image of Different functions of ‘rā’ in New Persian
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Persian has a polyfunctional case marker, ‘’, which diachronically varies greatly in the range of functions it covers. In this paper, we give an account of different case functions of ‘’, in New Persian, an era from the 8th century (C.E.) to present. To analyze the functionality of ‘’ in different texts, we selected 78 books from the New and Contemporary Persian eras and studied one thousand tokens of ‘’ from each century. The data show that ‘’ has been a polyfunctional case marker in New Persian, marking about 13 different case roles. Its main role was to mark direct objects, and gradually it has become its sole function in Contemporary Persian. However, during the time span, some of the ‘’-marked roles remained constant and some of them replaced ‘’ with other adpositions. We follow a historical semantic map approach as a typological grid to examine our data. The findings show that has shifted from animate to inanimate concepts gradually. While in the 12th century about 750 out of 1000 (about 75%) roles marked with were animate, it has decreased to about 400 out of 1000 (about 42%) in the 19th century and less than 30% in the 20th century. Our data show that has not gone further to mark inanimate relations, and it has gone toward core case roles, specifically direct object.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Anderson, Lloyd B.
    1982 The ‘Perfect’ as a Universal and as a Language-Particular Category. Tense-Aspect: Between Semantics & Pragmaticsed. byPaul J. Hopper, –. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.1.16and
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.1.16and [Google Scholar]
  2. 1986 Evidentials, Paths of Change, and Mental Maps: Typologically Regular Asymmetries. Evidentiality: The Linguistic Encoding of Epistemologyed. byWallace Chafe & Johanna Nichols, –. Norwood: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Auwera, Johan van der & Vladimir, Plungian A.
    1998 Modality’s Semantic Map. Linguistic Typology:.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bossong, Georg
    1985Differentielle Objektmarkierung in den neuiranischen Sprachen. Tübingen: Günter Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Croft, William
    1991Syntactic Categories and Grammatical Relations. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 2001Radical Construction Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299554.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299554.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  7. 2003Typology and Universals. 2nd ed.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Croft, William & Keith T. Poole
    2008 Inferring Universals from Grammatical Variation: Multidimensional Scaling for Typological Analysis. Theoretical Linguistics:.–. 10.1515/THLI.2008.001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2008.001 [Google Scholar]
  9. Cysouw, Michael
    2007 Building Semantic Maps: The Case of Person Marking. New Challenges in Typologyed. byMatti Miestamo & Bernhard Wälchli, –. Berlin: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dabir-Moghaddam, Mohammad
    1992 On the (In)dependence of Syntax and Pragmatics: Evidence from the Postposition ‘rā’ in Persian”. Cooperating with Written Texts: The Pragmatic and Comprehension of Written Textsed. byDieter Stein, –. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110881196.549
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110881196.549 [Google Scholar]
  11. Georgakopoulos, Thanasis & Stephane Polis
    2018 The Semantic Map Model: State of the Art and Future Avenues for Linguistic Research. Language and Linguistics Compass:.–. 10.1111/lnc3.12270
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lnc3.12270 [Google Scholar]
  12. Haig, Geoffrey
    2018 Grammaticalization and Inflectionalization in Iranian. Grammaticalization from a Typological Perspectiveed. byHeiko Narrog & Bernd Heine, –. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780198795841.003.0004
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198795841.003.0004 [Google Scholar]
  13. Haig, Geoffrey & Mohammad Rasekh-Mahand
    2022 HamBam: The Hamedan-Bamberg Corpus of Contemporary Spoken Persian. Online: multicast.aspra.uni-bamberg.de/resources/hambam/
  14. Haspelmath, Martin
    1997Indefinite Pronouns. Oxford: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 2003 The Geometry of Grammatical Meaning: Semantic Maps and Cross-Linguistic Comparison. The New Psychology of Language, Vol. 2ed. byMichael Tomasello, –. New York: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Heine, Bernd
    2009 Grammaticalization of Cases. The Oxford Handbook of Caseed. byAndrej L. Malchukov & Andrew Spencer, –. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Heine, Bernd, Ulrike Claudi & Friederike Hünnemeyer
    1991Grammaticalization. A Conceptual Framework. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hopper, Paul J. & Elizabeth C. Traugott
    2003Grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139165525
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165525 [Google Scholar]
  19. Jügel, Thomas
    2015Die Entwicklung der Ergativkonstruktion im Alt- und Mitteliranischen. Eine korpusbasierte Untersuchung zu Kasus, Kongruenz und Satzbau. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 10.2307/j.ctvc770qq
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvc770qq [Google Scholar]
  20. 2019 The Development of the Object Marker in Middle Persian. Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference of Iranian Studies − Held on 14–15 September 2015 at the State Hermitage Museum and Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. Vol I: Studies on Pre-Islamic Iran and Historical Linguisticsed. byPavel B. Lurje, –. St. Petersburg: State Hermitage Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Karimi, Simin
    1989 Aspects of Persian Syntax: Specificity and the Theory of Grammar. Doctoral Thesis, University of Washington.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kemmer, Suzanne
    1993The Middle Voice. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/tsl.23
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.23 [Google Scholar]
  23. Kittilä, Seppo & Andrej Malchukov
    2009 Varieties of Accusative. The Oxford Handbook of Caseed. byAndrej Malchukov & Andrew Spencer, –. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lambert, Silke
    2010 Beyond Recipients: Towards a Typology of Dative Uses. Doctoral Thesis, the University at Buffalo, State University of New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lazard, Gilbert
    1957Grammaire du persan contemporain. Translated into Persian byMahasti Bahreini (2018) Tehran: Hermes Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 1963La langue des plus anciens monuments de la prose persane. Paris: Klincksieck.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 1970 Etude quantitative de l’évolution d’un morphème: la postposition ra en persan. Mélanges MARCEL Cohened. byDavid Cohen, –. The Hauge: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110878936‑048
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110878936-048 [Google Scholar]
  28. Lehmann, Christian
    1982 [1995]Thoughts on Grammaticalization: A Programmatic Sketch, Vol.1. Köln: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft. (Reprinted byLINCOM Europa, München 1995).
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Luraghi, Silvia
    2001 Syncretism and the Classification of Semantic Roles. STUF -Language Typology and Universals:.–. 10.1524/stuf.2001.54.1.35
    https://doi.org/10.1524/stuf.2001.54.1.35 [Google Scholar]
  30. 2014 Plotting Diachronic Semantic Maps: The Role of Metaphor. Perspectives on Semantic Rolesed. bySilvia Luraghi & Heiko Narrog, –. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.106.04lur
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.106.04lur [Google Scholar]
  31. 2016 The Dative of Agent in Indo-European Languages. STUF -Language Typology and Universals:.–. 10.1515/stuf‑2016‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/stuf-2016-0002 [Google Scholar]
  32. Malchukov, Andrej & Heiko Narrog
    2009 Case Polysemy. The Oxford Handbook of Case, ed. byAndrej Malchukov & Andrew Spencer, –. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Mohammadirad, Masoud
    2020 Predicative Possession in Western Iranian Languages. Folia Linguistica:.–. 10.1515/flin‑2020‑2038
    https://doi.org/10.1515/flin-2020-2038 [Google Scholar]
  34. Mohammadirad, Masoud & Mohammad Rasekh-Mahand
    2017 Instrumental Semantic Map in Western Iranian Languages. STUF-Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung:.–. 10.1515/stuf‑2017‑0025
    https://doi.org/10.1515/stuf-2017-0025 [Google Scholar]
  35. 2018 Functions of the Dative: An Iranian Perspective. STUF-Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung:.–. 10.1515/stuf‑2018‑0021
    https://doi.org/10.1515/stuf-2018-0021 [Google Scholar]
  36. Næss, Ǻshild
    2009 Varieties of Dative. The Oxford Handbook of Caseed. byAndrej Malchukov & Andrew Spencer, –. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Naghzguy-Kohan, Mehrdad & Tania Kuteva
    2016 On Competition and Blocking in Inflectional Morphology: Evidence from the Domain of Number in Persian. Folia Linguistica:.–. 10.1515/flin‑2016‑0003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/flin-2016-0003 [Google Scholar]
  38. Najafi, Abolhasan
    1999Farhange Fārsiye Āmiāne. Tehran: Niloofar.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Narrog, Heiko
    2009Modality in Japanese: The Layered Structure of the Clause and Hierarchies of Functional Categories. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.109
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.109 [Google Scholar]
  40. 2010 A Diachronic Dimension in Maps of Case Functions. Linguistic Discovery:.–. 10.1349/PS1.1537‑0852.A.352
    https://doi.org/10.1349/PS1.1537-0852.A.352 [Google Scholar]
  41. 2014 The Grammaticalization Chain of Case Functions: Extension and Reanalysis of Case Marking vs. Universals of Grammaticalization. Perspectives on Semantic Rolesed. bySilvia Luraghi & Heiko Narrog, –. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.106.03nar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.106.03nar [Google Scholar]
  42. Narrog, Heiko & Shinya Ito
    2007 Reconstructing Semantic Maps: The Comitative-Instrumental Area. STUF: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung:.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Narrog, Heiko & Johan van der Auwera
    2011 Grammaticalization and Semantic Maps. The Oxford Handbook of Grammaticalizationed. byHeiko Narrog & Bernd Heine, –. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199586783.013.0025
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199586783.013.0025 [Google Scholar]
  44. Paul, Ludwig
    2008 Some Remarks on Persian Suffix -râ as a General and Historical Issue. Aspects of Iranian Linguistics, ed. bySimin Karimi, Vida Samiian & Donald Stilo, –. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 2018 Persian. The Language and Linguistics of Western Asia: An Areal Perspective, ed. byGeoffrey Haig & Geoffrey Khan, –. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110421682‑017
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110421682-017 [Google Scholar]
  46. Rice, Sally & Kaori Kataba
    2007 Crosslinguistic Grammaticalization Patterns of Allative. Linguistic Typology:.–. 10.1515/LINGTY.2007.031
    https://doi.org/10.1515/LINGTY.2007.031 [Google Scholar]
  47. Samvelian, Pollet
    2018 Specific Features of Persian Syntax: The Ezafe Construction, Differential Object Marking, and Complex Predicates. The Oxford Handbook of Persian Linguisticsed.Anushe Sedighi & Pune Shabani-Jadidi, –. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Stilo, Donald
    2009 Case in Iranian: From Reduction and Loss to Innovation and Renewal. The Oxford Handbook of Case, ed. byAndrej Malchukov & Andrew Spencer, –. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Windfuhr, Gernot & John R. Perry
    2009 Persian and Tajik. The Iranian languagesed. byGernot Windfuhr, –. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Bal’ami, Abu Mohammad Ebne Mohammad Ebn
    2020/1399Tārikhe Bal’amied. byMohammad Taghi Bahār. Tehran: Zavvār.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Tabari, Mohammad Ebne Jarir
    2011/1390Tafsire Tabaried. byHabib Yaghmai. Tehran: Asātir.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Hakim Samarghandi, Abolghāsem
    1969/1348AssavādolA’azamed. byAbdolhay Habibi. Dāvarpanāh: Tehrān.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Ansāri, Abdollah Ebne Mohammad
    1983/1362Tabaghāte Sufiyyeed. byMohammad Sarvar Molāi. Tehran: Tus.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 2003/1382Monājāt Nāmehed. byMohammad Hamāsiān. Kerman: Khadamāte Farhangie Kermān.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Gardizi, Abdolhay Ebne Zahhāk
    1984/1363Zaynolakhbāred. byAbdolhay Habibi. Tehran: Donyāye Ketāb.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Ghazāli, Mohammad Ebne Mohammad
    2004/1383Kimiyāye Sa’ādated. byHossein Khadiv Jam. Tehran: Elmi va Farhangi.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Ghobādiyānie Maruzi, Nasser Khosro
    2019/1398Safarnāmeh Nāsser Khosroed. byMohammad Dabir Siyāghi. Tehran: Zavvār.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Hojviri, Ali Ebne Osmān
    1996/1375Kašfolmahjubed. byValentin Alekseevich Zhukovski. Tehran: Tahuri.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Kalabāzari, Abubakr Mohammad Ebne Ebrāhim
    1984/1363Šarh Alta’arof Lemazhab Altassavofed. byMohammad Roshan. Tehran: Asātir.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Nezāmolmolk, Hossein Ebne Ali
    2015/1394Siyāsat Nāmehed. byAbbās Eghbāl. Tehran: Asātir.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Onsorolma’āli, Keykāvus Ebne Eskandar
    2004/1383Ghābus Nāmehed. byGholāmHossein Yusefi. Tehran: Elmi va Farhangi.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Unknown Author 2019/1398Tārikhe Sistāned. byMohammad Taghi Bahār. Tehran: Asātir.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Arjāni, Farāmarz Ebne Khodādād Ebne Abdollah Alkāteb
    2013/1392Samak Ayyāred. byAli Šaheri. Tehran: Sedāye Mo’āser.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Attār, Mohammad Ebne Ebrāhim
    2016/1395Tazkeratololiyāed. byMohammad Este’lāmi. Tehran: Zavvār.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Beyhaghi, Ali Ebne Zeyd
    1982/1361Tārikhe Beyhaghed. byAhmad Bahmanyār. Tehran: Forughi.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Ebne Balkhi, Ahmad
    1983/1362Fārsnāmeye Ebne Balkhied. byGuy le Strange & Reynold Alleyne Nicholson. Tehran: Donyāye Ketāb.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Mihani, Mohammad Ebne Monavvar
    2005/1386Asrārotohided. byMohammad Rezā Šafiei Kadkani. Tehran: Āgah.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Naršakhi, Mohammad Ebne Ja’far
    2009/1387Tārikhe Bokhārāed. byModares Razavi. Tehran: Tus.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Rāzi, Hossein Ebne Ali Abolfotuhe
    1992/1371Rozoljanān va ruholjanān fi TafsirelQorāned. byYāhaghi, Mohammad Ja’far & Nāseh Mohamad Mehdi. Mashhad: Bonyāde Pazhuhešhāye Eslāmi.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Sohrevardi, Yahyebne Habaš
    2015/1394Āvāze Pare Jebreiled. byHossein Mofid. Tehran: Molā.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Tamimi Sabzevāri, Ali Ebne Mohammad Ebne Ali Ebne Abdossamad
    2004/1383Zakhiratolakherated. byMohammad Emādi Hāeri. Tehran: Anjomane Āsar va Mafākhere Farhangi.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Unknown Author
    Unknown Author 2010/1389Mojmalotavārikh va Alghasased. byMohammad Taghi Bahār. Tehran: Donyāye Ketāb.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Esfandiyār, Mohammad Ebne Hassan Ebne
    1987/1366Tārikhe Tabarestāned. byAbbās Eghbāl. Tehran: Kolāleye Khāvar.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Ghazāli, Mohammad Ebne Mohammad
    2011/1390Ehyāololumed. byHossein Khadiv Jam. Tehran: Elmi va Farhangi.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Molavi, Jalāleddin Mohammad Ebne Mohammad
    2007/1386Fihe Mā Fihed. byBadiozamān Foruzānfar. Tehran: Negāh.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Najme Rāzi, Abdollāh Ebne Mohammad
    2013/1392Mersādolebāded. byMohammad Amin Riyāhi. Tehran: Elmi va Farhangi.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Razi, Šamseddin Mohammad Ebne Gheys
    1957/1336Almo’jam Fi Ma’āire Aš’ārelajamed. byMohammad Taghi Modares Razavi. Tehran: Tehran University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Varāvini, Sa’deddin
    1997/1376Marzbān Nāmehed. byMohammad Rošan. Tehran: Asātir.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Ebne Sanjar, Hendu Šāh
    1978/1357Tajārebosalaf Dar Tavārikh Kholafā va Vozarāye Išāned. byAbbās Eghbl. Tehran: Tahuri.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Mostofi Ghazvini, Hamdollah
    2010/1389Nozhatolgholubed. byGuy le Strange. Tehran: Asātir.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Nakhšabi, Ziyāoddin
    1993/1372Tuti Nāmehed. byFajhollāh Mojtabāi & GholāmAli Āriyā. Tehran: Manočehri.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Jāmi, Abdollah Ebne Ahmad
    2000/1379Bahārestāne va Rasāele Jāmied. byA’lāKhān Afsahzād. Tehran: Mirāse Maktub.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Kāšefi, Hossein Ebne Ali
    2009/1388Anvāre Soheylied. byMohammad Rošan. Tehran: Sedāye Moāser.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Mar’aši, Zahiroddin Ebne Nasiroddin
    1982/1361Tārikhe Tabarestān va Ruyān va Māzandarāned. byMohammad Javād Maškur & Mohammad Hossein Tasbihi. Tehran: Mo’aseseye Matbu’ātie Šargh.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Samarghandi, Kamāloddin Abdolrazāgh
    1993/1372Matla’e Sa’deyn va Majma’e Bahreyned. byAbdolhossein Navāi. Tehran: Mo’aseseye Motāleāt va Tahghighāte Farhangi.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Hakim, Manočehrkhan
    2005/1384Eskandar Nāmehed. byHossein Esmāili. Tehran: Mirāse Maktub.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Romlu, Hassan
    2005/1384Ahssanotavārikhed. byAbdolhossein Navāi. Tehran: Asātir.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Safavi, Sām Mirzā
    1925/1314Tohfeye Sāmied. byHassan Vahid Dastgerdi. Tehran: Armaghān.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Vāsefi, Mahmud Ebne Abdoljalil
    1970/1349Badāyeolvaghāyeed. byAlexander Beldrov. Tehran: Bonyāde Farhange Irān.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Badlisi, Šarafoddin Ebne Šamsoddin
    1998/1377Šaraf Nāmehed. byVelademir V. Veliaminov Zernov. Tehran: Asātir.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Fumani, Abdolfattāh
    1895/1274Tārix Gilāned. byMohammad Ja’fari Āheri. Petersburg: Imperial Academia.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Torkamān, Eskandar Beyk
    2003/1382Ālam Ārāye Abāsied. byIraj Afšār. Tehran: Amir Kabir.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Astarābādi, Mohammad Mehdi
    . Tarix Jahāngošāye Nāderi ed. by Mitrā Mehrābādi. Tehran: Donyāye Ketāb.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Astarābādi, Mehdi
    . Dorreye Nādere ed. by Ja’far Šahidi. Tehran: Elmi va Farhangi.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Vahid Ghazvini, Mohammad Tāher
    1950/1329Abbās Nāmehed. byEbrāhim Dahgān. Arāk: Dāvudi.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Fasāi, Hassan Ebne Hassan
    2003/1382Fārsnāmeye Nāseried. byHassan Hosseini Fasāi & Mansur Rastegār Fasāi. Tehran: Amir Kabir.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Širvāni, Hāj Mirzā Zeynolābedin
    2010/1389Bostānosiyāhehed. byManije Mahmudi. Tehran: Haghighat.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Tasuji Tabrizi, Abdolatif
    2008/1387Hezāro Yek Šab. Tehran: Donyāye Ketāb.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Āl Ahmad, Jalāl
    2019/1398Modire Madrese. Tehran: Majid.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Alavi, Bozorg
    1978/1357Sālārihā. Tehran: Amir kabir.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. 2020/1399Čamedān. Tehran: Negāh.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Behrangi, Samad
    2021/1400Olduz va Kalāghhā. Tehran: Givā.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Čubak, Sādegh
    1976/1355Sange Sabur. Tehran: Javidān.
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Dehkhodā, Ali Akbar
    2016/1395Čarando Parand. Tehran: Nilufar. 10.12987/yale/9780300197990.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.12987/yale/9780300197990.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  105. Dolatābādi, Mahmud
    1988/1367Āhuye bakhte man Guzal. Tehran: Češme.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 1993/1372Rozegāre separi šodeye mardome sālkhorde. Tehran: Češme.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Golshiri, Houshang
    1978/1357Šāzde Ehtejāb. Tehran: Ghoghnus.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Hedāyat, Sādegh
    1942/1321Sage Velgard. Tehran: Amir kabir.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 1962/1341Parvin Dokhtare Sāsān. Tehran: Amir kabir.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Jamālzāde, Mohammad Ali
    1690/1339Rāh Āb Nāme. Tehran: Ma’refat.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. 2020/1399Saro Tah Ye Karbās. Tehran: Elm.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Kāzemie, Eslām
    1976/1355Ghesehāye Šahre Khošbakhti. Tehran: Roz.
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Mahmud, Ahmad
    1978/1357Hamsāyehā. Tehran: Amir kabir.
    [Google Scholar]
  114. 2018/1397Madāre Sefr Daraje. Tehran: Mo’in.
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Marāghei, Zeynolābedin
    2006/1385Siyāhat Nāmeye Ebrāhim Beyged. byMohammad Ali Sepānlu. Tehran: Āgah.
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Nāzerzāde Kermāni, Ahmad
    1958/1337Širzād ya Gorge Jāde. Tehran: Ebne Sinā.
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Nafisi, Sa’id
    2012/1391Setāregāne Siyāh. Tehran: Ferdous.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Parsipour, Šahrzād
    1989/1368Tubā va Ma’nāye Šab. Tehran: Asparak.
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Roknzāde Adamiyat, Mohammad Hossein
    1973/1352Dalirāne Tangestāni. Tehran: Eghbāl.
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Yušij, Nimā
    1970/1349Marqade Āqā. Tehran: Marjān.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: grammaticalization ; New Persian ; semantic map ; case role ; unidirectionality
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error