1887
image of The Ossetic transitive preterite
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

In contrast to most Middle and Modern Iranian languages, which have developed a preterite based on an ergative construction with the Old Iranian past passive participle, Ossetic has distinct formations for the intransitive and transitive preterite, and the latter has no close correlate in any other Iranian language. It is argued that only a periphrasis with Old Iranian *dā- ‘put’ can adequately account for the formal peculiarities of the Ossetic transitive preterite, namely its geminate dental and person-number endings. Despite its formal resemblance to the periphrasis reconstructed for the Germanic weak preterite, this construction probably did not arise via contact between the Sarmatian tribes and Germanic peoples in the first centuries CE.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jhl.23032.kim
2024-06-18
2024-07-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abaev, V. I.
    1949 K istorii osetinskogo sprjaženija [On the history of Ossetic conjugation]. Osetinskij jazyk i fol’klor [Ossetic Language and Folklore], Tom, –. Moskva & Leningrad: Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 1964A Grammatical Sketch of Ossetic. Translated bySteven P. Hill. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press; The Hague: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 1965Skifo-evropejskie izoglossy na styke Vostoka i Zapada [Scythian-European Isoglosses at the Junction of East and West]. Moskva: «Nauka».
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Abaev Dict.: Abaev, V. I.
    Istoriko-ėtimologičeskij slovar’ osetinskogo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of Ossetic]. : A–K’ (1958). Moskva & Leningrad: Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR. II: L–R (1973). III: S–T’ (1979). IV: U–Z (1989). Leningrad: «Nauka»(Leningradskoe otdelenie). V: Ukazatel’ [Index] (1995). Moskva: Rossijskaja Akademija Nauk, Institut Jazykoznanija.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ajbabin, A. I.
    2011Archäologie und Geschichte der Krim in byzantinischer Zeit. Mainz: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 2016 Alany i germancy v Bosporskom Carstve vo vtoroj polovine III v. [Alans and Germanic peoples in the Bosporan Kingdom in the second half of the 3rd c.] Antičnaja drevnost’ i srednie veka.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Axvlediani, G. S.
    1963Grammatika osetinskogo jazyka [Grammar of the Ossetic Language]. : Fonetika i morfologija [Phonetics and Morphology]. Ordžonikidze: Severo-Osetinskoe Knižnoe Izdatel’stvo pri Sovete Ministrov Severo-Osetinskoj ASSR.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bagaev, N. K.
    1965Sovremennyj osetinskij jazyk [The Contemporary Ossetic Language]. : Fonetika i morfologija [Phonetics and Morphology]. Ordžonikidze: Severo-Osetinskoe Knižnoe Izdatel’stvo.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bailey, H. W.
    1943Zoroastrian Problems in the Ninth-Century Books. Oxford: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bailey, H. W. & A. S. C. Ross
    1961Path. Transactions of the Philological Society.–. 10.1111/j.1467‑968X.1961.tb00989.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-968X.1961.tb00989.x [Google Scholar]
  11. Belyaev, Oleg
    2020 Indo-European languages of the Caucasus. The Oxford Handbook of Languages of the Caucasus, ed. byMaria Polinsky, –. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Benveniste, Émile
    1929Essai de grammaire sogdienne. Deuxième partie: Morphologie, syntaxe et glossaire. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste, Geuthner.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 1959Études sur la langue ossète. Paris: Klincksieck.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 1960 «Être» et «avoir» dans leurs fonctions linguistiques. Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris:.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 1962Hittite et indo-européen. Études comparatives. Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 1963 Interférences lexicales entre le gothique et l’iranien. Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 1966Problèmes de linguistique générale. Paris: Gallimard.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bielmeier, Roland
    1989 Sarmatisch, Alanisch, Jassisch, und Altossetisch. Compendium Linguarum Iranicanum, ed. byRüdiger Schmitt, –. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bogoljubov, M. N.
    2005 K sakskomu sprjaženiju [On Saka conjugation]. Hr̥dā́ mánasā. Sbornik statej k 70-letiju so dnja roždenija professora Leonarda Georgieviča Gercenberga [Studies Presented to Professor Leonard G. Herzenberg on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday], ed. byN. N. Kazanskij, –. Sankt-Peterburg: «Nauka».
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Boley, Jacqueline
    1984The Hittite hark-Construction. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bybee, Joan L., William Pagliuca & Revere D. Perkins
    1991 Back to the future. Approaches to Grammaticalization, ed. byElizabeth Closs Traugott & Bernd Heine. Vol.: Focus on Types of Grammatical Markers, –. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.19.2.04byb
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.19.2.04byb [Google Scholar]
  22. Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins & William Pagliuca
    1994The Evolution of Grammar: Tense, Aspect, and Modality in the Languages of the World. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cheung, Johnny
    2002Studies in the Historical Development of the Ossetic Vocalism. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 2007Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb. Leiden & Boston: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Christol, Alain
    1986 Des Scythes aux Ossètes. Handout distributed at CLELIA 1986. [non vidi]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 1990 Introduction à l’ossète: éléments de grammaire comparée. LALIES: Actes des sessions de linguistique et de littérature.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Cowgill, Warren
    1968 The aorists and perfects of Old Persian. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung:.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. De Chiara, Matteo & Daniel Septfonds
    2019Le verbe pashto. Parcours d’un territoire. Du verbe simple à la locution verbale. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Durkin-Meisterernst, Desmond
    2004Dictionary of Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian. Turnhout: Brepols.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 2009 Khwarezmian. The Iranian Languages, ed. byGernot Windfuhr, –. London & New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Emmerick, R[onald] E.
    1968Saka Grammatical Studies. London: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Emmerick, Ronald E.
    1989 Khotanese and Tumshuqese. Compendium Linguarum Iranicanum, ed. byRüdiger Schmitt, –. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Erschler, David
    2019 Ossetic. The Languages and Linguistics of Western Asia: An Areal Perspective, ed. byGeoffrey Haig & Geoffrey Khan. Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, –.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 2020 Iron Ossetic. The Oxford Handbook of Languages of the Caucasus, ed. byMaria Polinsky, –. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. EWAhd 6: Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen
    EWAhd 6: Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, unter der Leitung von Rosemarie Lühr erarbeitet von Harald Bichlmeier, Maria Kozianka, Roland Schuhmann und Laura Sturm. Band: mâda–pûzza. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 2017.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Fähnrich, Heinz
    2007Kartwelisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Leiden & Boston: Brill. 10.1163/ej.9789004161092.i‑874
    https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004161092.i-874 [Google Scholar]
  37. Fries, Simon
    2021 [2023] Why and how do new tense formations arise? – On the emergence of the Vedic so-called periphrastic tā́-future. Historische Sprachforschung.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Garrett, Andrew & Keith Johnson
    2013 Phonetic bias in sound change. Origins of Sound Change: Approaches to Phonologization, ed. byAlan C. L. Yu, –. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573745.003.0003
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573745.003.0003 [Google Scholar]
  39. Gercenberg, L. G.
    1965Xotano-sakskij jazyk [Khotanese Saka]. Moskva: «Nauka».
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 1981 Xotanosakskij jazyk [Khotanese Saka]. Osnovy iranskogo jazykoznanija. Sredneiranskie jazyki [Foundations of Iranian Linguistics. Middle Iranian Languages], ed. byV. S. Rastorgueva, –. Moskva: «Nauka».
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Gershevitch, Ilya
    1991 The Ossetic 3rd plural imperative. Transactions of the Philological Society:.–. 10.1111/j.1467‑968X.1991.tb00406.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-968X.1991.tb00406.x [Google Scholar]
  42. Grammont, Maurice
    1939Traité de phonétique. 2nd ed.Paris: Delagrave.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Grenet, Frantz, Nicholas Sims-Williams & Étienne de la Vaissière
    1998 [2001] The Sogdian Ancient Letter V. Bulletin of the Asia Instituten.s. 12 (= Alexander’s Legacy in the East: Studies in Honor of Paul Bernard), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Greule, Albrecht
    1980 Neues zur Etymologie von nhd. Pfad. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Gudjedjiani, Chato & Letas Palmaitis
    1985Svan-English Dictionary. Edited with a preface and index byB. George Hewitt. Delmar, NY: Caravan Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Haig, Geoffrey
    2008Alignment Change in Iranian Languages: A Construction Grammar Approach. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110198614
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110198614 [Google Scholar]
  47. Harðarson, Jón Axel
    2005 Der geschlechtige Nom. Sg. und der neutrale Nom.-Akk. Pl. der n-Stämme im Urindogermanischen und Germanischen. Sprachkontakt und Sprachwandel. Akten der XI. Fachtagng der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, 17.–23. September 2000, Halle an der Saale, ed. byGerhard Meiser & Olav Hackstein, –. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 2017 The morphology of Germanic. InJared Klein, Brian Joseph & Matthias Fritz (eds.), Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics, Vol., –. Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110523874‑010
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110523874-010 [Google Scholar]
  49. Harris, Martin
    1982 The ‘past simple’ and ‘present perfect’ in Romance. InNigel Vincent & Martin Harris (eds.), Studies in the Romance Verb: Essays Offered to Joe Cremona on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, –. London: Croom Helm.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Haspelmath, Martin
    2011 On S, A, P, T, and R as comparative concepts for alignment typology. Linguistic Typology:.–. 10.1515/LITY.2011.035
    https://doi.org/10.1515/LITY.2011.035 [Google Scholar]
  51. Heine, Bernd & Tania Kuteva
    2006The Changing Languages of Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297337.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297337.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  52. Hintze, Almut
    1994Der Zamyād-Yašt. Edition, Übersetzung, Kommentar. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Hoffner, Harry A., Jr. & H. Craig Melchert
    2008A Grammar of the Hittite Language. Part: Reference Grammar. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Humbach, Helmut
    1991The Gāthās of Zarathushtra and the other Old Avestan texts. Part: Introduction – Text and Translation. Part: Commentary. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Humbach, Helmut & Klaus Faiss
    2010Zarathushtra and His Antagonists. A Sociolinguistic Study with English and German Translations of His Gāthās. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Inglese, Guglielmo & Silvia Luraghi
    2020 The Hittite periphrastic perfect. Perfects in Indo-European Languages and Beyond, ed. byRobert Crellin & Thomas Jügel, –. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.352.11ing
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.352.11ing [Google Scholar]
  57. Insler, Stanley
    1975The Gāthās of Zarathustra. Leiden: Brill; Téhéran & Liège: Bibliothèque Pahlavi. 10.1163/9789004671034
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004671034 [Google Scholar]
  58. Isaev, M. I.
    1966Digorskij dialekt osetinskogo jazyka [The Digor Dialect of Ossetic]. Moskva: «Nauka».
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 1987 Osetinskij jazyk [Ossetic]. Osnovy iranskogo jazykoznanija. Novoiranskie jazyki: Vostočnaja gruppa [Foundations of Iranian Linguistics. Modern Iranian Languages: Eastern Group], ed. byV. S. Rastorgueva, –. Moskva: «Nauka».
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Jacob, Daniel
    1994 Die Auxiliarisierung von habere und die Entstehung des romanischen periphrastischen Perfekts, dargestellt an der Entwicklung vom Latein zum Spanischen. Habilitationsschrift, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 1998 Transitivität, Diathese und Perfekt: zur Entstehung der romanischen haben-Periphrasen. Transitivität und Diathese in romanischen Sprachen, ed. byHans Geisler & Daniel Jacob, –. Tübingen: Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783110912470.105
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110912470.105 [Google Scholar]
  62. Jasanoff, Jay H.
    2019 The Germanic weak preterite. Historische Sprachforschung.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Jügel, Thomas
    2020 The perfect in Middle and New Iranian languages. Perfects in Indo-European Languages and Beyond, ed. byRobert Crellin & Thomas Jügel, –. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.352.08jug
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.352.08jug [Google Scholar]
  64. Kambolov, T. T.
    2006Očerk istorii osetinskogo jazyka [Outline of the History of the Ossetic Language]. Vladikavkaz: «Ir».
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Keydana, Götz
    2023 Language change and the actuation problem: grammaticalization in Vedic Sanskrit. Journal of South Asian Languages and Linguistics:.–. 10.1515/jsall‑2023‑1007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jsall-2023-1007 [Google Scholar]
  66. Kim, Ronald I.
    2007 Two problems of Ossetic nominal morphology. Indogermanische Forschungen.–. 10.1515/9783110192858.1.47
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110192858.1.47 [Google Scholar]
  67. 2009 On the prehistory of Old English dyde. Þe comoun peplis language, ed. byMarcin Krygier & Liliana Sikorska, –. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 2022a Crimean Gothic sada ‘hundred’, hazer ‘thousand’. NOWELE:.–. 10.1075/nowele.00063.kim
    https://doi.org/10.1075/nowele.00063.kim [Google Scholar]
  69. 2022b Numerative and numeral inflection in Ossetic. Acta Linguistica Petropolitana: (= Maria Kazanskaya, Petr Kocharov & Andrey Shatskov (eds.), Colloquia Classica et Indogermanica VII. Miscellanea in honorem Nikolai N. Kazansky septuagenarii), –. 10.30842/alp23065737181147164
    https://doi.org/10.30842/alp23065737181147164 [Google Scholar]
  70. 2023a The prehistory of Ossetic verbal inflection (I): present indicative and imperative. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual UCLA Indo-European Conference, November 5th, 6th and 7th, 2021, ed. byDavid M. Goldstein, Stephanie W. Jamison & Brent Vine, –. Hamburg: Buske.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 2023b The prehistory of Ossetic verbal inflection (II): the copula. Chatreššar:.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Kluge, Friedrich
    1889Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. 4th ed.Straßburg: Trübner.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Konow, Sten
    1932Saka Studies. Glückstadt & Hamburg: J. J. Augustin.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Korn, Agnes
    2011 Pronouns as verbs, verbs as pronouns: demonstratives and the copula in Iranian. Topics in Iranian Linguistics, ed. byAgnes Korn, Geoffrey Haig, Simin Karimi & Pollet Samvelian, –. Wiesbaden: Reichert. 10.29091/9783752005325
    https://doi.org/10.29091/9783752005325 [Google Scholar]
  75. 2013 Looking for the middle way: voice and transitivity in complex predicates in Iranian. Lingua.–. 10.1016/j.lingua.2013.07.015
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2013.07.015 [Google Scholar]
  76. 2016 A partial tree of Central Iranian: a new look at Iranian subphyla. Indogermanische Forschungen.–. 10.1515/if‑2016‑0021
    https://doi.org/10.1515/if-2016-0021 [Google Scholar]
  77. 2020 Grammaticalization and reanalysis in Iranian. Grammaticalization Scenarios. Cross-linguistic Variation and Universal Tendencies, ed. byWalter Bisang & Andrej Malchukov. Volume: Grammaticalization Scenarios from Europe and Asia, –. Berlin & Boston: de Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110563146‑010
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110563146-010 [Google Scholar]
  78. Kroonen, Guus
    2013Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Leiden & Boston: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Kümmel, Martin Joachim
    2000Das Perfekt im Indoiranischen. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Kümmel, Martin
    2017 Partizipien und Verbaladjektive als Prädikate im Indoiranischen. Verbal Adjectives and Participles in Indo-European Languages – Adjectifs verbaux et participes dans les langues indo-européennes. Proceedings of the Conference of the Society for Indo-European Studies (Indogermanische Gesellschaft), Paris, 24th to 26th September 2014, ed. byClaire Le Feuvre, Daniel Petit & Georges-Jean Pinault, –. Bremen: Hempen.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Kümmel, Martin Joachim
    2020 The development of the perfect within IE verbal systems. An overview. Perfects in Indo-European Languages and Beyond, ed. byRobert Crellin & Thomas Jügel, –. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.352.02kum
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.352.02kum [Google Scholar]
  82. Kuteva, Tania, Bernd Heine, Bo Hong, Haiping Long, Heiko Narrog & Seongha Rhee
    2019World Lexicon of Grammaticalization. 2nd ed.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781316479704
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316479704 [Google Scholar]
  83. Lazard, Gilbert
    1992 Subjonctif et optatif en ossète. Studia Iranica.–. 10.2143/SI.21.1.2014410
    https://doi.org/10.2143/SI.21.1.2014410 [Google Scholar]
  84. Leumann, Ernst
    1912Zur nordarischen Sprache und Literatur. Vorbemerkungen und vier Aufsätze mit Glossar. Straßburg: Trübner. 10.1515/9783111651798
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111651798 [Google Scholar]
  85. Lowe, John
    2017 The Sanskrit (pseudo)periphrastic future. Transactions of the Philological Society:.–. 10.1111/1467‑968X.12102
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-968X.12102 [Google Scholar]
  86. Lubotsky, Alexander
    2015Alanic Marginal Notes in a Greek Liturgical Manuscript. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 10.2307/j.ctt1vw0q57
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt1vw0q57 [Google Scholar]
  87. Matras, Yaron
    2007 The borrowability of structural categories. Grammatical Borrowing in Crosslinguistic Perspective, ed. byYaron Matras & Jeanette Sakel, –. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110199192.31
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199192.31 [Google Scholar]
  88. 2020Language Contact. 2nd ed.Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108333955
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108333955 [Google Scholar]
  89. Mayrhofer, Manfred
    1970 Germano-Iranica. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung:.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Miller, V. F.
    1882Osetinskïe ėtjudy [Ossetic Studies]. Čast’: Izslědovanïja [Part 2: Investigations]. Moskva: Tipografïja A. Ivanova.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 1887Osetinskïe ėtjudy [Ossetic Studies]. Čast’: Izslědovanïja [Part 3: Investigations]. Moskva: Tipografïja E. G. Potanova.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Miller, Wsewolod
    1903 Die Sprache der Osseten. Grundriß der iranischen Philologie, hrsg. vonWilhelm Geiger und Ernst Kuhn. Anhang zum ersten Band. Straßburg: Trübner. 10.1515/9783111446837
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111446837 [Google Scholar]
  93. Németh, János
    1959Eine Wörterliste der Jassen, der ungarländischen Alanen. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Nyberg, Henrik Samuel
    1974A Manual of Pahlavi. : Ideograms, Glossary, Abbreviations, Index, Grammatical Survey, Corrigenda to Part I. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Pisowicz, Andrzej
    2020Gramatyka osetyjska (dialekt iroński) [Ossetic Grammar (Iron Dialect)]. Kraków: Księgarnia Akademicka. 10.12797/9788381382670
    https://doi.org/10.12797/9788381382670 [Google Scholar]
  96. Rasmussen, Jens E.
    1996 On the origin of the Germanic weak preterite. Copenhagen Working Papers in Linguistics.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 1999Selected Papers on Indo-European Linguistics, with a Section on Comparative Eskimo Linguistics. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Ringe, Donald A., Jr.
    1988–90 [1991] Evidence for the position of Tocharian in the Indo-European family?Die Sprache.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Ringe, Don
    2017A Linguistic History of English. Volume: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Ritter, Ralf-Peter
    1976 Bemerkungen zur «Jassischen Wörterliste». Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae:.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Rix, Helmut
    (ed.) 2001Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben: Die Wurzeln und ihre Primärstammbildungen. Zweite, erweiterte und verbesserte Auflage bearbeitet von Martin Kümmel und Helmut Rix. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Robson, Barbara & Habibullah Tegey
    2009 Pashto. The Iranian Languages, ed. byGernot Windfuhr, –. London & New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Rostovtzeff, Michael
    1922Iranians and Greeks in South Russia. Oxford: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Schuhmann, Roland
    2016 Zur Endung der 3.Sg.Ind.Prät. der schwachen Verben in den Runeninschriften im älteren Futhark. »dat ih dir it nu bi huldi gibu«. Linguistische, germanistische und indogermanistische Studien Rosemarie Lühr gewidmet, ed. bySergio Neri, Roland Schuhmann & Susanne Zeilfelder, –. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Sims-Williams, Nicholas
    1985The Christian Sogdian Manuscript C2. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 1989 Sogdian. Compendium Linguarum Iranicanum, ed. byRüdiger Schmitt, –. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. 1990 The Sogdian fragments of Leningrad II: Mani at the court of the Shahanshah. Bulletin of the Asia Instituten.s. (= In honor of Richard Nelson Frye: Aspects of Iranian Culture), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 1997 The denominal suffix -ant- and the formation of the Khotanese transitive perfect. Sound Law and Analogy. Papers in Honor of Robert S.P. Beekes on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, ed. byAlexander Lubotsky, –. Amsterdam & Atlanta: Rodopi. 10.1163/9789004658844_032
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004658844_032 [Google Scholar]
  109. 2001 The Sogdian Ancient Letter II. Philologica et Linguistica. Historia, Pluralitas, Universitas. Festschrift für Helmut Humbach zum 80. Geburstag am 4. Dezember 2001, ed. byMaria Gabriela Schmidt & Walter Bisang, –. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 2023The “Ancient Letters” and other Early Sogdian Documents and Inscriptions. With contributions byFrantz Grenet. London: School of Oriental and African Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Sjögren, A. J.
    1844aIron ævzagaxur, das ist Ossetische Sprachlehre, nebst kurzem ossetisch-deutschen und deutsch-ossetischen Wörterbuche. St. Petersburg: Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. 1844bOsetinskaja grammatika s” kratkim” slovarem” osetinsko-rossijskim” i rossijsko-osetinskim”. Sanktpeterburg”: Tipografïja Imperatorskoj Akademïi Nauk”. (Russian ed. of Sjögren 1844a.)
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Skjærvø, P. Oktor
    1987 On the Tumshuquese “Karmavācanā” text. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1987:.–. 10.1017/S0035869X00166985
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0035869X00166985 [Google Scholar]
  114. Squartini, Mario & Pier Marco Bertinetto
    2000 The simple and compound past in Romance languages. Tense and Aspect in the Languages of Europe, ed. byÖsten Dahl, –. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110197099.3.403
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197099.3.403 [Google Scholar]
  115. Stiles, Patrick V.
    2010 The Gothic extended forms of the dental preterit endings. NOWELE (= The Gothic Language: A Symposium), –. 10.1075/nowele.58‑59.12sti
    https://doi.org/10.1075/nowele.58-59.12sti [Google Scholar]
  116. Ščukin, M. B.
    2005Gotskij put’. Goty, Rim i černjaxovskaja kul’tura [The Gothic Way. The Goths, Rome, and the Chernyakhov Culture]. Sankt-Peterburg: Filologičeskij Fakul’tet Sankt-Peterburgskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta.
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Ščukin, M., M. Kazanski & O. Sharov
    2006Des les goths aux huns: Le nord de la mer Noire au Bas-Empire et a l’époque des grandes migrations. Oxford: Hedges. 10.30861/9781841717562
    https://doi.org/10.30861/9781841717562 [Google Scholar]
  118. Tedesco, Paul
    1926 Ostiranische Nominalflexion. Zeitschrift für Indologie und Iranistik.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Thordarson, Fridrik
    1989 Ossetic. Compendium Linguarum Iranicanum, ed. byRüdiger Schmitt, –. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Tremblay, Xavier
    2005 Die Bildung des chotansakischen agentiven Präteritums (Beiträge zur vergleichenden Grammatik der iranischen Sprachen IX). Hr̥dā́ mánasā. Sbornik statej k 70-letiju so dnja roždenija professora Leonarda Georgieviča Gercenberga [Studies Presented to Professor Leonard G. Herzenberg on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday], ed. byN. N. Kazanskij, –. Sankt-Peterburg: «Nauka».
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Vernadsky, George
    1951 Der sarmatische Hintergrund der germanischen Völkerwanderung. Saeculum.–. 10.7788/saeculum.1951.2.jg.340
    https://doi.org/10.7788/saeculum.1951.2.jg.340 [Google Scholar]
  122. Vydrin, Arseniy
    2013 Ossetic verb – Iranian origin and contact influence. Handout, 46th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Split.
    [Google Scholar]
  123. 2014 Glagol v osetinskom jazyke [The verb in Ossetic]. Vostokovedenie (= Pamjati akad. M. N. Bogoljubova), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Weber, Dieter
    1982 Das Perfekt transitiver Verben im Khotansakischen. Die Sprache.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  125. 1983 Beiträge zur historischen Grammatik des Ossetischen (II). Indogermanische Forschungen.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Wendtland, Antje
    2011 The emergence and development of the Sogdian perfect. Topics in Iranian Linguistics, ed. byAgnes Korn, Geoffrey Haig, Simin Karimi & Pollet Samvelian, –. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Winford, Donald
    2003An Introduction to Contact Linguistics. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Yoshida, Yutaka
    2009 Sogdian. The Iranian Languages, ed. byGernot Windfuhr, –. London & New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jhl.23032.kim
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: Ossetic ; periphrasis ; preterite ; Germanic ; grammaticalization ; language contact ; Iranian
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error