona: Ariel.
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Potowski, Kim & Janine Matts
    2008 MexiRicans: Interethnic Language and Identity. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education7:2.137–160. 10.1080/15348450801970688
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15348450801970688 [Google Scholar]
  140. Potowski, Kim
    2008 I Was Raised Talking Like My Mom: The Influence of Mothers in the Development of MexiRicans’ Phonological and Lexical Features. Bilingualism and Identity: Spanish at the Crossroads with Other Languagesed. byMercedes Niño-Murcia & Jason Rothman, 201–220. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.37.14pot
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.37.14pot [Google Scholar]
  141. Quinn, Gary
    2010 Schoolization: An Account of the Origins of Regional Variation in British Sign Language. Sign Language Studies10:4.476–501. 10.1353/sls.0.0056
    https://doi.org/10.1353/sls.0.0056 [Google Scholar]
  142. Rickford, John & Mackenzie Price
    2013 Girlz II Women: Age-Grading, Language Change and Stylistic Variation. Journal of Sociolinguistics17:2.143–179. 10.1111/josl.12017
    https://doi.org/10.1111/josl.12017 [Google Scholar]
  143. Roberts, Julie & William Labov
    1995 Learning to Talk Philadelphian: Acquisition of Short a by Preschool Children. Language Variation and Change7:1.101–112. 10.1017/S0954394500000910
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000910 [Google Scholar]
  144. Roberts, Julie
    2002 Chapter 12. Child Language Variation. The Handbook of Language Variation and Changeed. ByJ. K. Chambers & Natalie Schilling, 333–348. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Romaine, Suzanne
    1982Socio-Historical Linguistics: Its Status and Methodology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511720130
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511720130 [Google Scholar]
  146. Rowland, Caroline
    2014Understanding Child Language Acquisition. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Sánchez-Albornoz, Nicolás
    1989 Las migraciones anteriores al siglo XIX. Europa, Asia y África en América Latina y el Caribe: Migraciones ‘libres’ en los siglos XIX y XXed. byBirgitta Leander, 61–88. Mexico City: UNESCO/Siglo Veintiuno Editores.
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Sánchez Méndez, Juan
    2003Historia de la lengua española en América. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch.
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Sankoff, Gillian & Hélène Blondeau
    2007 Language Change Across the Lifespan: /r/ in Montreal French. Language83:3.560–588. 10.1353/lan.2007.0106
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0106 [Google Scholar]
  150. Sankoff, Gillian
    2018 Language Change Across the Lifespan. Annual Review of Linguistics4.297–316. 10.1146/annurev‑linguistics‑011817‑045438
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-011817-045438 [Google Scholar]
  151. Sanz-Sánchez, Israel & Fernando Tejedo-Herrero
    2021 Adult Language and Dialect Learning as Simultaneous Environmental Triggers for Language Change. Spanish Socio-Historical Linguistics: Isolation and Contacted. byWhitney Chappell & Bridget Drinka, 104–137. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/ahs.12.c05san
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ahs.12.c05san [Google Scholar]
  152. Sanz-Sánchez, Israel
    2011 Analogical Imperfects and the Fate of Iberian Verbal Morphology in Latin American Spanish. Southwest Journal of Linguistics30:2.55–99.
    [Google Scholar]
  153. 2013 Dialect Contact as the Cause for Dialect Change: Evidence from a Phonemic Merger in Colonial New Mexico Spanish. Diachronica30:1.61–94. 10.1075/dia.30.1.03san
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.30.1.03san [Google Scholar]
  154. 2019 Documenting Feature Pools in Language Expansion Situations: Sibilants in Early Colonial Latin American Spanish. Transactions of the Philological Society117.199–233. 10.1111/1467‑968X.12154
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-968X.12154 [Google Scholar]
  155. 2021 A Tale of Two Mergers: Sociohistorical Agencies Across the Lifespan in Language Change. Paper presented at theAnnual Meeting of the Historical Sociolinguistics Network, 17 Mar. 2021, Friedrich–Alexander University Erlangen.
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Schieffelin, Bambi
    1990The Give and Take of Everyday Life: Language Socialization of Kaluli Children. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Schilling-Estes, Natalie
    2002 On the Nature of Isolated and Post-Isolated Dialects: Innovation, Variation and Differentiation. Journal of Sociolinguistics6:1.64–85. 10.1111/1467‑9481.00177
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00177 [Google Scholar]
  158. Schreier, Daniel
    2009 Language in Isolation, and Its Implications for Variation and Change. Language and Linguistics Compass3:2.682–699. 10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2009.00130.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2009.00130.x [Google Scholar]
  159. 2016 Super-Leveling, Fraying-Out, Internal Restructuring: A Century of Present be Concord in Tristan da Cunha English. Language Variation and Change28.203–224. 10.1017/S0954394516000053
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394516000053 [Google Scholar]
  160. Schuler, Kathryn D., Charles Yang & Elissa L. Newport
    2016 Testing the Tolerance Principle: Children Form Productive Rules When it is More Computationally Efficient to Do So. CogSci38.2321–2326.
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Schwaller, Robert
    2016Géneros de Gente in Early Colonial Mexico: Defining Racial Difference. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Senghas, Ann, Marie Coppola, Elissa L. Newport & Ted Supalla
    1997 Argument Structure in Nicaraguan Sign Language: The Emergence of Grammatical Devices. Proceedings of the 21st Boston University Conference on Language Developmented. byElizabeth Hughes, Mary Hughes & Annabel Greenhill, 550–561. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Senghas, Ann & Marie Coppola
    2001 Children Creating Language: How Nicaraguan Sign Language Acquired a Spatial Grammar. Psychological Science12:4.323–328. 10.1111/1467‑9280.00359
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00359 [Google Scholar]
  164. Sharma, Devyani & Lavanya Sankaran
    2011 Cognitive and Social Forces in Dialect Shift: Gradual Change in London Asian Speech. Language Variation and Change, 23.399–428. 10.1017/S0954394511000159
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394511000159 [Google Scholar]
  165. Shih, Ya-Ting
    2012 Taiwanese-Guoyu Bilingual Children and Adults’ Sibilant Fricative Production Patterns. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. The Ohio State University.
  166. Shin, Naomi
    2016 Acquiring Constraints on Morphosyntactic Variation: Children’s Spanish Subject Pronoun Expression. Journal of Child Language43:4.914–947. 10.1017/S0305000915000380
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000915000380 [Google Scholar]
  167. Shih, Ya-Ting & Eunjong Kong
    2011 Perception of Mandarin Fricatives by Native Speakers of Taiwan Mandarin and Taiwanese. Proceedings of the 23rd North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-23)ed. byZhuo Jing-Schmidt, 110–119. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Shoemaker, Ellenor
    2015 The Development of Perceptual Sensitivity to Polish Sibilants at First Exposure. Proceedings of AMP 2014ed. byAdam Albright & Michelle Fullwood. Online: journals.linguisticsociety.org/proceedings/index.php/amphonology/article/view/3770 (last accessed1 Nov. 2017).
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Silva-Corvalán, Carmen
    1994Language Contact and Change: Spanish in Los Angeles. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Simpson, Jane
    2008 Language Landscapes of Children in Remote Australia. Warra Wiltaniappendi: Strengthening Languages: Proceedings of the Inaugural Indigenous Languages Conference (ILC), 24–27ed. byRob Amery & Joshua Nash, 51–60. Adelaide: University of Adelaide.
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Singleton, Jenny & Elissa Newport
    2004 When Learners Surpass Their Models: The Acquisition of American Sign Language from Inconsistent Input. Cognitive Psychology49:2.370–407. 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2004.05.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2004.05.001 [Google Scholar]
  172. Smit, Ann, Linda Hand, Joseph Frieilinger, John Bernthal & Ann Bird
    1990 The Iowa Articulation Norms Project and Its Nebraska Replication. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders55:29–36. 10.1044/jshd.5504.779
    https://doi.org/10.1044/jshd.5504.779 [Google Scholar]
  173. Smith, Jennifer, Mercedes Durham & Liane Fortune
    2007 “Mam, Ma Troosers is Fa’in Doon!” Community, Caregiver, and Child in the Acquisition of Variation in Scottish Dialect. Language Variation and Change19.63–99. 10.1017/S0954394507070044
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394507070044 [Google Scholar]
  174. Smith, Jennifer, Mercedes Durham & Hazel Richards
    2013 The Social and Linguistic in the Acquisition of Sociolinguistic Norms: Caregivers, Children, and Variation. Linguistics51:2.285–324. 10.1515/ling‑2013‑0012
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling-2013-0012 [Google Scholar]
  175. Sneller, Betsy & Elissa Newport
    2020 Age Effects in the Acquisition of Phonological Variation. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society – Developing a Mind: Learning in Humans, Animals, and Machines, CogSci 2020ed. byStephanie Denison, Michael Mack, Yang Xu & Blair Armstrong. Online: https://dblp.org/db/conf/cogsci/cogsci2020.html#SnellerN20 (last accessed20 May 2021).
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Stanford, James
    2015 Language Acquisition and Language Change. The Routledge Handbook of Historical Linguisticsed. byClaire Bowern & Bethwyn Evans, 466–483. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Tagliamonte, Sali
    2006Analysing Sociolinguistic Variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511801624
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511801624 [Google Scholar]
  178. Tagliamonte, Sali & Alexandra D’Αrcy
    2007 Frequency and Variation in the Community Grammar: Tracking a New Change Through the Generations. Language Variation and Change19.199–217. 10.1017/S095439450707007X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S095439450707007X [Google Scholar]
  179. Tagliamonte, Sali & Alexandra D’Arcy
    2009 Peaks Beyond Phonology: Adolescence, Incrementation, and Language Change. Language85:1.58–108. 10.1353/lan.0.0084
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.0.0084 [Google Scholar]
  180. Thomas, Erik
    1997 A Rural/Metropolitan Split in the Speech of Texas Anglos. Language Variation and Change9:3.309–332. 10.1017/S0954394500001940
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500001940 [Google Scholar]
  181. Thomason, Sarah G.
    2001Language Contact. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Tomasello, Michael
    2003Constructing a Language: A Usage-Based Theory of Language Acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  183. 2015 The Usage-Based Theory of Language Acquisition. The Cambridge Handbook of Child Languageed. byEdith Bavin & Letitia Naigles, 89–106. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781316095829.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316095829.005 [Google Scholar]
  184. Trask, Robert
    1997The History of Basque. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Trudgill, Peter
    1986Dialects in Contact. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  186. 2004New-Dialect Formation: The Inevitability of Colonial Englishes. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  187. 2008 Colonial Dialect Contact in the History of European Languages: On the Irrelevance of Identity in New-Dialect Formation. Language in Society37:2.241–254. 10.1017/S0047404508080287
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404508080287 [Google Scholar]
  188. 2011Sociolinguistic Typology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Trudgill, Peter & J. K. Chambers
    1998Dialectology. 2nd ed.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Tuten, Donald
    2003Koineization in Medieval Spanish. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110901269
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110901269 [Google Scholar]
  191. Tuten, Donald & Fernando Tejedo-Herrero
    2011 The Relationship Between Historical Linguistics and Sociolinguistics. The Handbook of Hispanic Sociolinguisticsed. byManuel Díaz-Campos, 283–302. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781444393446.ch14
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444393446.ch14 [Google Scholar]
  192. Weerman, Fred
    1993 The Diachronic Consequences of First and Second Language Acquisition: The Change from OV to VO. Linguistics31:5.903–931. 10.1515/ling.1993.31.5.903
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1993.31.5.903 [Google Scholar]
  193. Weinreich, Uriel, William Labov & Marvin Herzog
    1968Empirical Foundations for a Theory of Language Change. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  194. Yang, Charles D.
    2002Knowledge and Learning in Natural Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Yasuda, Akiko
    1970 Articulatory Skills in Three-Year-Old Children. Studies in Phonology5.52–71.
    [Google Scholar]
  196. Youssef, Valerie
    1991 Variation as a Feature of Language Acquisition in the Trinidad Context. Language Variation and Change3:1.75–101. 10.1017/S0954394500000454
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000454 [Google Scholar]
  197. Zygis, Marzena
    2003 Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives. ZAS Papers in Linguistics32.175–212. 10.21248/zaspil.32.2003.191
    https://doi.org/10.21248/zaspil.32.2003.191 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jhl.21033.san
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jhl.21033.san
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error