1887
Volume 18, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1566-5852
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9854
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

This paper investigates the formal and functional dimensions of reported discourse in sixteenth-century correspondence. It focuses on how letter-writers report the utterances – spoken, thought and written – of high-status sources (namely, the king or queen), in order to assess how the early modern reporting system compares with the present-day equivalent. The early modern values of authenticity, verbatim reporting and verbal authority are examined. The results taken from the Parsed Corpus of Early English Correspondence (PCEEC) suggest that early modern writers prefer to present royal language using indirect reports with semi-conventionalised linguistic features that clearly mark the authority of the source. Only an elite few, associated with the Court, use direct speech. The paper suggests that reporting practices distinguish between speech and writing, with the latter showing nascent signs of anxiety over verbatim reporting. I argue that these trends arise from the larger cultural shift from oral to written records taking place throughout the early modern period.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jhp.18.1.02eva
2017-10-13
2019-09-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Parsed Corpus of Early English Correspondence (PCEEC). (Text version) 2006 Compiled by Terttu Nevalainen , Helena Raumolin-Brunberg , Jukka Keränen , Minna Nevala , Arja Nurmi and Minna Palander-Collin , with additional annotation by Ann Taylor . Helsinki: University of Helsinki and York: University of York. Distributed through the Oxford Text Archive.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bakhtin, Mikhail
    1981The Dialogic Imagination. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Blackwell, Natalia and Jean E. Fox-Tree
    2012 “Social factors affect quotative choice”. Journal of Pragmatics44 (10): 1150–1162. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2012.05.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2012.05.001 [Google Scholar]
  4. Burrow, Colin
    2011 [2004] “Wyatt, Sir Thomas (c.1503–1542)”. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Accessed24 October 2014at: www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/30111.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Caldas-Coulthard, Carmen R.
    1994 “On Reporting Reporting: The Representation of Speech in Factual and Factional Narratives”. In Malcolm Coulthard (ed.), Analysing Written Text, 295–308. London: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9780203422656
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203422656 [Google Scholar]
  6. Cromwell, Thomas
    1540 CP 1/24. Cecil Papers Online. Accessed26 October 2014at: gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&res_dat=xri:cecil:&rft_dat=xri:cecil:rec:01_0065.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Clark, Herbert H. and Richard J. Gerrig
    1990 “Quotations as Demonstrations”. Language66 (4): 764–805. doi: 10.2307/414729
    https://doi.org/10.2307/414729 [Google Scholar]
  8. Clanchy, M. T.
    2013From Memory to Written Record. (Third edition.) Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Clift, Rebecca and Elizabeth Holt
    2007 “Introduction”. In Clift and Holt (eds), Reporting Talk: Reported Speech in Interaction, 1–15. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cohn, Dorrit
    1978Transparent Minds: Narrative Modes for Presenting Consciousness in Fiction. Princeton, N.J.; Guildford: Princeton University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Culpeper, Jonathan and Dawn Archer
    2008 “Requests and Directness in Early Modern English Trial Proceedings and Play Texts, 1640–1760”. In Andreas H. Jucker and Irma Taavitsainen (eds), Speech Acts in the History of English, 45–84. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/pbns.176.05cul
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.176.05cul [Google Scholar]
  12. Daybell, James
    2012The Material Letter in Early Modern England: Manuscript Letters and the Cultures and Practices of Letter-Writing 1512–1635. London: Palgrave. doi: 10.1057/9781137006066
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137006066 [Google Scholar]
  13. Evans, Mel
    2013The Language of Queen Elizabeth I: A Sociolinguistic Perspective on Royal Style and Identity. Transactions of the Philological Society. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Goffman, Erving
    1974Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gordon, Andrew
    2016 “Material Fictions: Counterfeit Correspondence in Early Modern England”. In James Daybell and Andrew Gordon (eds), Cultures of Correspondence in Early Modern Britain, 85–109. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Griffiths, Paul , Adam Fox and Steve Hindle
    1996The Experience of Authority in Early Modern England. Basingstoke: Macmillan. doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑349‑24834‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-24834-6 [Google Scholar]
  17. Hall, Edward
    1809 [1548]Hall’s Chronicle, Containing the History of England During the Reign of Henry IV and the Succeeding Monarchs to the End of the Reign of Henry VIII. Edited by H. Ellis . LondonAvailable online at: catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/004404948.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Ikeo, Reiko
    2012 “Misleading speech report in the media with a special reference to an Australian defamation case”. Journal of Pragmatics44 (10): 1183–1205. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2012.05.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2012.05.003 [Google Scholar]
  19. Johansen, Marianne
    2011 “Agency and Responsibility in Reported Speech”. Journal of Pragmatics43 (11): 2845–2860. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2011.04.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.04.001 [Google Scholar]
  20. Johnstone, Barbara
    1987 “He says… so I said: Verb Tense Alteration and Narrative Depictions of Authority in American English”. Linguistics25 (1): 33–52. doi: 10.1515/ling.1987.25.1.33
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1987.25.1.33 [Google Scholar]
  21. Lampropoulou, Sofia
    2012Direct Speech, Self-presentation and Communities of Practice. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Leech, Geoffrey N. and Mick Short
    2007Style in Fiction. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Leithead, Howard
    2004 [2009] “Cromwell, Thomas, Earl of Essex (b. in or before 1485, d. 1540)”. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Accessed24 October 2014at: www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/6769.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Li, Charles N.
    1986 “Direct and Indirect Speech: A Functional Study”. In Florian Coulmas (ed.), Direct and Indirect Speech, 29–34. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110871968.29
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110871968.29 [Google Scholar]
  25. Matoesian, Greg
    2000 “Intertextual Authority in Reported Speech: Production Media in the Kennedy Smith Rape Trial”. Journal of Pragmatics32: 879–914. doi: 10.1016/S0378‑2166(99)00080‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(99)00080-6 [Google Scholar]
  26. McIntyre, Dan and Brian Walker
    2011 “Discourse Presentation in Early Modern English Writing: A Preliminary Corpus-based Investigation”. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics16 (1): 101–130. doi: 10.1075/ijcl.16.1.05mci
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.16.1.05mci [Google Scholar]
  27. Moore, Colette
    2011Quoting Speech in Early English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 2002 “Reporting Direct Speech in Early Modern Slander Depositions”. In Donna Minkova and Peter Stockwell (eds), Studies in the History of the English Language: A Millennial Perspective, 399–416. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110197143.3.399
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197143.3.399 [Google Scholar]
  29. Nevala, Minna
    2004Address in Early English Correspondence: Its Forms and Socio-Pragmatic Functions. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Nevalainen, Terttu and Helena Raumolin-Brunberg
    2003Historical Sociolinguistics: Language Change in Tudor and Stuart England. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Ong, Walter
    1982Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. London and New York: Routledge doi: 10.4324/9780203328064
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203328064 [Google Scholar]
  32. Palander-Collin, Minna and Minna Nevala
    2010 “Reporting and Social Role Construction in Eighteenth-century Personal Correspondence”. In Païvi Pahta , Minna Nevala and Arja Nurmi (eds), Social Roles and Language Practices in Late Modern English, 111–133. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/pbns.195.06pal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.195.06pal [Google Scholar]
  33. Pender, Patricia
    2013Early Modern Women’s Writing and the Rhetoric of Modesty. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Satoh, Akira
    2001 “Constructing Imperial Identity: How to Quote the Imperial Family and Those Who Address Them in the Japanese Press”. Discourse and Society12 (2): 169–194. doi: 10.1177/0957926501012002003
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926501012002003 [Google Scholar]
  35. Semino, Elena and Mick Short
    2004Corpus Stylistics: Speech, Writing and Thought Presentation in a Corpus of English Writing. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Sharpe, Kevin M.
    2009Selling the Tudor Monarchy: Authority and Image in Sixteenth-Century England. London: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Short, Mick
    2012 “Discourse Presentation and Speech (and Writing, but not Thought) Summary”, Language and Literature21 (1): 18–32. doi: 10.1177/0963947011432049
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963947011432049 [Google Scholar]
  38. Short, Mick , Elena Semino and Martin Wynne
    2002 “Revisiting the Notion of Faithfulness in Discourse Presentation Using a Corpus Approach”. Language and Literature11 (4): 325–355. doi: 10.1177/096394700201100403
    https://doi.org/10.1177/096394700201100403 [Google Scholar]
  39. Tannen, Deborah
    2007Talking Voices: Repetition, Dialogue and Imagery in Conversational Discourse. (Second edition.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511618987
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618987 [Google Scholar]
  40. Thompson, Geoff
    1994Collins CoBuild English Guides. 5: Reporting. London: HarperCollins.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Thompson, Geoff and Yiyun Ye
    1991 “Evaluation in the Reporting Verbs Used in Academic Papers”. Applied Linguistics12: 365–82. doi: 10.1093/applin/12.4.365
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/12.4.365 [Google Scholar]
  42. Voloshinov, Valentin Nikolaevich
    1973Marxism and the Philosophy of Language. Translated by L. Matejka and I. R. Titunik . New York and London: Seminar Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Wade, Elizabeth and Herbert H. Clark
    1993 “Reproduction and Demonstration in Quotations”. Journal of Memory and Language32 (6): 805–819. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1993.1040
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1993.1040 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jhp.18.1.02eva
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jhp.18.1.02eva
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): correspondence , Early Modern English , reported discourse and royal language
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error