1887
Volume 21, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1566-5852
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9854
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Law language is a cover-term for different genres of legal texts. The genre of law is characterized as being written, legislative and formal. Quantitative studies on the textual and linguistic structure of Old English () law-codes are lacking so far, but both aspects are analysed in this paper on the basis of a corpus of about 20,000 words. The results of the quantitative-qualitative analysis are compared to wills on the one hand, and to Early Modern English (od) and Present-Day English () statutes on the other. The synchronic comparison of law-codes and wills reveals that the text structure and the linguistic profile of the genres are very similar. The conclusion to be drawn from this result is that genre properties largely determine the textual and linguistic profile of texts in a given period. The diachronic comparisons show marked differences in the linguistic profile of law-codes and statutes of later periods.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jhp.00035.moe
2020-08-28
2020-09-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Attenborough, Frederick L.
    1963 [1922]The Laws of the Earliest English Kings. New York: Russel & Russell, Inc. [1922 edition: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bhatia, Vijay K.
    1993Analysing Genre: Language Use in Professional Settings. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 1987 “Language of the law”. Language Teaching20 (4): 227–234. 10.1017/S026144480000464X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144480000464X [Google Scholar]
  4. Bhatia, Vijay K., Nicola M. Langton and Jane Lung
    2004 “Legal Discourse: Opportunities and Threats for Corpus Linguistics”. InUlla Connor and Thomas A. Upton (eds), Discourse in the Professions: Perspectives from Corpus Linguistics, 201–231. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.16.09bha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.16.09bha [Google Scholar]
  5. Biel, Łucja
    2010 “Corpus-based Studies of Legal Language for Translation Purposes: Methodological and Practical Potential”. InCarmen Heine and Jan Engberg (eds), Reconceptualizing LSP: Online Proceedings of the XVII European Symposium 2009, no pagination. Aarhus: Aarhus University.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Charrow, Veda, Jo Ann Crandall and Robert Charrow
    1982 “Characteristics and Functions of Legal Language”. InRichard Kittredge and John Lehrberger (eds), Sublanguage: Studies of Language in Restricted Semantic Domains, 175–190. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Crystal, David and Derek Davy
    1969Investigating English Style. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Danet, Brenda
    1985 “Legal Discourse”. InTeun A. van Dijk (ed.), Handbook of Discourse Analysis, 273–291. (Volume1.) London: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Danet, Brenda and Bryna Bogoch
    1992a “From Oral Ceremony to Written Documents: The Transitional Language of the Anglo-Saxon Wills”. Language and Communication12 (2): 95–127. 10.1016/0271‑5309(92)90001‑P
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0271-5309(92)90001-P [Google Scholar]
  10. 1992b “‘Whoever Alters This, May God Turn His Face from Him on the Day of Judgment’: Curses in Anglo-Saxon Legal Documents”. Journal of American Folklore105/416: 132–165. 10.2307/541083
    https://doi.org/10.2307/541083 [Google Scholar]
  11. 1994 “Orality, Literacy, and Performativity in Anglo-Saxon Wills”. InJohn Gibbons (ed.), Language and the Law, 100–135. London and New York: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Denison, David
    1993English Historical Syntax: Verbal Constructions. London and New York: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Diani, Giuliana
    2001 “Modality and Speech Acts in English Acts of Parliament”. InMaurizio Gotti and Marina Dossena (eds), Modality in Specialized Discourse, 175–191. Bern: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Drout, Michael
    2000 “Anglo-Saxon Wills and the Inheritance of Tradition in the English Benedictine Reform”. Selim10: 3–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fanego, Teresa, Paula Rodríguez-Puente, María José López-Couso, Belén Méndez-Naya, Paloma Núñez-Pertejo, Cristina Blanco-García and Iván Tamaredo
    2017 “The Corpus of Historical English Law Reports 1535–1999 (CHELAR): A Resource for Analysing the Development of English Legal Discourse”. ICAME Journal41: 53–82. 10.1515/icame‑2017‑0003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/icame-2017-0003 [Google Scholar]
  16. Finegan, Edward
    1982 “Form and Function in Testament Language”. InRobert J. Di Pietro (ed.), Linguistics and the Professions: Proceedings of the Second Annual Delaware Symposium on Language Studies, 113–120. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Fischer, Olga
    1992 “Syntax”. InNorman Blake (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. II. 1066–1476, 207–408. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gotti, Maurizio
    2001 “Semantic and Pragmatic Values of Shall and Will in Early Modern English Statutes”. InMaurizio Gotti and Marina Dossena (eds), Modality in Specialized Texts, 89–111. Bern: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gustafsson, Marita
    1975Some Syntactic Properties of English Law Language. Turku: University of Turku, Finland.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Helsinki Corpus of English Texts, The
    Helsinki Corpus of English Texts, The 1991 Department of Modern Languages, University of Helsinki.
  21. Hiltunen, Risto
    1990Chapters on Legal English: Aspects Past and Present of the Language of the Law. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 2001 “’Some Syntactic Properties of English Law Language’: Twenty-five Years after Gustafsson (1975)”. InRisto Hiltunen, Keith Battarbee, Matti Peikola and Sanna-Kaisa Tanskanen (eds), English in Zigs and Zags: A Festschrift for Marita Gustafsson, 53–66. Anglicana Turkuensia 23. Turku: University of Turku.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 2012 “The Grammar and Structure of Legal Texts”. InPeter M. Tiersma and Laurence M. Solan (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Language and Law, 39–51. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Karlsson, Fred
    2009 “Origin and Maintenance of Clausal Embedding Complexity”. InGeoffrey Sampson, David Gil and Peter Trudgill (eds), Language Complexity as an Evolving Variable, 192–202. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kurzon, Dennis
    1997 “‘Legal Language’: Varieties, Genres, Registers, Discourses”. International Journal of Applied Linguistics7 (2): 119–139. 10.1111/j.1473‑4192.1997.tb00111.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.1997.tb00111.x [Google Scholar]
  26. Lehto, Anu
    2015The Genre of Early Modern English Statutes: Complexity in Historical Legal Language. Helsinki: Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki XCVII.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Liebermann, Felix
    1903–16Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen [‘The Laws of the Anglo-Saxons’]. Halle: Max Niemeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Mellinkoff, David
    1963The Language of the Law. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown and Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Moessner, Lilo
    2010 “Directive Speech Acts: A Cross-generic Diachronic Study”. Journal of Historical Pragmatics11 (2): 219–249. 10.1075/jhp.11.2.03moe
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.11.2.03moe [Google Scholar]
  30. 2018 “Old English Wills: A Genre Study”. InPeter Petré, Hubert Cuyckens and Frauke D’hoedt (eds), Sociocultural Dimensions of Lexis and Text in the History of English, 103–124. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.343.05moe
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.343.05moe [Google Scholar]
  31. Mustanoja, Tauno F.
    1960A Middle English Syntax. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Rissanen, Matti
    2000 “Standardization and the Language of Early Statutes”. InLaura Wright (ed.), The Development of Standard English 1300–1800, 117–130. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511551758.008
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511551758.008 [Google Scholar]
  33. Sawyer, Peter
    (ed.) 1957 “Textus Roffensis, Part 1”. InBertram Colgrave, Kemp Malone and Knud Schibsbye (eds), Early English Manuscripts in Facsimile. (VolumeVII.) Copenhagen: Rosenkilde and Bagger.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Schmid, Reinhold
    1832Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen [‘The Laws of the Anglo-Saxons’]. Leipzig: Brockhaus.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Schwyter, Jürg R.
    1996Old English Legal Language: The Lexical Field of Theft. Odense: Odense University Press. 10.1075/nss.15
    https://doi.org/10.1075/nss.15 [Google Scholar]
  36. Scotto di Carlo, Giuseppina
    2015Diachronic and Synchronic Aspects of Legal English: Past, Present, and Possible Future of Legal English. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Sheehan, Michael M.
    1963The Will in Medieval England. Rome: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Thorpe, Benjamin
    1840Ancient Laws and Institutes of England, London: Eyre and Spottiswoode.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Tiersma, Peter M.
    1999Legal Language. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Tollerton, Linda
    2011Wills and Will-Making in Anglo-Saxon England. Woodbridge: York Medieval Press and Boydell & Brewer Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Trosborg, Anna
    1995 “Statutes and Contracts: An Analysis of Legal Speech Acts in the English Language of the Law”. Journal of Pragmatics23: 31–53. 10.1016/0378‑2166(94)00034‑C
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(94)00034-C [Google Scholar]
  42. Whitelock, Dorothy
    1968English Historical Documents c. 500–1042. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Williams, Christopher
    2004 “Pragmatic and Cross-Cultural Considerations in Translating Verbal Constructions in Prescriptive Legal Texts in English and Italian”. InChristopher N. Candlin and Maurizio Gotti (eds), Intercultural Discourse in Domain-Specific English, special issue of Textus17 (1): 217–46. Bern: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 2005Tradition and Change in Legal English: Verbal Constructions in Prescriptive Texts. Bern: Peter Lang. 10.3726/978‑3‑0351‑0317‑5
    https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-0351-0317-5 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jhp.00035.moe
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jhp.00035.moe
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error