image of Old English perspectives on the complement shift
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This article gathers a motivated inventory of Old English self-manipulative verbs, including verbs and verbs, analyses their semantics and syntax and offers diachronic perspectives on the replacement of -clause complementation with the + - construction. Such perspectives go in two directions. Firstly, the semantics of the -clause remains intact throughout the change to the + - construction. Secondly, deverbal nominalisations contribute to the semantics and syntax required by the gerund. The main conclusion is that verbs are exceptional because the competition leading to the Complement Shift does not hold between finite and non-finite clauses, but between finite clauses and deverbal nominalisations. This has two important consequences: the status of derived nominal linked predications must be acknowledged, and deverbal nominalisations must occupy the top of the syntactic ranking of clause linkage.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Bosworth, Joseph & Thomas N. Toller
    1973An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Callaway, Morgan
    1913The Infinitive in Anglo-Saxon. Washington: The Carnegie Institution of Washington. 10.5962/bhl.title.166130
    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.166130 [Google Scholar]
  3. Clark Hall, John R.
    1996A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Collin’s Dictionary Online
    Collin’s Dictionary Online 2022 Available from: https://www.collinsdictionary.com [AccessedDecember 4, 2022].
  5. Croft, William
    1990Typology and Universals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. De Smet, Hendrik
    2013Spreading Patterns: Diffusional Change in the English System of Complementation. Oxford Studies in the History of English. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Denison, David
    1993English Historical Syntax: Verbal Constructions. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dixon, R. M. W. & Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald
    2006 Complement Clauses and Complementation Strategies in Typological Perspective. Complementation. A Cross-Linguistic Typologyed. byR. M. W. Dixon & A. Y. Aikhenvald, –. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Faber, Pamela & Ricardo Mairal
    1999Constructing a Lexicon of English Verbs. Berlin: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110800623
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110800623 [Google Scholar]
  10. Fanego, Teresa
    1996 The Development of Gerunds as Objects of Subject-Control Verbs in English. Diachronica:.–. 10.1075/dia.13.1.03fan
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.13.1.03fan [Google Scholar]
  11. Fischer, Olga, Ans van Kemenade, Willem Koopman & Wim van der Wurff
    2000The Syntax of Early English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fischer, Olga
    1992 Syntax. The Cambridge History of the English Language II. 1066–1476ed. ByN. Blake, –. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CHOL9780521264754.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521264754.005 [Google Scholar]
  13. Foley, William & Robert D. Van Valin
    1984Functional Syntax and Universal Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Givón, Talmy
    1980 The Binding Hierarchy and the Typology of Complements. Studies in Language: –. 10.1075/sl.4.3.03giv
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.4.3.03giv [Google Scholar]
  15. 1990Syntax: A Functional-Typological Introduction: Volume II. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 1994 Isomorphism in the Grammatical Code. Iconocity in Languageed. byRafaele Simone, –. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 1995Functionalism and Grammar. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.74
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.74 [Google Scholar]
  18. 2009The Genesis of Syntactic Complexity: Diachrony, Ontogeny, Neuro-Cognition, Evolution. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.146
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.146 [Google Scholar]
  19. Haiman, John
    1983 Iconic and Economic Motivation. Language:.–. 10.2307/413373
    https://doi.org/10.2307/413373 [Google Scholar]
  20. 2015 Iconicity in Linguistics. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciencesed. byJames D. Wright, –. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 10.1016/B978‑0‑08‑097086‑8.52006‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.52006-6 [Google Scholar]
  21. Healey, Antonette diPaolo
    (ed.) 2018The Dictionary of Old English in Electronic Form A-I. Toronto: Dictionary of Old English Project, Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Healey, Antonette diPaolo, J. Price Wilkin & Xi Xiang
    (eds.) 2004The Dictionary of Old English Web Corpus. Toronto: Dictionary of Old English Project, Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Heine, B. & T. Kuteva
    2007The Genesis of Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Iyeiri, Yoko
    2010Verbs of Implicit Negation and their Complements in the History of English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.155
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.155 [Google Scholar]
  25. Lacalle Palacios, Miguel
    2021 Old English Verbs of Depriving: The Semantics and Syntax of Possession Transfer. Studia Neophilologica:.–. 10.1080/00393274.2021.1879672
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00393274.2021.1879672 [Google Scholar]
  26. 2021 Old English Verbs of Increasing: The Semantics and Syntax of Change in Size. Revista de Lingüística y Lenguas Aplicadas.–. 10.4995/rlyla.2021.14700
    https://doi.org/10.4995/rlyla.2021.14700 [Google Scholar]
  27. Lehmann, Christian
    1988 Towards a Typology of Clause Linkage. Clause Combining in Grammar and Discourseed. byJohn Haiman & Sandra A. Thompson, –. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.18.09leh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.18.09leh [Google Scholar]
  28. Levin, Beth
    1993English Verb Classes and Alternations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Lieberman, Anatoly
    2008Analytic Dictionary of English Etymology. London: University of Minnesota Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Los, Bettelou
    2005The Rise of the To-Infinitive. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274765.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274765.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  31. 2015A Historical Syntax of English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 10.1515/9780748694563
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9780748694563 [Google Scholar]
  32. Martín Arista, Javier
    2018 The Semantic Poles of Old English: Toward the 3D Representation of Complex Polysemy. Digital Scholarship in the Humanities:.–. 10.1093/llc/fqx004
    https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/fqx004 [Google Scholar]
  33. 2020a Old English Rejoice Verbs: Derivation, Grammatical Behaviour and Class Membership. Poetica.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Martin Arista, Javier
    2020b Further Remarks on the Deflexion and Grammaticalisation of the Old English Past Participle with habban. International Journal of English Studies:.–. 10.6018/ijes.403931
    https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes.403931 [Google Scholar]
  35. Martín Arista, Javier
    2021 Word Alignment in a Parallel Corpus of Old English Prose: From Asymmetry to Inter-Syntactic Annotation. Corpora in Translation and Contrastive Research in the Digital Age: Recent Advances and Explorationsed. byJulia Lavid-López, Carmen Maíz-Arévalo and Juan Rafael Zamorano-Mansilla. –. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.158.03mar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.158.03mar [Google Scholar]
  36. 2022 The Syntax and Semantics of the Old English Predicative Construction. Language Change and Linguistic Theory in the 21st Centuryed. byNikolaos Lavidas & Kiki Nikiforidou, –. Amsterdam: Brill. 10.1163/9789004510579_006
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004510579_006 [Google Scholar]
  37. Martín Arista, Javier & Ana Elvira Ojanguren López
    2018 Grammaticalisation and Deflexion in Progress: The Past Participle in the Old English Passive. Studia Neophilologica:.–. 10.1080/00393274.2018.1463823
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00393274.2018.1463823 [Google Scholar]
  38. Ojanguren López, Ana Elvira
    2020 The Semantics and Syntax of Old English End Verbs. Atlantis:.–. 10.28914/Atlantis‑2020‑42.1.09
    https://doi.org/10.28914/Atlantis-2020-42.1.09 [Google Scholar]
  39. Roberts, Jane, Christian Kay & Lynne Grundy
    2000 A Thesaurus of Old English. Vols. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Rohdenburg, Günter
    1995 On the Replacement of Finite Complement Clauses by Infinitives in English. English Studies.–. 10.1080/00138389508598980
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00138389508598980 [Google Scholar]
  41. 2006 The Role of Functional Constraints in the Evolution of the English Complementation System. Syntax, Style and Grammatical Norms: English from 1500–2000ed. byChristine Dalton-Puffer, Dieter Kastovsky, Nicholas Ritt & Herbert Schendl, –. Bern: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Rudanko, Juhani
    2020Corpora and Complementation: Tracing Sentential Complementation Patterns of Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs over the Last Three Centuries. New York: The Linguistic Society of America.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Silverstein, Michael
    1976 Hierarchy of Features and Ergativity. Grammatical Categories in Australian languagesed. byR. M. W. Dixon, –. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Sweet, Henry
    1976The Student’s Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Taylor, Ann, Anthony Warner, Susan Pintzuk & Frank Beths
    2003The York-Toronto-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English Prose. York: University of York, Department of Linguistics and Cognitive Sciences.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Van Valin, Robert D.
    2007 The Role and Reference Grammar Analysis of Three-Place Predicates. Suvremena Lingvistika.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 2005Exploring the Syntax-Semantics Interface. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511610578
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511610578 [Google Scholar]
  48. 2014 Some Questions Concerning Accomplishments. Lecture delivered at theInternational Symposium on Verbs, Clauses and Constructions, held at the Universidad de La Rioja.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 2021 Cosubordination. Challenges at the Syntax-Semantics-Pragmatics Interface: A Role and Reference Grammar Perspectiveed. byRobert D. Van Valin, –. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. n.d.b. An Overview of Role and Reference Grammar: Role and Reference Grammar. Accessed21 Jan. 2022. Available online: https://rrg.caset.buffalo.edu/rrg/RRG_overview.pdf
  51. Van Valin, Robert D. & Randy LaPolla
    1997Syntax: Structure, Meaning and Function. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139166799
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139166799 [Google Scholar]
  52. Vea Escarza, Raquel
    2021 Old English Verbs of ‘Envy’: Class Membership and Grammatical Behaviour. Studies in the History of the English Language VIII: Boundaries and Boundary-Crossings in the History of Englished. byPeter J. Grund & Megan E. Hartman–. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Visser, F. Th
    1969An Historical Syntax of the English Language: Part Three: First Half. Syntactical Units with Two Verbs. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Yamakawa, Kikuo
    1957 The Two Constructions: “Accusative and Participle” and “Genitive and Gerund”: A Diachronic-Synchronic Study in English Syntax. The Annals of the Hitotsubashi Academy:.–.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: desententialisation ; Old English ; semantics ; complement shift ; syntax
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error