1887
Volume 8, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2032-6904
  • E-ISSN: 2032-6912
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Digital labour platforms, encompassing on-demand translation work via apps and websites, have grown exponentially in recent years and have significant consequences for translation workers. This study explores the critical literature on digital labour platforms from a labour studies perspective and submits the findings of a quantitative survey of 70 translation workers residing in Turkey and working on/for digital labour platforms. Our research suggests that the introduction of digital labour platforms into translation production and business networks has not yet provided a significant contribution to the working conditions of translation workers in Turkey. Instead, we argue that their working conditions have been rearranged and reorganized in accordance with the uberization of (translation) work. According to the survey findings, engaging in such work on/for digital labour platforms exposes translation workers to risks related to employment status, income level, work-life balance, social protections, free agency, bargaining power, dependence on the platform, allocation of risks and rewards, and data collection, protection and privacy.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jial.20006.fir
2021-09-13
2021-12-09
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abdallah, Kristiina, and Kaisa Koskinen
    2007 “Managing Trust: Translating and the Network Economy”. Meta: Journal Des Traducteurs52 (4): 673–687. https://www.erudit.org/en/journals/meta/1900-v1-n1-meta1954/017692ar/abstract/
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alfer, Alexa, and Cornelia Zwischenberger
    eds. 2020Translaboration: Exploring Collaboration in Translation and Translation in Collaboration. Special issue of Target32 (2). doi:  10.1075/target.20105.alf
    https://doi.org/10.1075/target.20105.alf [Google Scholar]
  3. Baker, Mona
    2009 “Resisting State Terror: Theorizing Communities of Activist Translators and Interpreters”. InGlobalization, Political Violence and Translation, E. Bielsa and C. W. Hughes. (Eds.): 222–242. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230235410_12
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230235410_12 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baumgarten, Stefan
    2016 “The Crooked Timber of Self-reflexivity: Translation and Ideology in the End Times”. Perspectives24 (1): 115–129. doi:  10.1080/0907676X.2015.1069863
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2015.1069863 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bauwens, Michel, and Vasilis Kostakis
    2017 “Why Platform Co-Ops Should Be Open Co-Ops”. InOurs to Hack and to Own: The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, A New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer InternetbyTrebor Scholz and Nathan Schneider. (Eds): 163–166. New York: Or Books. 10.2307/j.ctv62hfq7.31
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv62hfq7.31 [Google Scholar]
  6. Canfora, Carmen, and Angelika Ottmann
    2020 “Risks In Neural Machine Translation”. Fair MT9 (1): 58–77. doi:  10.1075/ts.00021.can
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.00021.can [Google Scholar]
  7. Caruso, Loris
    2017 “Digital Innovation and the Fourth Industrial Revolution: Epochal Social Changes?”. AI and Society33 (3): 379–392. doi:  10.1007/s00146‑017‑0736‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00146-017-0736-1 [Google Scholar]
  8. Cohen, Maurie J.
    2017The Future of Consumer Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:  10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198768555.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198768555.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  9. Coop
    Coop 2021 “Platformcoop Directory”. Platform Cooperativism Consortium. AccessedMay 2021. https://directory.platform.coop/#1/31.1/-84.8
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cronin, Michael
    2017Eco-Translation: Translation and Ecology in the Age of the Anthropocene. London; New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. 10.4324/9781315689357
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315689357 [Google Scholar]
  11. Dam, Helle Vrønning, and Karen Korning Zethsen
    2008 “Translator Status”. The Translator14 (1): 71–96. doi:  10.1080/13556509.2008.10799250
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2008.10799250 [Google Scholar]
  12. 2011 “The Status of Professional Business Translators on the Danish Market: A Comparative Study of Company, Agency and Freelance Translators”. Meta56(4): 976–997. doi:  10.7202/1011263ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/1011263ar [Google Scholar]
  13. De Stefano, Valerio and Antonio Aloisi
    2018European Legal Framework for Digital Labour Platforms. Luxembourg: European Commission. doi:  10.2760/78590, JRC112243. https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/european-legal-framework-digital-labour-platforms
    https://doi.org/10.2760/78590 [Google Scholar]
  14. Disco
    Disco 2021 “Open Value Cooperativism and Disco in 7 Principles and 11 Values”. Guerrilla Media Collective Wiki. AccessedMay 2021. https://wiki.guerrillamediacollective.org/Category:DisCO
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ehrensberger-Dow, Maureen, and Andrea Hunziker Heeb
    2016 “Investigating the Ergonomics of the Technologized Translation Workplace”. InReembedding Translation Process ResearchbyRicardo Muñoz Martín. (Ed), 69–88. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308278360_Investigating_the_ergonomics_of_a_technologized_translation_workplace. 10.1075/btl.128.04ehr
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.128.04ehr [Google Scholar]
  16. Ehrensberger-Dow, Maureen, Andrea Hunziker Heeb, Gary Massey, Ursula Meidert, Silke Neumann, and Heidrun Becker
    2016 “An International Survey of the Ergonomics of Professional Translation”. ILCEA Revue de l’Institut des Langues et des Cultures d’Europe et d’Amérique27. https://journals.openedition.org/ilcea/4004
  17. ETUC
    ETUC 2018Collective Voice in the Platform Economy: Challenges, Opportunities, Solutions. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.etuc.org/sites/default/files/publication/file/2018-09/Prassl%20report%20maquette.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Eurofond
    Eurofond 2018Platform Work: Types and Implications for Work and Employment: Literature Review. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/sites/default/files/wpef18004.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  19. European Commission, CIOL, and ITI
    European Commission, CIOL, and ITI 2016UK Translator Survey: Final Report. London, UK: European Commission. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.ciol.org.uk/sites/default/files/UKTS2016-Final-Report-Web.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Faes, Florian
    2017 “Translate.com Exposes Highly Sensitive Information in Massive Privacy Breach”. Slator. AccessedMay 2021. https://slator.com/technology/translate-com-exposes-highly-sensitive-information-massive-privacy-breach/
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Fırat, Gökhan
    2019 “Commercial Translation and Professional Translation Practitioners in the Era of Cognitive Capitalism: A Critical Analysis”. MA thesis. Boğaziçi University.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Fuchs, Christian
    2010 “Labor in Informational Capitalism and on the Internet”. The Information Society26 (3): 179–196. doi:  10.1080/01972241003712215
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01972241003712215 [Google Scholar]
  23. 2011 “Cognitive Capitalism or Informational Capitalism? The Role of Class in the Information Economy.” InCognitive Capitalism, Education and Digital Labour, byMichael Peters and Ergin Bulut. (Eds), 75–119. New York: Peter Lang. fuchs.uti.at/wp-content/uploads/cognitivecapitalism.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 2017a “Legal Struggles in the Age of Uber-Capitalism: Are Uber-Drivers Workers or Self-Employed.” Huffpost Online. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/christian-fuchs1/legal-struggles-in-the-ag_b_12720298.html?guccounter=2
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 2017bSocial Media: A Critical Introduction (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Garcia, Ignacio
    2017 “Translating in the Cloud Age: Online Marketplaces”. HERMES – Journal of Language and Communication in Business (56): 59. https://tidsskrift.dk/her/article/view/97202/146008. 10.7146/hjlcb.v0i56.97202
    https://doi.org/10.7146/hjlcb.v0i56.97202 [Google Scholar]
  27. Gough, Joanna, and Katerina Perdikaki
    2019 “Concurrent Translation – Reality or Hype?”. InTC40. London. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335692375_Concurrent_Translation_-Reality_or_Hype
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Hardjono, Thomas, and Alex Pentland
    2019 “Data Cooperatives: Towards a Foundation for Decentralized Personal Data Management”. Arxiv.Org. AccessedMay 2021. https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.08819
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Harmon, Ellie, and M. Six Silberman
    2018 “Rating Working Conditions on Digital Labor Platforms”. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)27 (3–6): 1275–1324. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325372246_Rating_Working_Conditions_on_Digital_Labor_Platforms. 10.1007/s10606‑018‑9313‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10606-018-9313-5 [Google Scholar]
  30. Hill, Steven
    2015Raw Deal: How the ‘Uber Economy’ and Runaway Capitalism are Screwing American Workers. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. ILO (International Labour Organization)
    ILO (International Labour Organization) 2008Measurement of Decent Work. Discussion Paper for the Tripartite Meeting of Experts on the Measurement of Decent Work. Geneva: International Labour Office. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---stat/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_100335.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  32. ILO (International Labour Organization)
    ILO (International Labour Organization) 2013Decent Work Indicators: Guidelines for Producers and Users of Statistical and Legal Framework Indicators – ILO Manual. 2nd Version. Geneva: International Labour Office. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---stat/documents/publication/wcms_223121.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  33. ILO (International Labour Organization)
    ILO (International Labour Organization) 2016Non-Standard Employment Around the World: Understanding Challenges, Shaping Prospects. Geneva: International Labour Office. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@dgreports/@dcomm/@publ/documents/publication/wcms_534326~2.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  34. ILO (International Labour Organization)
    ILO (International Labour Organization) 2018aThe Architecture of Digital Labour Platforms: Policy Recommendations on Platform Design for Worker Well-being. Geneva: ILO Publications. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---cabinet/documents/publication/wcms_630603.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  35. ILO (International Labour Organization)
    ILO (International Labour Organization) 2018bDigital Labour Platforms and the Future of Work: Towards Decent Work in the Online World. Geneva: International Labour Office. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_645337.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  36. ILO (International Labour Organization)
    ILO (International Labour Organization) 2018cWork on Digital Labour Platforms in Ukraine: Issues and Policy Perspectives. Geneva: International Labour Office. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---travail/documents/publication/wcms_635370.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  37. ILO (International Labour Organization)
    ILO (International Labour Organization) 2019Organizing On-Demand: Representation, Voice, and Collective Bargaining in the Gig Economy. Geneva: International Labour Office. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---travail/documents/publication/wcms_624286.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Jimenez-Crespo, Miguel A.
    2017Crowdsourcing and Online Collaborative Translations: Expanding the Limits of Translation Studies. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/btl.131
    https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.131 [Google Scholar]
  39. Johnston, Hannah, Alina Caia, Michael Six Silberman, Monica Ceremigna, Diego Hernandez, and Valerica Dumitrescu
    2020 “Working On Digital Labour Platforms: A Trade Union Guide For Trainers On Crowd-, App- And Platform-Based Work”. Etui.Org. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.etui.org/sites/default/files/2021-02/Working%20on%20digital%20labour%20platforms-A%20trade%20union%20guide%20for%20trainers%20on%20crowd-%2C%20app-%20and%20platform-based%20work_2021.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kenny, Dorothy, Joss Moorkens, and Félix do Carmo
    2020 “Fair MT: Towards Ethical, Sustainable Machine Translation”. Translation Spaces9 (1). doi:  10.1075/ts.00018.int
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.00018.int [Google Scholar]
  41. Kyrou, Ariel, Yann Moulier-Boutang, and Bernard Stiegler
    2016 “Stop the Uberisation of Society!” [orig.Stop à l’uberisation de la société !]. Translated bySam Kinsley. Liberation. AccessedMay, 2020. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.liberation.fr/debats/2016/04/10/stop-a-l-uberisation-de-la-societe_1445229/
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Langley, Paul, and Andrew Leyshon
    2016 “Platform Capitalism: The Intermediation and Capitalization of Digital Economic Circulation”. Finance and Society3 (1): 11–31. financeandsociety.ed.ac.uk/article/view/1936/2571
    [Google Scholar]
  43. McDonough Dolmaya, Julie
    2012 “Analyzing The Crowdsourcing Model and Its Impact On Public Perceptions of Translation”. The Translator18 (2): 167–191. doi:  10.1080/13556509.2012.10799507
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2012.10799507 [Google Scholar]
  44. Moorkens, Joss
    2017 “Under Pressure: Translation in Times of Austerity”. Perspectives25 (3): 464–477. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313886822_Under_pressure_translation_in_times_of_austerity
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 2020 “A Tiny Cog in a Large Machine: Digital Taylorism in the Translation Industry.” InTranslation Spaces: Fair MT – Towards Ethical, Sustainable Machine Translation, 9 (1): 12–34, byJoss Moorkens, Dorothy Kenny, Félix do Carmo. (Eds). John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/ts.00019.moo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.00019.moo [Google Scholar]
  46. Moorkens, Joss, and Davis Lewis
    2019 “Research Questions and A Proposal for the Future Governance of Translation Data”. The Journal of Specialised Translation, no.32.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Moorkens, Joss, and David Lewis
    2020 “Copyright and the Reuse of Translation as Data”. InThe Routledge Handbook of Translation and TechnologybyMinako O’Hagan. (Ed.): 469–81. Abingdon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Moorkens, Joss and Marta Rocchi
    2020 “Ethics in the Translation Industry”. InThe Routledge Handbook of Translation and EthicsbyKaisa Koskinen and Nike Pokorn. (Eds). Abingdon, UK: Routledge. 10.4324/9781003127970‑24
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003127970-24 [Google Scholar]
  49. Moulier-Boutang, Yann
    2008Cognitive Capitalism [orig.Le Capitalisme Cognitif]. Translated byEd Emery 2011 Cambridge: Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Muzii, Luigi
    2018Upstream. Independently e-published. AccessedMay 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Nimdzi
    Nimdzi 2020Size and State of the Language Services Industry Today. [Webinar]. AccessedMay 2020. https://www.nimdzi.com/webinar-the-size-and-state-of-the-language-services-industry-today/
    [Google Scholar]
  52. O’Brien, Sharon
    2012 “Translation as Human-Computer Interaction”. Translation Spaces1 (1): 101–122. doi:  10.1075/ts.1.05obr
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.1.05obr [Google Scholar]
  53. O’Hagan, Minako
    (ed) 2020The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Technology. London and New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Olohan, Maeve
    2017 “Technology, Translation and Society: A Constructivist, Critical Theory Approach”. Target, Special Issue: Translation in Times of Technocapitalism29 (2): 264–283. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318023875_Technology_translation_and_society_A_constructivist_critical_theory_approach
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Open Translation
    Open Translation 2011Open Translation Tools. [E-book]. AccessedMay 2021. archive.flossmanuals.net/_booki/open-translation-tools/open-translation-tools.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Pettersen, Lene
    2017 “Rating Mechanisms Among Participants in Sharing Economy Platforms.” First Monday22 (12–4). doi:  10.5210/fm.v22i12.7908
    https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v22i12.7908 [Google Scholar]
  57. Pielmeier, Hélène, and Paul O’Mara
    . January 2020 “The State of the Linguist Supply Chain: Translators and Interpreters in 2020”. CSA Research. AccessedMay 2021. https://insights.csa-research.com/reportaction/305013106/Toc
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Rodríguez-Castro, Mónica
    2015 “Conceptual Construct and Empirical Validation of A Multifaceted Instrument for Translator Satisfaction”. The International Journal of Translation and Interpreting Research7 (2): 1–21. doi:  10.12807/ti.107202.2015.a03
    https://doi.org/10.12807/ti.107202.2015.a03 [Google Scholar]
  59. Sadek, Gafar
    2018 “Translation: Rights and Agency – A Public Policy Perspective for Knowledge, Technology and Globalization”. PhD thesis. University of Ottawa. https://ruor.uottawa.ca/bitstream/10393/37362/1/Sadek_Gaafar_2018_thesis.pdf
  60. Şahin, Mehmet
    2013a “Using MT Post-Editing for Translator Training”. Tralogy, II(6). Retrieved fromlodel.irevues.inist.fr/tralogy/index.php?id=255
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 2013b Technology in Translator Training: The Case of Turkey. Hacettepe University Journal of Faculty of Letters30 (2): 173–190.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 2016 Translation Technologies for a Less Commonly Translated Language: Promises and Challenges. Translatologia, 1(1). Retrieved fromwww.translatologia.ukf.sk/2017/01/translation-technologies-for-a-less-commonly-translated-language-promises-and-challenges/
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Şahin, Mehmet, and Neslihan Kansu-Yetkiner
    . November 2020 “From Translation Market to Translation Curriculum: Psychosocial and Physical Ergonomics in Turkey”. The Interpreter and Translator Trainer14 (4): 440–460. doi:  10.1080/1750399X.2020.1843123
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2020.1843123 [Google Scholar]
  64. Saner, Raymond, Lichia Yiu, and Melanie Nguyen
    2019 “Platform Cooperatives: The Social and Solidarity Economy and the Future of Work”. InUNTFSSE International Conference. AccessedMay 2021. https://knowledgehub.unsse.org/knowledge-hub/platform-cooperatives-the-social-and-solidarity-economy-and-the-future-of-work/
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Santos, Boaventura de Sousa
    2014Epistemologies of the South: Justice Against Epistemicide. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Schmidt, Florian A.
    2017Digital Labour Markets in the Platform Economy. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. AccessedMay 2021. https://library.fes.de/pdf-files/wiso/13164.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Scholz, Trebor
    2016aPlatform Cooperativism: Challenging the Corporate Sharing Economy. New York: Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung. AccessedMay 2021. https://rosalux.nyc/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/RLS-NYC_platformcoop.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 2016bUberworked and Underpaid: How Workers are Disrupting the Digital Economy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Scholz, Trebor, and Nathan Schneider
    (Eds) 2016Ours to Hack and to Own: The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, A New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet. New York: OR Books. 10.2307/j.ctv62hfq7
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv62hfq7 [Google Scholar]
  70. Siddiqui, Yasir, and Tiberius Brastaviceanu
    2013 “Open Value Network: A Framework for Many-to-Many Innovation.” Montreal, Canada: Sensorica. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264044245_Open_Value_Network_A_framework_for_many-to-many_innovation
  71. Slator
    Slator 2020 “Smartcat Raises USD 14.6m in Series B to Scale TMS Tech, Marketplace”. Slator. AccessedMay 2021. https://slator.com/ma-and-funding/smartcat-raises-usd-14-6m-in-series-b-to-scale-tms-tech-marketplace/
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Srnicek, Nick
    2017Platform Capitalism. Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Stepes
    Stepes. May 2021 “More Uber Than Uber.” [Website Log]. Stepes. https://www.stepes.com/translators/more-uber-than-uber/
    [Google Scholar]
  74. TAUS
    TAUS 2017The Translation Industry in 2022. Amsterdam: TAUS. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.taus.net/insights/reports/the-translation-industry-in-2022
    [Google Scholar]
  75. TAUS
    TAUS 2018Translators in the Algorithmic Age. Amsterdam: TAUS. AccessedMay 2021. https://www.taus.net/insights/reports/translators-in-the-algorithmic-age
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Türk-İş
    Türk-İş. July 2019 “The Starvation and Poverty Line for a Family of Four in Turkey (TL/month)”. TÜRK-İŞ Newsletter. www.turkis.org.tr/TEMMUZ-2019-ACLIK-ve-YOKSULLUK-SINIRI-d268748
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Türk-İş
    Türk-İş. April 2021 “The Starvation and Poverty Line for a Family of Four in Turkey (TL/month)”. TÜRK-İŞ Newsletter. www.turkis.org.tr/NISAN-2021-ACLIK-VE-YOKSULLUK-SINIRI-d509757
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Tymoczko, Maria
    Ed. 2010Translation, Resistance, Activism. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Unbabel
    Unbabel 2019 “Unbabel Raises $60M Series C to Become the World’s Translation Layer”. [Blog]. AccessedMay 2021. https://resources.unbabel.com/press-releases/unbabel-raises-60m-series-c-to-become-the-translation-layer-of-the-internet
  80. Urzì Brancati, Cesira, Annarosa Pesole, and Enrique Fernández-Macías
    2019Digital Labour Platforms in Europe: Numbers, Profiles, and Employment Status of Platform Workers. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. doi: 10.2760/16653, JRC117330. https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/digital-labour-platforms-europe-numbers-profiles-and-employment-status-platform-workers
    https://doi.org/10.2760/16653 [Google Scholar]
  81. Vashee, Kirti
    2017 “Data Security Risks with Generic and Free Machine Translation”. Medium. AccessedMay 2021. https://itnext.io/data-security-risks-with-generic-and-free-machine-translation-d0ce53596815?gi=bc1d74dede48
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Vaughan, Rober, and John Hawksworth
    2014 “The Sharing Economy: How Will It Disrupt Your Business? Megatrends: The Collisions”. PricewaterhouseCoopers. https://pwc.blogs.com/files/sharing-economy-final_0814.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Vercellone, Carlo, Francesco Brancaccio, Alfonso Giuliani, Federico Puletti, Giulia Rocchi, and Pierluigi Vattimo
    2018 “Data-Driven Disruptive Commons-Based Models”. DECODE. https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01952141/document
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jial.20006.fir
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jial.20006.fir
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error