1887
Volume 24, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1566-5852
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9854
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, I analyse the representation of reported discourse in testimony from a 1795 conspiracy trial. I present a framework for analysing scribal intervention in discourse reporting and show that, although the transcription conventions of historical criminal proceedings offer the appearance of being objective representations, recorded testimony privileges idealised representations of speech events. In fact, a special status is given to those speech events to which those in the courtroom were not privy, that is, hearsay. When scribes use Direct Discourse to report this type of speech, they are simultaneously marking it as evidence available for judicial decision-making and distancing themselves from the judgment and interpretation process. I show that this is particularly problematic for interpreted testimony. This has implications for both our understanding of historical courtroom processes and the use of trial transcripts for historical sociolinguistic and pragmatic analysis.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jhp.20005.tho
2023-09-11
2024-06-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Proceedings against the Negroes of Pointe Coupee for the Crime of Revolution, 1795-05-02-01, Spanish Judicial Records
    Proceedings against the Negroes of Pointe Coupee for the Crime of Revolution, 1795-05-02-01, Spanish Judicial Records, Louisiana Historical Center, New Orleans Jazz Museum, New Orleans, Louisiana.
  2. Procès contre les Esclaves du Poste de Pointe Coupee, Original Acts of Pointe Coupee
    Procès contre les Esclaves du Poste de Pointe Coupee, Original Acts of Pointe Coupee, Volume18801, Folders 1–265, 25April 1795 through29May 1795, Pointe Coupee Courthouse, New Roads, Louisiana.
  3. Trial of Mina Conspirators in New Orleans, Legajo 168A
    Trial of Mina Conspirators in New Orleans, Legajo 168A, 26March 1792 to8April 1794, Papeles Procedentes de Cuba, Archivo General de Indias, Seville, Spain.
  4. Bergs, Alexander
    2015 “Linguistic Fingerprints of Authors and Scribes”. InAnita Auer, Daniel Schreier and Richard J. Watts (eds), Letter Writing and Language Change, 114–132. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139088275.008
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139088275.008 [Google Scholar]
  5. Berk-Seligson, Susan
    2017The Bilingual Courtroom: Court Interpreters in the Judicial Process. (Second edition.) Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cohen, Paul
    2016 “Torture and Translation in the Multilingual Courtrooms of Early Modern France”. Renaissance Quarterly69 (3): 899–939. 10.1086/689037
    https://doi.org/10.1086/689037 [Google Scholar]
  7. Collins, Daniel E.
    2001Reanimated Voices: Speech Reporting in a Historical-Pragmatic Perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.85
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.85 [Google Scholar]
  8. 2006 “Speech Reporting and the Suppression of Orality in Seventeenth-Century Russian Trial Dossiers”. Journal of Historical Pragmatics7 (2): 265–292. 10.1075/jhp.7.2.06col
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.7.2.06col [Google Scholar]
  9. Culpeper, Jonathan and Merja Kytö
    2000 “Data in Historical Pragmatics”. Journal of Historical Pragmatics1 (2): 175–199. 10.1075/jhp.1.2.03cul
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.1.2.03cul [Google Scholar]
  10. Din, Gilbert C.
    1999Spaniards, Planters, and Slaves: The Spanish Regulation of Slavery in Louisiana, 1763–1803. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Doty, Kathleen L.
    2007 “Telling Tales: The Role of Scribes in Constructing the Discourse of the Salem Witchcraft Trials”. Journal of Historical Pragmatics8 (1): 25–41. 10.1075/jhp.8.1.03dot
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.8.1.03dot [Google Scholar]
  12. Dourdy, Laura-Maï and Michela Spacagno
    2020 “Donner la parole aux interrogés : une étude de l’oral représenté dans les comptes rendus de procès médiévaux aux XIVe et XVe siècles” [‘Making the Witnesses and Defendants Speak: A Study of Represented Speech in 14th and 15th Century Trial Accounts’]. Langages217 (1): 119–132. 10.3917/lang.217.0119
    https://doi.org/10.3917/lang.217.0119 [Google Scholar]
  13. Evans, Mel
    2017 “Royal Language and Reported Discourse in Sixteenth-Century Correspondence”. Journal of Historical Pragmatics18 (1): 30–57. 10.1075/jhp.18.1.02eva
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.18.1.02eva [Google Scholar]
  14. Fronteira, Patricia, Susan Powell, Shadrick Small, Jenelle Thomas and Bryan Wagner
    2022 “The 1791 and 1795 Slave Conspiracies in Pointe Coupée, Louisiana: A Geospatial Dataset”. Journal of Slavery & Data Preservation3 (2): 30–37.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Grund, Peter
    2007 “From Tongue to Text: The Transmission of the Salem Witchcraft Examination Records”. American Speech82 (2): 119–150. 10.1215/00031283‑2007‑005
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-2007-005 [Google Scholar]
  16. Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo
    1992Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Holmes, Jack D. L.
    1970 “The Abortive Slave Revolt at Pointe Coupée, Louisiana, 1795”. Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association11 (4): 341–362.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Jones, Taylor, Jessica Rose Kalbfeld, Ryan Hancock and Robin Clark
    2019 “Testifying While Black: An Experimental Study of Court Reporter Accuracy in Transcription of African American English”. Language95 (2): e216–e252. 10.1353/lan.2019.0042
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2019.0042 [Google Scholar]
  19. Kinnaird, Lawrence
    1946Spain in the Mississippi Valley, 1765–1794. Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1945, v.2–4. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kryk-Kastovsky, Barbara
    2000 “Representations of Orality in Early Modern English Trial Records”. Journal of Historical Pragmatics1 (2): 201–230. 10.1075/jhp.1.2.04kry
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.1.2.04kry [Google Scholar]
  21. 2006 “Impoliteness in Early Modern English Courtroom Discourse”. Journal of Historical Pragmatics7 (2): 213–243. 10.1075/jhp.7.2.04kry
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.7.2.04kry [Google Scholar]
  22. Kytö, Merja
    2000 “Robert Keayne’s Notebooks: A Verbatim Record of Spoken English in Early Boston?” InSusan C. Herring, Pieter van Reenen and Lene Schøsler (eds), Textual Parameters in Older Languages, 273–308. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lüdi, Georges
    2009 “Confessions criminelles. Réflexions sociolinguistiques à propos d’un genre textuel au début de l’ère moderne” [‘Criminal Confessions: Sociolinguistic Reflections on a Textual Genre at the Beginning of the Modern Era’]. InDorothée Aquino-Weber, Sara Cotelli and Andres Kristol (eds), Sociolinguistique historique du domaine gallo-roman : enjeux et méthodologies [‘Historical Sociolinguistics of the Gallo-Roman Domain: Issues and Methodologies’], 175–197. Bern: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. McLaughlin, Mairi
    2020 “La représentation de l’oral dans la Gazette d’Amsterdam à la fin du XVIIIe siècle” [‘The Representation of Spoken Language in the Gazette d’Amsterdam at the End of the Eighteenth Century’]. Langages217 (1) : 133–146. 10.3917/lang.217.0133
    https://doi.org/10.3917/lang.217.0133 [Google Scholar]
  25. Marnette, Sophie
    2004 “L’effacement énonciatif dans la presse contemporaine” [‘Enunciative Deletion in the Contemporary Press’]. Langages, no.156 : 51–64. 10.3406/lgge.2004.963
    https://doi.org/10.3406/lgge.2004.963 [Google Scholar]
  26. Mellinkoff, David
    1963The Language of the Law. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Picone, Michael D.
    2015 “French Dialects of Louisiana: A Revised Typology”. InMichael D. Picone and Catherine Evans Davies (eds), New Perspectives on Language Variety in the South: Historical and Contemporary Approaches, 267–287. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Puente Luna, José Carlos de la
    2014 “The Many Tongues of the King: Indigenous Language Interpreters and the Making of the Spanish Empire”. Colonial Latin American Review23 (2) : 143–170. 10.1080/10609164.2014.917545
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10609164.2014.917545 [Google Scholar]
  29. Rabatel, Alain
    2003 “L’effacement énonciatif dans les discours représentés et ses effets pragmatiques de sous- et de surénonciation” [‘Enunciative Deletion in Reported Discourse and the Practical Effects of Over- and Underutterance’]. Estudios de lengua y literatura francesas141 : 33–61.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Rickford, John R. and Sharese King
    2016 “Language and Linguistics on Trial: Hearing Rachel Jeantel (and Other Vernacular Speakers) in the Courtroom and Beyond”. Language92 (4): 948–988. 10.1353/lan.2016.0078
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2016.0078 [Google Scholar]
  31. Schneider, Edgar W.
    2013 “Investigating Variation and Change in Written Documents”. InJ. K. Chambers and Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds), The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, Second, 67–96. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781118335598.ch3
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118335598.ch3 [Google Scholar]
  32. Sessarego, Sandro
    2015Afro-Peruvian Spanish: Spanish Slavery and the Legacy of Spanish Creoles. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.51
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.51 [Google Scholar]
  33. Small, Shadrick, Patricia Fronteira, Jenelle Thomas and Bryan Wagner
    2022 “The 1791 and 1795 Slave Conspiracies in Pointe Coupée, Louisiana: A Bibliographic and Demographic Dataset”. Journal of Slavery & Data Preservation3 (2): 21–29.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Sternberg, Meir
    1982 “Proteus in Quotation-Land: Mimesis and the Forms of Reported Discourse”. Poetics Today3 (2): 107–156. 10.2307/1772069
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1772069 [Google Scholar]
  35. Tannen, Deborah
    1989Talking Voices: Repetition, Dialogue and Imagery in Conversational Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Tiersma, Peter M.
    1993 “Linguistic Issues in the Law”. Judith Levi, Anne Graffam Walker, Robert W. Rieber and William A. Stewart (eds). Language69 (1): 113–137. 10.2307/416418
    https://doi.org/10.2307/416418 [Google Scholar]
  37. Wagner, Esther-Miriam, Ben Outhwaite and Bettina Beinhoff
    2013 “Scribes and Language Change”. InEsther-Miriam Wagner, Ben Outhwaite and Bettina Beinhoff (eds), Scribes as Agents of Language Change, 3–18. Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9781614510543.3
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614510543.3 [Google Scholar]
  38. Walker, Anne Graffam
    1986 “The Verbatim Record: The Myth and the Reality”. InSue Fisher and Alexandra Dundas Todd (eds), Discourse and Institutional Authority: Medicine, Education, and Law, 205–222. (Volume 19: Advances in Discourse Processes.) Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 1990 “Language at Work in the Law: The Customs, Conventions, and Appellate Consequences of Court Reporting”. InJudith N. Levi and Anne Graffam Walker (eds), Language in the Judicial Process, 203–244. (Volume 5: Law, Society, and Policy.) New York and London: Plenum. 10.1007/978‑1‑4899‑3719‑3_7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-3719-3_7 [Google Scholar]
  40. White, Sophie
    2019Voices of the Enslaved: Love, Labor, and Longing in French Louisiana. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press. 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469654041.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.5149/northcarolina/9781469654041.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jhp.20005.tho
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jhp.20005.tho
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error