Volume 9, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2032-6904
  • E-ISSN: 2032-6912
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mutual relationship between work and family among translators and how that affects their job satisfaction and performance. More specifically, the study centres around the notions of work-family conflict (Greenhaus, and Beutell 1985) and work-family facilitation (Frone 2003) and analyses what effect they have on translators’ job satisfaction and performance. The study also tests the influence of the changes imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the parenting role. Following Choi and Kim (2012), a survey was conducted among a group of professional translators which contained questions on all variables under study: work-family conflict, family-work conflict, work-family facilitation, family-work facilitation, job satisfaction and job performance. The results reveal the influence of the work-family interface on job outcomes. The findings of the study have implications for professional translators and the clients they work for.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Aryee, Samuel, E. S. Srinivas, and Hwee Hoon Tan
    2005 “Rhythms of Life: Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Family Balance in Employed Parents”. Journal of Applied Psychology90 (1): 132–146. 10.1037/0021‑9010.90.1.132
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.1.132 [Google Scholar]
  2. Babin, Barry J., and James S. Boles
    1998 “Employee Behavior in a Service Environment: A Model and Test of Potential Differences between Men and Women.” Journal of Marketing621: 77–91. 10.1177/002224299806200206
    https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299806200206 [Google Scholar]
  3. Barnett, Rosalind Chait, and Janet Shibley Hyde
    2001 “Women, Men, Work, and Family: An Expansionist Theory.” American Psychologist56 (10): 781–796. 10.1037/0003‑066X.56.10.781
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.10.781 [Google Scholar]
  4. Boles, James S., Gary G. Howard, and Heather H. Donofrio
    2001 “An Investigation into the Inter-Relationships of Work-Family Conflict, Family-Work Conflict and Work Satisfaction.” Journal of Managerial Issues13 (3): 376–390.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Boyar, Scott L., and Donald C. Mosley
    2007 “The Relationships between Core Self-Evaluations and Work and Family Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Work-Family Conflict and Facilitation.” Journal of Vocational Behavior711: 265–281. 10.1016/j.jvb.2007.06.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2007.06.001 [Google Scholar]
  6. Byron, Kristin
    2005 “A Meta-Analytic Review of Work–Family Conflict and Its Antecedents.” Journal of Vocational Behavior671: 169–198. 10.1016/j.jvb.2004.08.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2004.08.009 [Google Scholar]
  7. Campbell, Donald J., Kathleen M. Campbell, and Daniel Kennard
    1994 “The Effects of Family Responsibilities on the Work Commitment and Job Performance of Non-Professional Women.” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology671: 283–29. 10.1111/j.2044‑8325.1994.tb00568.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1994.tb00568.x [Google Scholar]
  8. Carlson, Dawn S., K. Michele Kacmar, Julie Holliday Wayne, and Joseph G. Grzywacz
    2006 “Measuring the Positive Side of the Work-Family Interface: Development and Validation of a Work-Family Enrichment Scale.” Journal of Vocational Behavior681: 131–16410.1016/j.jvb.2005.02.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2005.02.002 [Google Scholar]
  9. Choi, Hyun J., and Young T. Kim
    2012 “Work-Family Conflict, Work-Family Facilitation, and Job Outcomes in the Korean Hotel Industry.” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management24 (7): 1011–1028. 10.1108/09596111211258892
    https://doi.org/10.1108/09596111211258892 [Google Scholar]
  10. Chovwen, Catherine
    2007 “Barriers to Acceptance, Satisfaction and Career Growth”. Women in Management Review22 (1): 68–78. 10.1108/09649420710726238
    https://doi.org/10.1108/09649420710726238 [Google Scholar]
  11. Crouter, Ann C.
    1984 “Spillover from Family to Work: The Neglected Side of the Work-Family Interface.” Human Relations37 (6): 425–441. 10.1177/001872678403700601
    https://doi.org/10.1177/001872678403700601 [Google Scholar]
  12. CSA (Common Sense Advisory)
    CSA (Common Sense Advisory) 2017CSA Research Survey on Gender and Family in the Language Service Industry. Overall Findings. Cambridge, Massachusetts: USA.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. ELIS (European Language Industry Survey)
    ELIS (European Language Industry Survey) 2020 Before and After Covid-19. AccessedDecember 2020. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/2020_language_industry_survey_report.pdf
  14. ELIS (European Language Industry Survey)
  15. Etaugh, Claire, and Denise Folger
    1998 “Perceptions of Parents Whose Work and Parenting Behaviors Deviate from Role Expectations”. Sex Roles39 (3/4): 215–223. 10.1023/A:1018850404838
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018850404838 [Google Scholar]
  16. Fraser, Janet, and Michael Gold
    2001 “Portfolio Workers: Autonomy and Control amongst Freelance Translators.” Work, Employment and Society15 (4): 679–697.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Frone, Michael R.
    2003 “Work-Family Balance”. InHandbook of Occupational Health Psychology, edited byJames C. Quick, and Lois E. Tetrick: 143–162. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 10.1037/10474‑007
    https://doi.org/10.1037/10474-007 [Google Scholar]
  18. Frone, Michael R., John K. Yardley, and Karen S. Markel
    1997 “Developing and Testing an Integrative Model of the Work–Family Interface”. Journal of Vocational Behavior50 (2): 145–167. 10.1006/jvbe.1996.1577
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1996.1577 [Google Scholar]
  19. Golden, Brian R.
    1992 “The Past is the Past – Or is it? The Use of Retrospective Accounts as Indicators of Past Strategy”. Academy of Management Journal, 35 (4): 848–860. 10.2307/256318
    https://doi.org/10.2307/256318 [Google Scholar]
  20. Greenhaus, Jeffrey H., and Richard E. Kopelman
    1981 “Conflict between Work and Nonwork Roles: Implications for the Career Planning Process”. Human Resource Planning4 (1): 1–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Greenhaus, Jeffrey H., and Nicholas J. Beutell
    1985 “Source of Conflict between Work and Family Roles.” The Academy of Management Review10 (1): 76–88. 10.2307/258214
    https://doi.org/10.2307/258214 [Google Scholar]
  22. Greenhaus, Jeffrey H., and Saroj Parasuraman
    1999 “Research on Work, Family, and Gender: Current Status and Future Directions”. InHandbook of Gender and Work, edited byGary N. Powell: 391–412. Sage Publications, Inc.. 10.4135/9781452231365.n20
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452231365.n20 [Google Scholar]
  23. Greenhaus, Jeffrey H., and Gary N. Powell
    2006 “When Work and Family Are Allies: A Theory of Work-Family Enrichment.” The Academy of Management Review31 (1): 72–92. 10.5465/amr.2006.19379625
    https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2006.19379625 [Google Scholar]
  24. Grzywacz, Joseph G., and Nadine F. Marks
    2000 “Family, Work, Work-Family Spillover and Problem Drinking during Midlife.” Journal of Marriage and Family62 (2): 336–348. 10.1111/j.1741‑3737.2000.00336.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00336.x [Google Scholar]
  25. Hall, Douglas T., and Francine E. Gordon
    1973 “Career Choices of Married Women: Effects on Conflict, Role Behavior, and Satisfaction”. Journal of Applied Psychology58 (1): 42–48. 10.1037/h0035404
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0035404 [Google Scholar]
  26. Hartline, Michael D., and O. C. Ferrell
    1996 “The Management of Customer-Contact Service Employees: An Empirical Investigation.” Journal of Marketing60 (4): 52–70. 10.1177/002224299606000406
    https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299606000406 [Google Scholar]
  27. Hassan, Zaiton, Maureen F. Dollard, and Anthony H. Winefield
    2010 “Work-Family Conflict in East vs. Western Countries.” Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal17 (1): 30–49. 10.1108/13527601011016899
    https://doi.org/10.1108/13527601011016899 [Google Scholar]
  28. Jinyevu, Salimu A.
    2013 “Is There a Relationship between Employees Satisfaction and Their Performance?: The Case of Teachers in Tanzania Government-Owned Schools.” European Journal of Business and Management5 (25).
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Jones, Allan P., and Mark C. Butler
    1980 “A Role Transition Approach to the Stresses of Organizationally Induced Family Role Disruption”. Journal of Marriage and the Family42 (2): 367–376. 10.2307/351234
    https://doi.org/10.2307/351234 [Google Scholar]
  30. Karatepe, Osman M.
    2010 “The Effect of Positive and Negative Work-Family Interaction on Exhaustion. Does Work Social Support Make a Difference?.” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management22 (6): 836–856. 10.1108/09596111011063115
    https://doi.org/10.1108/09596111011063115 [Google Scholar]
  31. Karatepe, Osman M., and Alheri B. Magaji
    2008 “Work-Family Conflict and Facilitation in the Hotel Industry. A Study in Nigeria.” Cornell Hospitality Quarterly49 (4): 395–412. 10.1177/1938965508326282
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965508326282 [Google Scholar]
  32. Karatepe, Osman M., and Hasan Kilic
    2007 “Relationships of Supervisor Support and Conflicts in the Work-Family Interface with the Selected Job Outcomes of Frontline Employees.” Tourism Management28 (1): 238–252. 10.1016/j.tourman.2005.12.019
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.12.019 [Google Scholar]
  33. Karatepe, Osman M., and Lulu Baddar
    2006 “An Empirical Study of the Selected Consequences of Frontline Employees’ Work–Family Conflict and Family–Work Conflict.” Tourism Management271: 1017–1028. 10.1016/j.tourman.2005.10.024
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.10.024 [Google Scholar]
  34. Karatepe, Osman M., and Lorina Bekteshi
    2008 “Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Family Facilitation and Family-Work Facilitation among Frontline Hotel Employees.” International Journal of Hospitality Management271: 517–528. 10.1016/j.ijhm.2007.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2007.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  35. Karatepe, Osman M., and Orhan Uludag
    2008 “Affectivity, Conflicts in the Work-Family Interface, and Hotel Employee Outcomes.” International Journal of Hospitality Management271: 30–41. 10.1016/j.ijhm.2007.07.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2007.07.001 [Google Scholar]
  36. Mauno, Saija, Ulla, Kinnunen, and Taru Feldt
    2012 “Work-Family Culture and Job Satisfaction: Does Gender and Parenting Status Alter the Relationship?.” Community, Work and Family15 (1): 101–129. 10.1080/13668803.2011.598733
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2011.598733 [Google Scholar]
  37. McManus, Kelly, Karen, Korabik, Hazel, Rosin, and E. Kevin Kelloway
    2002 “Employed Mother and the Work-Family Interface: Does Family Structure Matter?” Human Resources55 (11): 1295–1324. 10.1177/0018726702055011919
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726702055011919 [Google Scholar]
  38. Motowidlo, Stephan J., and Harrison J. Kell
    2013 “Job Performance” InHandbook of Psychology: Industrial and Organizational Psychology, edited byNeal W. Schmitt, and Scott Highhouse, 121: 82–103. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Namasivayam, Karthik, and Xinyuan Zhao
    2007 “An Investigation of the Moderating Effects of Organizational Commitment on the Relationships between Work–Family Conflict and Job Satisfaction among Hospitality Employees in India.” Tourism Management281: 1212–1223. 10.1016/j.tourman.2006.09.021
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2006.09.021 [Google Scholar]
  40. Rothbard, Nancy P.
    2001 “Enriching or Depleting? The Dynamics of Engagement in Work and Family Roles”. Administrative Science Quarterly46 (4): 655–684. 10.2307/3094827
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3094827 [Google Scholar]
  41. Schultz, Jerelyn B., and Chinella Henderson
    1985 “Family Satisfaction and Job Performance: Implications for Career Development.” Journal of Career Development12 (1): 33–47. 10.1177/089484538501200105
    https://doi.org/10.1177/089484538501200105 [Google Scholar]
  42. Seery, Brenda L., Elizabeth, A. Corrigall, and Tammy Harpel
    2008 “Job-Related Emotional Labor and Its Relationship to Work-Family Conflict and Facilitation.” Journal of Family and Economic Issues29 (3): 461–477. 10.1007/s10834‑008‑9116‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10834-008-9116-9 [Google Scholar]
  43. Smith, Katherine T., Murphey L. Smith and Tracy Brower
    2016 “How Work-Life Balance, Job Performance, and Ethics Connect: Perspectives of Current and Future Accountants.” Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting201: 219–238. 10.1108/S1574‑076520160000020008
    https://doi.org/10.1108/S1574-076520160000020008 [Google Scholar]
  44. Spector, Paul E.
    1997Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Causes, and Consequences. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. 10.4135/9781452231549
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452231549 [Google Scholar]
  45. Vieira, Joana M., Marisa Matias, Frederick G. Lopez, and Paula M. Matos
    2016 “Relationships between Work-Family Dynamics and Parenting Experiences: A Dyadic Analysis of Dual-Earner Couples.” Work and Stress30 (3): 243–261. 10.1080/02678373.2016.1211772
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2016.1211772 [Google Scholar]
  46. Voydanoff, Patricia
    2004 “Implications of Work and Community Demands and Resources for Work-to-Family Conflict and Facilitation.” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology9 (4): 275–285. 10.1037/1076‑8998.9.4.275
    https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.9.4.275 [Google Scholar]
  47. Wayne, Julie H., Nicholas, Musisca, and William Fleeson
    2004 “Considering the Role of Personality in the Work–Family Experience: Relationships of the Big Five to Work–Family Conflict and Facilitation.” Journal of Vocational Behavior641: 108–130. 10.1016/S0001‑8791(03)00035‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791(03)00035-6 [Google Scholar]
  48. Weiss, Howard M.
    2002 “Deconstructing Job Satisfaction: Separating Evaluations, Beliefs and Affective Experiences”. Human Resource Management Review121: 173–194. 10.1016/S1053‑4822(02)00045‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(02)00045-1 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error