Volume 7, Issue 1-2
  • ISSN 2032-6904
  • E-ISSN: 2032-6912
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The localisation sector is highly technologized and evolves rapidly. Though significant consideration has been given to third-level training in localisation for Translation Studies students, the nature of the industry is such that this topic demands regular attention. Our objective was to survey employees and executive managers to understand what impact recent technological developments, including but not limited to neural machine translation (NMT), might have on future skills and training requirements for localisation linguists. Our findings are that linguists in localisation take up a variety of roles, including transcreation, data mining, and project and vendor management. NMT is considered an important advancement, and its introduction has emphasised the need for a critical use of technology, while opening new career pathways, such as data curation and annotation. Domain specialisation is recommended for those who translate, and transferable soft skills are more essential than ever. Increased industry and interdisciplinary collaborations in training are also considered valuable.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Al-Batineh, Mohammed , and Loubna Bilali
    2017 “Translator Training in the Arab World: Are Curricula Aligned with the Language Industry?” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer11 (2–3): 187–203. 10.1080/1750399X.2017.1350900
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2017.1350900 [Google Scholar]
  2. Álvarez-Álvarez, Susana , and Verónica Arnáiz-Uzquiza
    2017 “Translation and Interpreting Graduates under Construction: Do Spanish Translation and Interpreting Studies Curricula Answer the Challenges of Employability?” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer11 (2–3): 139–159. 10.1080/1750399X.2017.1344812
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2017.1344812 [Google Scholar]
  3. Astley, Helen , and Olga Torres Hostench
    2017 “The European Graduate Placement Scheme: An Integrated Approach to Preparing Master’s in Translation Graduates for Employment.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer11 (2–3): 204–222. 10.1080/1750399X.2017.1344813
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2017.1344813 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baños, Rocío , and Pier Antonio Toto
    2013 “Challenges and Constraints in Designing a Localisation Module for a Multilingual Cohort.” InConducting Research in Translation Technologies, edited by Pilar Sánchez Gijón , Olga Torres Hostench , and Bartolomé Mesa Lao , 185–205. Oxford: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Braun, Virginia , and Victoria Clarke
    2006 “Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology.” Qualitative Research in Psychology3(2): 77–101. 10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
    https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa [Google Scholar]
  6. Cadwell, Patrick , Sharon O’Brien , and Carlos Teixeira
    2018 “Resistance and Accommodation: Factors for the (non-)Adoption of Machine Translation among Professional Translators.” Perspectives26 (3): 301–321. 10.1080/0907676X.2017.1337210
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2017.1337210 [Google Scholar]
  7. Castilho, Sheila , Joss Moorkens , Federico Gaspari , Iacer Calixto , John Tinsley , and Andy Way
    2017 “Is Neural Machine Translation the New State of the Art?” The Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics108 (1): 109–120. 10.1515/pralin‑2017‑0013
    https://doi.org/10.1515/pralin-2017-0013 [Google Scholar]
  8. Castilho, Sheila , and Sharon O’Brien
    2016 “Content Profiling and Translation Scenarios.” The Journal of Internationalization and Localization3 (1): 18–37. 10.1075/jial.3.1.02cas
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jial.3.1.02cas [Google Scholar]
  9. Dunne, Kieran
    2011 “From Vicious to Virtuous Cycle: Customer-focused Translation Quality Management Using ISO 9001 Principles and Agile Methods.” InTranslation and Localization Project Management: The Art of the Possible, edited by Kieran Dunne and Elena Dunne , 153–188. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/ata.xvi.09dun
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ata.xvi.09dun [Google Scholar]
  10. European Master’s in Translation
    European Master’s in Translation 2017EMT Competence Framework 2017. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/emt_competence_fwk_2017_en_web.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  11. European Union Association of Translation Companies
    European Union Association of Translation Companies 2019Language Industry Survey – Expectations and Concerns of the European Language Industry. https://euatc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/2019-Language-Industry-Survey-Report.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Folaron, Debbie
    2020 “Technology, Technical Translation, and Localization.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Translation and Technology, edited by Minako O’Hagan . Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gaspari, Federico , Hala Almaghout , and Stephen Doherty
    2015 “A Survey of Machine Translation Competences: Insights for Translation Technology Educators and Practitioners.” Perspectives23 (3): 333–358. 10.1080/0907676X.2014.979842
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2014.979842 [Google Scholar]
  14. Ginovart Cid, Clara , Carme Colominas , and Antoni Oliver
    2020 “Language Industry Views on the Profile of the Post-Editor”. Translation Spaces (Online). https://www.jbe-platform.com/content/journals/10.1075/ts.19010.cid
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jiménez Crespo, Miguel
    2018 “Localisation Research in Translation Studies: Expanding the Limits or Blurring the Lines?” InMoving Boundaries in Translation Studies, by Helle Dam , Matilde Brøgger and Karen Zethsen , 26–44. Abingdon: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315121871‑3
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315121871-3 [Google Scholar]
  16. Jiménez Crespo, Miguel and Maribel Tercedor
    2011 “Applying Corpus Data to Define Needs in Web Localization Training.” Meta: Translators’ Journal56 (4): 998–1021. 10.7202/1011264ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/1011264ar [Google Scholar]
  17. Kenny, Dorothy , and Stephen Doherty
    2014 “Statistical Machine Translation in the Translation Curriculum: Overcoming Obstacles and Empowering Translators.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer8 (2): 276–294. 10.1080/1750399X.2014.936112
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2014.936112 [Google Scholar]
  18. King, Hayley
    2017 “Translator Education Programs & the Translation Labour Market: Linear Career Progression or a Touch of Chaos?” T and I Review7: 133–151.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kiraly, Don
    2005 “Project-Based Learning: A Case for Situated Translation.” Meta: Translators’ Journal50 (4): 1098–1111. 10.7202/012063ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/012063ar [Google Scholar]
  20. Lafeber, Anne
    2012 “Translation Skills and Knowledge-Preliminary Findings of a Survey of Translators and Revisers Working at Inter-Governmental Organizations.” Meta: Translators’ Journal57 (1): 108–131. 10.7202/1012744ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/1012744ar [Google Scholar]
  21. LeBlanc, Matthieu
    2017 “‘I Can’t Get no Satisfaction!’ Should we Blame Translation Technologies or Shifting Business Practices?” InHuman Issues in Translation Technology, by Dorothy Kenny , 63–80. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Marshman, Elizabeth , and Lynne Bowker
    2012 “Translation Technologies as Seen through the Eyes of the Educators and Students: Harmonizing Views with the Help of a Centralized Teaching and Learning Resource.” InGlobal Trends in Translator and Interpreter Training, edited by Séverine Hubscher-Davidson and Michal Borodo , 69–95. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Massey, Gary
    2019 “Learning to Learn, Teach and Develop: Co-emergent Perspectives on Translator and Language-mediator Education.” InTRAlinea: Online Translation Journal. www.intralinea.org/specials/article/learning_to_learn_teach_and_develop
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Matthews, Bob , and Liz Ross
    2010Research Methods: A Practical Guide for the Social Sciences. New York: Pearson Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. McDonough, Julie
    2007 “How do Language Professionals Organize Themselves? An Overview of Translation Networks.” Meta: Translators’ Journal52 (4): 793–815. 10.7202/017697ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/017697ar [Google Scholar]
  26. Mellinger, Christopher
    2017 “Translators and Machine Translation: Knowledge and Skills Gaps in Translator Pedagogy.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer11 (4): 280–293. 10.1080/1750399X.2017.1359760
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2017.1359760 [Google Scholar]
  27. 2018 “Problem-based Learning in Computer-assisted Translation Pedagogy.” HERMES – Journal of Language and Communication in Business57: 195–208. 10.7146/hjlcb.v0i57.106205
    https://doi.org/10.7146/hjlcb.v0i57.106205 [Google Scholar]
  28. Moorkens, Joss
    2018 “What to Expect from Neural Machine Translation: A Practical In-class Translation Evaluation Exercise.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer12 (4): 375–387. 10.1080/1750399X.2018.1501639
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2018.1501639 [Google Scholar]
  29. Moorkens, Joss , and Sharon O’Brien
    2017 “Assessing User Interface Needs of Post-Editors of Machine Translation.” InHuman Issues in Translation Technology, edited by Dorothy Kenny , 109–130. Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. O’Brien, Sharon
    2012 “Translation as Human-Computer Interaction.” Translation Spaces1 (1): 101–122. 10.1075/ts.1.05obr
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.1.05obr [Google Scholar]
  31. O’Hagan, Minako
    2006 “Training for Localization (Replies to a Questionnaire).” InTranslation Technology and Its Teaching, edited by Anthony Pym , Alexander Perekrestenko , and Bram Starink , 39–44. Tarragona, Spain: Intercultural Studies Group Universitat Rovira i Virgili.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Olohan, Maeve
    2007 “Economic Trends and Developments in the Translation Industry: What Relevance for Translator Training?” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer1 (1): 37–63. 10.1080/1750399X.2007.10798749
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2007.10798749 [Google Scholar]
  33. Pym, Anthony
    2014 “Localization, Training, and Instrumentalization.” InTranslation Research Projects 5, edited by Esther Torres-Simón and David Orrego-Carmona , 37–50. Tarragona, Spain: Intercultural Studies Group Universitat Rovira i Virgili.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Rodríguez-Castro, Mónica
    2016 “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Sources of Translator Satisfaction: An Empirical Study.” Entreculturas7–8: 195–229.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Rodríguez de Céspedes, Begoña
    2017 “Addressing Employability and Enterprise Responsibilities in the Translation Curriculum.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer11 (2–3): 107–122. 10.1080/1750399X.2017.1344816
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2017.1344816 [Google Scholar]
  36. Rodríguez de Céspedes Begoña, Akiko Sakamoto , and Sarah Berthaud
    eds. 2017Employability in the Translator and Interpreter Curriculum. Special Issue of The Interpreter and Translator Trainer11 (2–3).
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Salmon, Gillie
    2019 “May the Fourth Be with You: Creating Education 4.0.” Journal of Learning for Development6 (2): 95–115.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Sánchez Gijón, Pilar , Joss Moorkens , and Andy Way
    2019 “Post-Editing Neural Machine Translation Versus Translation Memory Segments.” Machine Translation33: 31–59. 10.1007/s10590‑019‑09232‑x
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10590-019-09232-x [Google Scholar]
  39. Sánchez Ramos, María del Mar
    2019 “Rethinking Professional Translation Roles: The Localisation of Mobile Applications.” Sendebar30: 121–139.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Schäffner, Christina
    2020 “Translators’ Roles and Responsibilities”. InThe Bloomsbury Companion to Language Industry Studies, edited by Erik Angelone , Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow , and Gary Massey , 63–90. London: Bloomsbury Academic. 10.5040/9781350024960.0008
    https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350024960.0008 [Google Scholar]
  41. Schnell, Bettina , and Nadia Rodríguez
    2017 “Ivory Tower vs. Workplace Reality: Employability and the T&I Curriculum-balancing Academic Education and Vocational Requirements: A Study from the Employers’ Perspective.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer11 (2–3): 160–186. 10.1080/1750399X.2017.1344920
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2017.1344920 [Google Scholar]
  42. Shreve, Gregory
    2020 “Professional Translator Development from an Expertise Perspective.” InThe Bloomsbury Companion to Language Industry Studies, edited by Erik Angelone , Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow , and Gary Massey , 153–178. London: Bloomsbury Academic. 10.5040/9781350024960.0012
    https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350024960.0012 [Google Scholar]
  43. Toral, Antonio , Martijn Wieling , and Andy Way
    2018 “Post-Editing Effort of a Novel With Statistical and Neural Machine Translation.” Frontiers in Digital Humanities. doi: 10.3389/fdigh.2018.00009#
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fdigh.2018.00009# [Google Scholar]
  44. Torres del Rey, Jesús
    2019 “The Proper Place of Localization in Translation Curricula: An Inclusive Social, Object-Driven, Semiotic-Communicative Approach.” InThe Evolving Curriculum in Interpreter and Translator Education. Stakeholder Perspectives and Voices, edited by David B. Sawyer , Frank Austermühl , and Vanessa Enríquez Raído , 229–258. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/ata.xix.11tor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ata.xix.11tor [Google Scholar]
  45. Valero Garcés, Carmen , and Daniel Toudic
    2015 “Technological Innovation and Translation. Training Translators in the EU for the 21st century.” Verbeia. https://www.ucjc.edu/wp-content/uploads/11.Carmen-Valero-Garces-y-Daniel-Toudic.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Van Egdom, Gys-Walt , and Mark Pluymaekers
    2020 “Quality According to Language Service Providers.” InNew Empirical Perspectives on Translation and Interpreting, edited by Lore Vandevoorde , Joke Daems , and Bart Defrancq , 139–156. New York and London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Vieira, Nunes Lucas
    2020 “Automation Anxiety and Translators.” Translation Studies13 (1): 1–21. 10.1080/14781700.2018.1543613
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781700.2018.1543613 [Google Scholar]
  48. Wang, Xu , Chunyang Chen , and Zhenchang Xing
    2019 “Domain-specific Machine Translation with Recurrent Neural Network for Software Localization.” Empirical Software Engineering24: 3514–3545. 10.1007/s10664‑019‑09702‑z
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10664-019-09702-z [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): employability; localisation; training; translation graduate skills
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error